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OOMMZTTBa. 

lUfM Hob. tORD BROUOHAIf . F.I13.» MMWr of Ui« H rtltMl iMlMttU oT fIruM. 

-JOHN WOOD. Iwi. 
WILLIAM TOOKE, B«|., F.ll.8. 



W. Alloa. Km|.. F.R. Md R.A.S. 

Captain Beaufort, R.N., F.R. and R.A.8.. 

Hydrographer to the Admiralty. 
6. Harrow*. M.I). 
Teter Stafford Carey, Esq.. A.M. 
Wtlllam CoiiltoD, Esq. 
R. 1). Craig. Eaq. • 

J. F. Davit. Esq., F.R.S. 
H. T. Dela Beche. Esq.. F.R.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Uenman. 
Samael Duckirorth, Esq., M.P. 
B. F. Dnppo. Esq. 

Tlie night Rev. the Bishop nf nurham, DJ). 
Sir Henry Rllla. Prin. Lib. Brit. Mnt.) 
T. F. Rllts. Es«).. A.M.. F.R.A.». 
John Rlliotson. M.D.. K.R.S. 
George Erana, Et4U M.P. 
Thoroaa Falconer, Esq. 



I. L. Ooldamid, Eao^ F.R. and R.A.8. 

Franefa Henry Ooidamtd, Esq. 

B. Gomperti. Esq., F.R. and itA.S. 

O. B. Greenongh, Esq., F.R. and LA, 

M. D. Rill, EkO. 

Rowland Hill, Ksq.. F.R.A.S. 

Right Hon. Sir J. C. Hobhoaac, Bart., M.P. 

Darld Jardlne. Esq., A.M. 

Henry B. Ker, Esq. 

Thomas Hewitt Key, Esq., A.lf. 

George C. Lewis, Esq., A.M. 

Thomas Henry Lister, Esq. 

Jamrs Loch, Esq., M.P., K.G.S* 

George Long, Esq.. A.M. 

Sir Fredericic Madden, K.C.H. 

H. Maiden. Esq. A.M. 

A. T. MalklB. Ell).. A.U« 

Jaaca Manmiiv, Esq. 



B. I. Murehtaoo, £iq., F.RJ^ F.0.3* 

The Right Hon. Lord Niigent. 

Wm. Smith O'Brien. Baq.. M.P. 

The Right Hon. Sir Henry Parncll, Bt, M.P. 

Dr. Roget, Sec. R.S., F. R.A.S. 

Edward RomiUy. Esq.. A.M. 

The Right Hon. Lord John Ruaaell, M.P. 

Sir M. A. Shee. P.R.A., F.R.8. 

John Abel Smith, Esq., M.P. 

The Right Hon. Earl Spencer. 

John Taylor. Esq. F.R.S. 

Dr. A. T. Thomson. F.L.S. 

Thomaa Vardon, Eaq. 

H. Waymouth. Esq. 

J. Whiahaw, Esq.. A.M., F.R.S. 

John Wrottesley, Esq.. A.M., F.R.A.8, 

Thomaa Wyae. Esq., M P. 

J. A. Yatea, Eaq., M.P. 



ifltoa, Sfq/erAJhff— 'Re^. J. P. Jodm, 
4l«r/cs«a— Rev. E. Wllllama. 

Rev. W. Johnaon. 

Mr. Miller. 
A»khmTton-'i, F. Klngatoii, Esq. 
Darmtaple. Bancraft, l^sq. 

Wlilism Oribble. Esq.. 
Bet/tut— Dr. Drummond. • 
Birwumtjfinm—J.Corrlt, Esq. F. R.8. Ckn^rmmi, 

Paul Moon James. Esq., Treomrsr. 
Brifiport—i^mtt Williams, Esq. 
ffn'sM/'-J.N. Sanders, Eiiq.. K.O.S. CAairMan. 

J. Reynolds. Esq., Trtaturer. 

J. B. Estlin, Esq., F.L.S., Seereimrf, 
Ottlemttn—Sir B. H. Malkiu. 

Jame* Young. Esq. 

C. H. Ca-nerpn. Eyo. , . 

Rev. Prof. He|(i)o«».>KA.^F.X.S.&4>!S» 
Rer. Leonard- J enyn%, ^.A., F.L.S. ' 
RcT. John Lodge, M.A> . 
ReT.Geo. Peacock. M. A., f.R.8.4iO$. * ' 
Robert W. Rothman.E^^M.A.,'^ .IL«1.9l 

ReT.Prof. Sedgwick. M/A., i;jl.9.8t a.a( 

Rer. C. Thirl wall, M. A. ^ • • * '. • 
CaaterbaryJohn Bren^ E#q^ AVdWmabI . t 

William M astern, Esq. 
Giafoa— Wra. Jardlne. Esq., FrtsidaU, 

Robert Inclla, Eaq., Tntumrwr, 

ReT. C. BffMgman, } 

Rce. C. Gutzlaff, \Seeretari^ 

J. R. Morrlaon, Esq., ) 
Cnrdigam-^Ket. J. Black well, M.A. 
Tiiriiri/e— Thomaa Barnca, M.D., F.R. 8.R. 
Camormii— >R. A. Poole, Esq. 

William RoberU, Eaq. 
CAfifer^Hayea Lyon, Eaq. 

Henry Potts, Esq. 
CMehetttr^John Forbes, If.D., F.R,8.. 

C.C. Dendy.Ksq. 
OicltfraMalA— Rev. J. Whitrldgt. 
torrm — John Crawford, Esq. 

Mr. Plato Petrldca 
ror^^nfry— Arthnr Gregory, Raq« 
Denbigh — John Madoeks, Esq, 

Tnomaa Evans, Esq. 






ZiOCAA OOJMACZTTaaS. 

I>«r6|r— Joeeph Strutt, Baq. 

Edward StrtKt, Esq.. M.P. 
Dtoonport and ^foaeAowe— John Cola, Eaq. 

— Norman, Ksq. 

Lt.CoL C. Hamilton Smith, F.R.S. 
thiUiik—T. Drummond, Esq. R.E., F.R.A.8. 
^diater^A— Sir C. Bell, F.ILS.L. and E. 
iffrana— Jos. Wedgwood, Eaq. 
E*€t0r—'J. Tyrrell, Esq. 

John MUVord, Esq. (Ceaver.) 
aUunorgantiiire^ Dr. Malkin, Cowbrldg*. 

W. Williams, Esq., Aberpergwm. 
niatffoie — K. Finlay, Esq. 

Professor Mylne. 

Alexander McG rigor, Eaq. 

Charles Tennant, Kkq. 
. ^AJames Cowpcr, Esq. 
0«A-nstfv — F. C. Lukls. Eaq. 
ffJv— J. C. Parker, Esq. 
TCri^hleyt VorAiAtre^ReT. T. Dury, M.A. 
J.taminyton Sprt-^Dr. London, U.D. 
Leeds— J. Marshall, Esq. 
y.eieei — J. W. Woollgar, Eaq. 
Lwerpooi Loe. At.-^W- W. Carrie, Eaq. Ck, 
\ J. Mnllencvx, Baq., Trawarir. 

Rev. Dr. Shepherd, 
^.atf/ote— T. A. Knight. Eaq., P.H.8. ' 
Maide n kea d R. Goolden. Esq., F.L.S, 
JtfaMttvne— Clement T. Smyth, Eaq. 

John Caae, Eaq. 
ila/mattsirf B. C. Ttonaa, Ba^ 
UaneJmUr Loe, As.—G, W. Wood. Esq.. Ck, 

Benjamin Heywood, Eaq., Treasmrer, 

T. W. Winstanley, Baq., Han, S§e, 

Sir O. Phlllpa, Bart, M.P. 

Ben). Oott, Kaq. 
JfoiAoai— ReT. George WaddiqgtoB, If JL 
Mertkyr TyMA-J. J. Gneat, Esq. 
J#tficMftAmnBlofi~John G. Ball, Eaq. 
AfeasMafA— J. H. Moggridge, Esq. 
ATaa/A— John Rowland, Esq. 
A'0wea$tio—Ktt, W. Turner. 

T. Sopwltb, Esq.. F.6.S. 
Kemport, lileo/ IFifAl— Ab, CUrka» Baq. 

T. Cooke. Jan., Eaq. 

R. G. KIrkpatrick, Eaq. 
Kewperf Pmr««— J. Millar, Baq. ' 
Nemtown, Alontgawurythire^Yr, Pngh , Baq. 



^orwtftf A— Richard Bacon, Baq. 

Wm. Forater, Esq. 
Offaff, Buex^Dr. C«>rbetr, M.D. 
OiQfbnf—Dr. Daubeny, F.U.S. Praf. ofChenu 

Bee. Prof. Powell. 

Rer. John Jordan, R.A. 

E. W. Head, Esq., M.A. 
Petth, Hwtgnry — Count Ssechanyl. 
r^moM/A—H. Woollcombe. Esq., F.A.8.. CA. 

Snow Harris, Esq.. F.R.S. 

E. Moore, M.D., F.L.S., ^>cr#fiiry. 

G. WIghtwIck, Esq. 
i»ret^«>— Dr. A. W. DaTJs, M.D. 
Mpon—Rtr, H. P. Hamilton, M.A„ F.R.S. 
and G.S. 

Rev. P. Ewart. M.A. 
Jta/Ain— ReT. the Warden of 

Humphreys Jones. Esq. 
Rpde. L o/'/F^AI— Sir Rd. Simeon. Bt. 
Sa/t«ta*y~ReT. J. BarfitL 
She0ieid—J. H. Abrahama. Esq. 
SJteptou AlalM—Q. F. Burroughs. Esq. 
KArcvf&nrv-R. A.SIaney. Esq.. M.P. 
South Pelherton^Jchn Nkholetla, Eaq. 
St, Atoph^Ktr. George Strong. 
Stockport— H. Marslaud, Esq., Treoaarar, 

Henry Conpock. Esq., Seeretan, 
Sifdngu, New South Waiee-- 
_ William M. Manning. Eaq. 
fmeiatoek—Kvr, W.Bvaaa. 

J«ha Ruodle. Baq. 
SVaro— Richard Tannton. M.D., K.R.8. 

Henry S^well Stokea, Eaq. 
Tim^^^e YFeAs— Dr. Yeata. M.D. 
rifOMCsr— Robert Blurton, Baq. 
IFarwicl^-Dr. Conolly. 

The Rev. William Field, U^omiogtom.) 
Wmltrford—9\r John Newport, Bt. 
IFo/verAmnplon— J. Pearson, Esq. 
IForew/«r— Dr. HaaUnga, M.D. 

C. H. Hebb. Eaq. 
IFraarAcai— Thomaa Edgworlh, Ra^. 

J. E. Bowman, Esq., F.L.8. 

Major WlllUm Lloyd. 
Farawt A —C. E. Rumbold, Baq. 

Dawaon Turner, Eaq. 
FarA— Rev. J. Kenrick, M.A. 

J.PhllUpa,Eaq., F.R.8 



TB0UA8 C0ATB8, K«|., Sfcrttary, No. A^ LUcqIb*! Inn Fieldt. 



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PUG 



dry plains of Kmfi^ Charles's Southland, as already observed. 
(Captain Philip Parker King, in London Geogr, JoumcU^ 
vol. i. ; Captain Fitxroy, in ditto, vol. vi. ; and Captain Basil 
Hall's Journal.) 

FUEL is any combustible matter employed for the pur- 
pose of creating and maintaining heat. In the early ages 
of the world, wood must have constituted, as indeed in 
many countries it does to this day, the principal fuel em- 
ployed. Wood consists chieHy of three principles: car- 
bon, hydroffea, and oxygen. The two former are both of 
them highly combustible ; and the last principle is espe- 
cially so, and is the principal cause of the flame with 
which wood is well known to burn. When the smoke oc- 
casioned by the combustion of wood is found inconvenient, 
or when the fuel is required to last for a longer period in a 
given bulk, then charcoal is employed, which is merely 
wood that has undergone imperfect combustion, so as to 
expel its hydrogen and oxygen, and to leave the greater 
part of the carbon. 

Another kind of fbel, which doubtless was early in use 
on account of the facility with which it is obtained from its 
nearness to the surface, is peat, or, as it is sometimes 
called, turf: this is a con^^eries of ve^i^etable matter, in 
which the remains of organization are more or less visible. 
Peat is the common fuel of a large part of Wales and Scot- 
land, and of many districts of England, where coal is not 
readily procured. 

In this country, however, coal furnishes the great 
supply of fuel, and its various kinds are employed in dif- 
ferent ways and for different purposes according to its 
nature and that of the substance to be acted on by it8 
agency. When coal, by a process analogous to that by 
which charcoal is procured from wood, is freed from its 
more volatile constituents, hydrogen, oxygen, and azote, 
it is converted into coke ; it then burns with but little tlame 
and comparatively little smoke, and is used for giving an 
intense degree of heat in the reduction of most metallic ores, 
especially those of iron. 

In some cases a mixture of coke and charcoal is very ad- 
vantageously employed, especially in assaying in the small 
way. The mixture gives out a great degree of heat while 
burning, and being more combu»tible tlian coke alone, 
•mall furnaces, in which the draught is less powerful than 
in larger ones, are particularly adapted for its use ; and 
though it consumes faster than coke, it lasts longer, gives 
a greater heat, and is more economical than charcoal alone. 

In some countries, even the dried excrement of animals 
is used as fuel: and from the use of earners dung the 
formation of sal ammoniac was derived in Egypt ; this salt 
subliming from the excrement during its combustion. 

In smul chemical operations, as for the blow-pipe, tallow 
or wax candles are frequently employed ; and in lamps, oil, 
spirit of wine, or pyroxihc spirit, and even carburetted 
hydrogen gas, are used, either for the purpose of boiling or 
evaporating small quantities of fluids, or oissolving various 
bodies in different menstrua. 

During the combustion of different kinds of fuel, the pro- 
ducts vary : thus, when wood, coal, wax, tallow, oil, alcohol, 
or cmrburetted hydrogen is employed, the principal pro- 
ducts are oarbonio acid gais and water ; when charcoal is 
used, carbonic acid is almost the only volatile substance 
Ibrmed, for the hydrogen which the wood contained is ex- 
pelled by the process or charring. 

FUENTE RABIA. or FONTARABIA. [Guipuzco^] 

FUERT A VENTURA. [Canaries] 

FUGrGER, a German family, originally of Augsburg, 
that amassed great wealth in the fiAeenth and sixteenth 
centuries by commerce, and especially by the monopoly of 
the spices, which they drew from Venice, and with which 
they supplied Germany and other parts of the Continent. 
The Fuggeri were created counts by Charles V. in 1530, to 
whom they had lent large sums of money ; and a story is 
told of their lighting a fire of cinnamon-wood with his bond 
or bonds for the amount, in the presence of Charles, who 
happened to be a visiter at their house in passing through 
Augsburg. They also supplied Philip II. with money, and 
two of their family contracted with the Spanish government 
for the mines of Almaden. [Almaden.] The family became 
divided into several branches, one of which obtained the 
rank of princes of the German empire, under the title of 
Fugger Babenhausen, near Ulm. The family continue to 
this day, and their domains are partly in Bavaria and partly 
in Wiirtemberg. The Fugger family, in the sixteenth 



century, made a liberal use of their wealth, in founding 
charitable institutions, such as the one still called Fuggerei 
[AuosBURo] ; in promoting learning, collecting MSS., and 
forming valuable libraries. Several members of the family 
were themselves men of learning; among others (jlrich 
Fugger, bom about 1520, was for a time a confidential 
attendant of Pope Paul III., but afterwards retum«l to 
Germany, and had several valuable MSS. of classic authors 
which he had collected nrinted at his own expense. He 
engaged as his printer Henri Estienne, with a handsome 
salary. His family being dissttisfied with hit expenditure, 
obtained an order from the eivil courts taking away from 
Ulrich the administration of his property under the pretence 
of incapacity ; but the order was ultimately rescinded, and 
he was restored to his rifl;hts. He died in 1584 at Heidel- 
berg, leaving his fine library to the Elector Palatine and 
several legacies to poor students. Another Fugger wrote 
a history of Austria, published at Niimberg in 1668. Philip 
Edward Fugger, born in 1546, added greatly to the library 
and cabinet of antiquities begun by his ancestors at Auc:s- 
burg, and distinguished himself by his munificence. Otho 
Henry Fugger, count of Kirchberg and Weissenhom, bom 
in 1592, served with the Spanish army in Italy, and after- 
wards raised troops in Germany for the Emperor Fer- 
dinand II. during the Thirty Years' War. (Imhoff, Notitia 
Imperii; Moreri^s DicHonary^ art 'Fugger;* Almanach 
de Gotha.) 

FUGUE, in music, a composition in which a Subject, or 
brief air, passes successively and alternately firom one part 
to another, according to certain rules of harmony and mo- 
dulation. Such is Rousseau's definition, which would have 
been more complete if he had added that the Fugue is also 
formed after rules peculiar to itself. The term seems to 
have originated about the middle of the fifteenth century, 
and is commonly supposed to be derived from the Latin 
word fu^a (flight), because the theme, or point, flies fium 
part to part ; but this etymology is by no means satis- 
factory, though we certainly have no better to offer 

Writers on music enumerate many kinds of Fugue, tbe 
chief of which ore, the Strict Fugue, the Free Fugue, the 
Double Fugue, and the Inverted Fugue; to which we shall 
add ihat species — for it decidedly belongs to the Fugue ge- 
uus— called Imitation. 

' In a Strict Fugue,' says Dr. Crotch (Elements of Cum- 
position), " the subject is given out by one of the parts, then 
the answer is made by another; and aflerwards the subjei t 
is repeated by a third part, and, if the fugue consbt of four 
parts, the answer is again made bv the fourth part : after 
which the conii>oser may use either the subject or the 
answer, or small portions of them, in any key lie pleast'S, or 
even on dificrent notes of the key.' In this severe kind of 
composition, when the subject, or leader, or point, or dux, 
or by whatever name the theme may be designated, is com- 
prised between the tonic and the dominant, uie answer (or 
Comes) must be given in the notes contained between the 
dominant and the octave. Ex.: 




The chorus ' He trusted in God,' in the Meitiah, is a fine 
specimen of this sort of fugue, to which we refer the 
reader ; for few are without that sublime oratorio in sorof 
form. 

In the Free Fugue much more latitude is allowed tnc 
composer ; he is not so restrained by the subject, but may 
introduce what AVbrechtsberger terms episodes — passages 
not closely related to the theme, though they should ncAcr 
be very foreign to it The overture to tbe ^^^f^?r 
affords a splendid example of this speeds. The Double 
Fugue consists of two or more subjecta. moving together, 
and dispersed among the different p4rts. Dom. Scarlatti * 
in D minor is a double fugue which has no superior of U» 
kind. The first few bars of this will more clearly cxplJU» 
than words can do the nature of so elaborate a species oi 
composition. 



P U L 



P U L 



1>etweeii'152d and 1540. The Sebinalkald articles were alio 
promulgated ftt>m this spot in 1537. Steinbacb, a market 
village on the Hasel, with about 390 houses, and 2600 in- 
habitants, who manufacture iron-ware. Htinfeld on the 
Haune, a town with walls, 2 churches, about 280 houses, 
and 1800 inhabitants, with manufaoturiS of linens, and 
some trade in yams: and Brotterode, an irregularly built 
town, 1708 feet above the level of the sea, with about 350 
houses, and 2100 inhabitants, and manufactures of tin, to- 
baccci, brass and steel ware, &c. 

FULDA, the capital of the province, and the seat of its 

fovemment and law courts, is about 60 miles north-east of 
'rankfort on the Main, at an elevation of 834 feet above 
the level of the sea ; in 5U^ 34' N. lat, and 9^ 44' B. long. 
It is built on the banks of the Fulda, which is crossed by a 
handsome stone bridge. Fulda is a pretty town, with eight 
suburb:* outside its walls. The walls, which are decayed, have 
seven gates. Its population, which was 7468 in 1810, and 
S 1 50 in 18 1 7, is at present about 9600 ; the houses are about 
1 100. It contains a market>place and two squares, one of 
which is a public promenade, with rows of linden trees, an 
electoral palace and grounds, eleven churches, one of 
which is Lutheran, a Iu>man Catholic Lyceum, which was 
instituted out of the funds of the university, founded in 
1 734, a Protestant high-school, a chapter seminary, a school 
in which forest economy is taught, and another for edu- 
cating teachers, an hospital, public library, 8cc. It is the re- 
sidence of the Roman Catholic bishop for the electorate, 
and has a handsome cathedral or minster, built between the 
years 1700 and 1712: it is memorable as the place of sepul- 
ture of St Bonifacius, whose remains were deposited below 
an altar in an underground chapel in 755, the year of his 
death. The manufactures of Fulda are on a confined scale, 
and consist of linens, woollens, stockings, saltpetre, leather, 
articles in wood, &c. The mineral spring, on St. John's 
Hill near the town, resembles the Seltzer water. About 
five miles out of Fulda is the electoral country-seat called 
the Fasanerie, where there are valuable collections of paint- 
ings, china, and subjects in natural history. St. Bonifa- 
ciub's Well, in the midst of some well laid out shrubberies, 
is also close to the town. 

FULGE'NTIUS. FABIUS CLAUDIUS GORDU- 
NUS, bishop of Ruspina, a town on the coast of Africa, 
was born about ad. 464. His father Gordianus, who was a 
senator of Carthage, waa obliged to leave his native city 
during the persecutions of the Vandals, and retired to 
Telepte, in tue province of Bvzacium, where Fulgentius 
passed the early years of his life. He is said to have made 
great progress in his studies, and to have acquired an ac- 
curate knowledge of the Greek and Latin lan^ages. In 
consequence of liis attainments, he was appointed at an 
early age to receive the public revenues of the province ; 
but he resigned his oflUce soon after his appointment, and 
retired to a monastery in the neighbourhood. After en- 
during many persecutions on account of his opposition to 
the Arian doctrines, he resolved to go into Egypt to visit 
the celebrated monks of that country. From this design 
he was dissuaded bv Eualius, bishop of Syracuse, on the 
ground that the monks of the East had withdrawn from the 
Catholic communion, and accordingly he proceeded to 
Rome, AJ}, 500. On his return to his native countrv, the 
Catholic clergy elected him bishop of Ruspina ; but he did 
not enjoy his dignity long, being exiled to Sardinia, to- 
gether with the other Catholic bishops of that part of 
Africa, by Thrasimond, king of the Vandals. His learn- 
ing, his austere manner of living, and his frequent con- 
troversies with the Arians, procured him the universal 
respect of the Catholic clergy, who considered him the 
greatest ornament of the African church in that age. 
Curiosity led Thrasimond to rccal him to Carthage, where 
he held disputes with the king on the debated points of the 
Arian controversy ; but as he was unable to convince the 
monarch, he was obliged to returf^ to Sardinia, where he 
remained till a>d. 522, when the death of Thrasimond and 
the succession of Hildcricus to the throne occasioned the 
recal of the Catholic bishops. Fulgentius returned to Rus- 
pina, and resided there till the time of his death, which 
happened either in a.d. 529 or 533. 

His works were printed at Paris, in a 4to. volume, in 

1684. IVith regard to his style, Dupin remarks, 'that St. 

^'ulgentius did not only follow the doctrine of St. Austin, 

t also imitat«<l his style. He had a quick and subtle 

iitf which easily oomprehended things, set them in a I 



good light, and explained them eopioasly, which may ap* 
pear unpleasant to those who read his works. He loved 
thorny and scholastic questions, and used them sometimes 
in mysteries. He knew well the holy Scriptures, and had 
read much the works of the fathers, particularly those of 
St. Austin.* His principal works are :— I. 'Three Books to 
Thrasimond, king of tne Vandals, on the Arian Contro- 
versy ;* II. *Tliree Books to Monimus.' The first supports 
the opinions of Augustine on the doctrine of predestination ; 
the second explains the sacrifice of Christ and the passage 
in 1 Cor. vi., 6, * But I speak this by permission, ana not of 
commandment;* the third contains remarks on the Arian 
interpretation of John i., 1, *The word was with God.' 
III. 'Two Books to Buthymius, on the Remission of Sins,* 
to show that God will pardon sins only in this life ; IV. * A 
Book to Donatus, on the Trinity;* V. 'Three Books on 
Predestination, to John, a priest, and Venerius, a deacon ;* 
VI. 'A Book on Faith ;* Vll. * Letters on various religious 
Subiects,* written principally during his exile. 

(Dupin s Bibliothdque EccUiiaiHque^ vol. t^ P* 13-21; 
Eng. Trans. ; Ada Sanctorum^ vol. i., Januar., p. 32.) 

FULGENTIUS FERRANDUS, who is frequently 
confounded with Fulgentius, bishop of Ruspina, lived in 
the beginning of the sixth century. He waa a disciple of 
the bishop of Ruspina, whose Ufe he wrote. He was also 
the author of an ' Abridgment of the Canons,* and finished 
a treatise addressed to Reginus, on which his master was 
engaged at the time of his death. 

(Mosheim's EccleiiGtHcal History, vol. ii., p. 109: Eng. 
Trans., 1826.) 

FULGENTIUS, FABIUS PLANCLADE.S, is said to 
have been a bishop of Carthage, and to have lived in the sixth 
centurv. He wrote a work on M3rthology, in three books, ad- 
dressea to a priest of the name of Catus, which was printed 
for the first time at Milan, in 1487. There is another work 
of Fulgentius, entitled ' Expositio Sermonum Antiquorum 
ad Chalcidicum Grammaticum,* which is usually printed 
with the works of Nonius Maroellus. 

(Fabricii, Bibliotheca Latina, lib. ii., c. 2.) 

FULGURITES are vitrified sand tubes, supposed to have 
originated from the action of lightning; they are called by 
the Germans blitzrohre. 

These tubes were discovered in the year 1711 by the 
pastor Herman, at Massel in Silesia ; and they were ogain 
discovered in 1805 by Dr. Hentzen, in the heath of Pader- 
born, commonly called the Sonne, and he first attributed 
their formation to the agency of lightning. 

These tubes have since been found in ^eat number at 
Pillau, near Konigsberg, in Eastern Prussia; at Nietleben, 
near Halle on the Saale ; at Drigg in Cumberland, and some 
other places. 

At Drigg, the tubes were found in the middle of sand- 
hanks forty feet high, and very near the sea. In the Senne 
they were most commonly found on the declivities of 
mounds of sand, about thirty feet high ; but sometimes in 
cavities, which are stated to have Men hollowed in the 
heath, in the tixm of bowls, 200 feet in circumference, and 
12 to 15 feet in depth. 

These tubes are nearly all hollow. At Drigg their ex- 
ternal diameter was 2^ inches ; those of the Senne, reckon- 
ing firom the surface, are firom one quarter to seven lines 
internal diameter ; but they narrow as they descend lower, 
and frequently terminate in a point : the thickness of tlio 
tube varies from half a line to one inch. 

These tubes are usually placed vertically in the sand ; but 
they have been found at an angle of 4 0^ Their entire length, 
judging from those which have been extracted, is from 
twenty to thirty feet ; but frequent tranverse fissures divide 
them into poHions from half an ineh to five inches in length. 

Usually there is only one tube found at a place ; some- 
times however, at a certain depth, this tube divides into 
two or three branches, each of which gives rise to small 
lateral branches, ftom an inch to a foot in length ; Uiese are 
conical, and terminate in points, inclining gradually to the 
bottom. 

The internal part of the tubes is a perfect gUaa, smooth 
and very brilliant, resembling hyalite. It seratehes ghis», 
and gives fire with steel. All the tubes, whatever mav be 
their form, are surrounded by a crust «ompoaed of aggluti- 
nated grains of ouartx, which havo the appearance, when 
examined by a glsss, of having undergone mcipient Aision. 
The colour of the internal mass or the tubes, and espe- 
ciaUy thai of the external part8» depends npeii th« ]»• 



ture of tbe'sKndy'stratt which they trayerse. In the rope- 
rior beds, which contain a little soil, the exterior of the tubes 
is frequently black ; lower down the colour of the tube is 
of a yellowish grey ; still lower, of a greyish white ; and 
lastly, where the sand is pure and white, the tubes are 
almost perfectly colourless. 

That the cause of these tubes is correctly attributed to 
lightning is shown by some observations presented to the 
Royal Society, in 1 790, by Dr. Withering. On opening the 
ground where a man had been killed by lightning, the soil 
appeared to be blackened to the depth of ahout ten inches ; 
at this depth, a root of a tree presented itself, which was 

Suite black ; but this blackness was only superficial, and 
id not extend far along it About two inches deeper, the 
melted quartzose matter began to appear, and continued in 
a sloping direction to the depth of eighteen inches ; within 
the hollow part of one mass, the fusion was so perfect, that 
the melted quartz ran down the hollow, and assumed 
nearly a globular figure. 

Professor Hagen, of Konigsberg, has made a similar ob- 
servation. In the year 1823 the lightning struck a birch 
tree at the village of Rauschen ; on cautiously removing 
the earth. Professor Hagjen found, at the depth of a fbot, the 
commencement of a vitnfied tube, but it oould not be ex- 
tracted from the sand in pieces of more than two or three 
inches in length ; the interior of these fragments was vi- 
trified, as usual; several were flattened, and had zigzag 
projections. 

It is also to be observed, thatSaussure found on the slaty 
hornblende of Mont Blanc small blackish beads, evidently 
vitreous, and of the size of a hemp-seed, which were clearly 
the effects of lif^htning. Mr. R^ond has also remarked 
on the Pic du Midi, in the Pyrenees, some rocks, the entire 
face of which is varnished with a coating of enamel, and 
covered with beads of the size of a pea ; the interior of the 
rock is totally unchanged. 

FULHAM. [MiDDLBSBX.1 

FU'LICA. [RALLIDiK.] 

FUUGULI'NiE, a subfkmUy of the AnaticUe. The 
prince of Musignano (C. L. Bonaparte) arranged, under the 
subgenus Fuligtda, those species of ducks which other mo- 
dem ornithologists have distinguished by the generic titles 
of SomcUeria, Oidemia^ Fulieulct, Clanjgula^ and Harelda. 
The prince observes, that M. Temminck, who had been op- 
posea to all dismemberment of the ereat genus Anas, had at 
fast been induced to assemble all the species of the prince's 
subgenus Fuligula under one genus; whence the prince 
argues the necessity of M. Temminck's admitting the swohm 
and gee8&9a distinct genera ; and he observes that he can- 
not see any good reason why M. Temminck should have 
rejected the name of Fidigukt^ as well as Platypus, given 
anteriorly to the genus by Brehm, and should have imposed 
on it the name of Hydrobates, a term already applied by 
Vieillot to the genus Cincius, (Specchio Comparaiivo.) 

Mr. Swainson (Fauna Borealt-Americana) adopts the 
term ^digxdinee to distinguish this subfamily, under which 
he arranges the genera Somateria, Oidemia% Fuligufa, Clan- 
gula, and Harelda, 

Habits, Fbod, ^. — ^The FuUgulifue, or sea ducks, as they 
have been not inaptly named, frequent the sea principally ; 
but many of them are to be found in the fresh-water lakes 
and rivers where the water is deep. The plumage is very 
close and thick in comparison with that of the true ducks 
iAnatina;), and the covering of the female differs much in 
hue from that of the male, which when adult undergoes but 
little change in its dress from the difference of season. The 
young resemble the female in their feathered garb, and do 
not assume the adiilt plumage till the second or third year. 
Moulting takes place twice a-year without change of colour. 
In the male, the capsule of the trachea is large. 

The Sea Ducks are not good walkers, on account of the 
backward position of their feet, but they run, or rather shuffle 
along rapidly, though awkwardly. They swim remarkably 
well, though low in the water, and excel in diving, whether 
for amusement, safety, or food, which last consists of insects, 
mollusks, the fry of fish, and marine or other aquatic vege- 
tables. They take wing unwillingly as a security from dan- 
ger, relying more confidently on their powers of diving and 
swimming as the means of escape, than on those of flight. 
Though they are often strong, steady, rapid, and enduring 
in their passage through the air, they generally fly low, 
laboriously, and with a whistling soond. 

This sabfiunily may be consideied to be monogamous^ 



\ P U L 

and the nest is frequently made near the fresh waters ; the 
female alone incubating, though both parents, in several of 
the species at least, strin the down from their breasts as a 
covering for the e^gs, wnich are numerous. 

Geographical Distribution. — ^The North maybe considered 
the great nive of the f\i/t^t4/tit£p ; though some of the forma 
are spread over the greater part of the globe. Large flocks 
are seen to migrate periodically, keeping for the most part 
the line of the sea-coast, and flying and feeding generally 
by night, though often, especially in hazy or blowing wea- 
ther, by day. 

SouATERXA* (Leach.) 

Oenerie Character. — Bill smaU, with the base elevated 
and extending up the forehead, where a central pointed line 
of feathers divides it; the anterior extremity narrow but 
blunt; nostrils, mesial; neck, thick; wings, short; ter- 
tiaries long, and generally with an outward curve, so as to 
overlie the jmmaruv. Tail moderate, consisting of 14 fea- 
thers. 





Bill of Eidar Dock. 

This genus is peculiarly marine. Dr. Richardson, whose 
opportunities of observing the northern birds were so great, 
and so well used, says, that Somateria spectabilis and mol- 
lissima are never, as he believes, seen in fresh water ; their 
food consisting mostly of the soft mollusca in the Arctic 
Sea. They are, he says, only partially migratory, the older 
birds seldom moving farther southwards in winter than to 
permanent open water. He states that some eider ducks 
pass that season on the coast of New Jersey, but that the 
king ducks {S. spectabilis') have not been seen to the south- 
ward of the o9th parallel. Audubon however says, that in 
the depth of winter the latter have been observed off the 
coast of Halifax, in Nova Scotia, and Newruundland, and 
that a few have been obtained off Boston, and at Eastport in 
Maine. 

The genus is remarkable for the high development of the 
exquisitely soft and elastic down so valuable in commerce, 
and so essential to the keeping up of the proper balance of 
animal heat in the icy regions inhabited by these birds. We 
select as our example : — 

Somateria mollissima (Anas mollissima, Linn.), the 
Eider Duck. This is the Oie d duvet ou Eider of the French ; 
Die Eider gans and Eiterente of the Germans ; Oca Sett en- 
trionale of the Italians (Stor. degli ucc.) ; ihe Eider Goose, 
Eider Duck, St CuthberVs Duck, Cuthbert-Duck, or Cutbert- 
Duck, Great black and while Duck, nxiA Colk Winter Duck,ot 
the modem British ; Hwvad fwythblu, of the ancient Bri- 
tish ; Dunter Duck, of the Hudson's Bay residents ; and 
Mittek, of the Esquimaux. 

The following is Dr. Richardson's description of a male 
killed June, 14, 1822, at Winter Island, 66«* ll^'N. lat. 
Colour. Circumference of the frontal plates, forehead, crown, 
and under eye-lid, deep Scotch blue ; hind head, nape and 
temples, siskin-green. Stripe on the top of the head, cheeks, 
chin, neck, breast, back, scapulars, lesser coverts, curved 
tertiaries, sides of the rump, and under wing-coverts, white ; 
the tertiariea tinged with greenish yellow, and the breast 
with buff. Greater coverts, quills^ rump, tail and its oo- 



F U L 



FU L 



verts, ftad the ufider plumage pitch bteek; the end of the 
quills and Uil fading to brown. BilK oil-green* lAg9t 
greenish yellow. 

Fnrm. Bill prolonged on the lengthened, depressed fore- 
head, into two narrow flat plates that are separated by an 
angular projection of the frontal plumage. Natriii net 
pervious, f^eckt short and thick. IVingt nearly three in- 
ches shorter than the tail. Hind toe attenuated posteriorly 
into a broad lobe. The length of this bird was 25 inches 
6 lines. 

Female, Pale rufous or yellowish brown with black bars ; 
mng'caverte black » with ferruginous edges ; greater coverts 
and secondariee with narrow white tips ; head and upper 
part of the neck striped with dnsky lines. Beneath^ brown 
with obscure darker blotches. 

Young ai the age of a week. Of a dark mouse colour, 
thickly covered with soft warm down. 

young male. Like the female; and not appearing in 
the full adult male plumage till the fourth year. 

Geographical Distribution,— -The icy seas of the North 
appear to be the principal localities of this species. Cap- 
tain, now Major Edward Sabine, enumerates it among the 
animals whicn were met with during the period in which 
the expedition under Captain Parry remained within the 
Arctic circle. He mentions it as abundant on the shores 
of Davis* Straits and Baffin*s Bay ; but adds, that deriving 
its food principally from the sea, it was not met with after 
the entrance of the ships into the Polar Ocean, where so 
little open water is found. The females were without the 
bands on the wings described by authors. (Appendix to Cap- 
tain Sir W. E. Pane's First Voyage, 1819—20.) The late 
lamented Captain Lyon saw the Eider in Duke of York's 
Bay. {Journal.) Captain James Ross (Appendix to Cap- 
tain Sir John Ross's Last Voyage), notices vast numbers of 
the king duck as resorting annually to the shores and islands 
of the Arctic regions in the breeding season, and as having 
on many occasions afforded a valuable and salutary supply 
of fresh provision to the crews of the vessels employed in 
those seas. Speaking of the eider duck he says, it is so si- 
milar in its habits to the king duck, that the same remarks 
apply equally to both. In Lapland, Norway, Iceland, Green- 
land, and at Spitsbergen, the eider duck is very abundant ; 
and it abounds also at Bering*s Island, the Kuriles, the Heb- 
rides, and Orkneys. In Sweden and Denmark it is said to 
be more rare, and in Germany to be only observed as a pas- 
senger. Temminck states that the young only are seen on 
the coasts of the ocean, and that tne old ones never show 
themselves. Captain James Ross, in the Appendix above 
alluded to, speaking of the eider down, says tnat the down 
of the king duck is equally excellent, and is collected in 
great quantities by the inhabitants of the Danish colonies in 
Greenland, forming a valuable source of revenue to Den- 
mark. A vast quantity of this down, he adds, is also col- 
lected on the coast of Norway, and in some parts of Sweden. 
The eider duck is found throughout Arctic America, and is 
said to wander, in severe winters, as far south to sea as the 
capes of the Delaware. From November to the middle of 
February, small numbers of old birds are usually seen to- 
wards the extremities of Massachusetts Bay, and along the 
coast of Maine. A few pairs have been known to breed on 
some rocky islands beyond Portland, and M. Auduboa 
found several nesting on the island of (jrrand Manan in the 
Bay of Fundy. The Prince of Musignano notes it as rare 
ana adventitious in the winter at Philadelphia. The most 
southern brecdins; place in Europe is said to be the Fern or 
Fam Isles, on the cuiist of Northumberland. 

Habits, Rej^roduction^ &c. — Willuijhby, quoting Wor- 
mius, says that the Eider Ducks * build themselves nests 
on the rocks, and lay good store of very savoury and well- 
tasted eggs ; for tlie getting of which the neighbouring 
people let themselven down by ropes dangerously enough, 
and with the same labour gather the feathers {Eider aun 
our people call them), which are very soft and fit to stuff 
beds and quilts ; for in a small quantity they dilate them* 
selves muck (being very springy) and warm the body above 
any others. These birds are wont at set times to moult 
their feathers, enriching the fowlers with this desirable 
merchandize.* Willughby also remarks that ' when its 
voung ones are hatched it takes them to the sea and never 
looks at land till next breeding time, nor is seen anywhere 
about our coasts.' This early account is in the main cor- 
rect; but there are two kinds of Eider down: the live 
down^ aa it is termed, and ib»deaddou/n; tlM latt«r» which 



is eonaidered to be Tery inferior in qualitf, is thai takea 
from the dead bird. The down of superior quality, or live 
down, is that which the duck strips from herself to cherish 
her eggs. Its lightness and elasticity are such, it is asserted, 
that two or three pounds of it squeezed into a ball which 
may be held in the hand will swell out to such an extent 
as to fill a ease large enough for the foot covering of a bed. 
It is collected in the following manner : The female is suf- 
fered to lav her five or six e^ggs, which are about three 
inohei in length and two in breadth. These, which are 
very palatable, are taken, and she strips herself a second 
time to supply the subsequent eggs. If this second batch 
be abstracted, the female being unable to supply any more 
down, the male plucks his breast, and his contribution is 
known by its pale colour. The last deposit, which rarelv 
consists of more than two or three eggs, is always left ; fur 
if deprived of this their last hope, the bereaved birds for- 
sake the inhospitable place; whereas, if suffered to rear 
their young, the parents return the following year with 
their progeny. The Quantity of down afforded by one fe- 
male during the whole period of laying is stated at half a 
pound neat, the quantity weighing nearly a pound before it 
IS cleansed. Of this down Troil states that the Iceland com- 
pany sold in one year (1750) as much as brought 85U/. ster- 
ling, besides what was sent to Gliickstadt. 

The haunts of birds capable of producing so valuable 
an article are not unlikely to be objects of peculiar care ' 
we accordingly find that in Iceland and Norway the dis- 
tricts resorted to by them are reckoned valuable property, 
and are strictly preser>'ed. Every one is anxious to inducu 
the Eiders to take up their position on his own estate ; and 
when they show a disposition to settle on any islet, the pro- 
prietor has been known to remove the cattle and dogs to the 
mainland in order to make way for a more valuable stock, 
which might be otherwise disturbed. In some cases, arti- 
ficial islets have been made by separating promontories 
from the continent ; and these Eider tenements are handed 
down from father to son like any other inheritance. Not 
withstanding all this care to keep the birds undisturbed, 
they are not, as we shall presently see, scared by the 
vicinity of man, in some places at least. We proceed to 
give the personal observations of some of those who ha\c 
visited Eider settlements:^' When I visited the Fam 
Isles,* writes Pennant (it was on the i5th July, 1769), * I 
found the ducks sitting, and took some of the nests, the 
base of which was formed of sea-plants, and covered with 
the down. After separating it carefully from the plants, it 
weighed only three-quarters of an ounce, yet was so elastic 
as to fill a larger space than the crown of the greatest hat 
These ulrds are not numerous on the isles ; and it was ob- 
served that the drakes kept on those most remote from the 
sitting-places. The ducks continue on their nests till you 
come almost close to them, and when they rise are very 
slow fliers. The number of eggs in each nest was from three 
to five, warmly bedded in the down, of a pale ohve colour, 
and very large, glossy and smooth.* Horrebow declares 
that one may walk among these birds while they are sitting 
without scaring them ; and Sir George Mackenzie, during 
his travels in Iceland, had an opportunity, on the 8th June 
at Vidoe, of observing the Eider aucks, at all other times of 
the year perfectly wild, assembled for the great work of in- 
eubation. The boat, in its approach to the shore, passed 
multitudes of these binls, which hardly moved out of the 
way ; and, between the landing-place and tlie governor's 
house, it required some caution to avoid treading on the 
nests, while the drakes were walking about, even more 
familiar than common ducks, and uttering a sound which 
was like the cooing of doves. The ducks were sitting on 
their nests all round the house, on the garden wall, on the 
roofs, nay even in the inside of the houses and in the 
chapel. Those which had not been long on the ne^^t gene- 
rally left it when they were approached ; but those that hud 
more than one or two eggs sat perfectly quiet and suA'ciiMl 
the party to touch them, though they sometimes gentl\ u- 

Eclled the intrusive hand with their bills. But, if a drake 
appen to be near his mato when thus visited, he becomes 
extremely agitated. He passes to and fro between her and 
the suspicious object, raising his head and cooing. 

M. Audubon saw them in great numbers on the coa^t 
of Labrador — where, by the way, tho down is neglected* — 

* Aodoboa Mjt th«t Um erf nv of labrador collect H; U\\, at tlm Mime 
tfnM, .make Mioh«hafoc among the birds, llui at ao rtxy tHatanl pMiod \hm 



put, 

cmplojed about their neits, which they begin to form about I 
the end of M*y. The; arrive there and on the ooMt* of 
NeiTfbundlsnd about the flnt of that month. The eggt 
vetf of a duUcreenish-whilA, and smooth, from six to ten 
in number. The nest was uiually placed under the ibelter 
ofa low proetrate branched and dwarf fir*; and Knuetimes 
there were aevBial under the tame bush, within a ftwt or 
two of each other. The ground-work of the nesta oonsiitsd 
of (CA-weedR and mow, and the female did not add the 
down till ibe e^a were laid, "nie duck, having at this 
time acquired an attachment for her eggs, waa easily ap- 
proached, and her flight was even and rather slow. Audu- 
bon stales that, as soon as incubation has commenced, the 
males leave the land and join blether in large flocks out 
tt sea ; they begin to moult in J uly, and soon become so 
bare as to be scarcely able to rise from the water. By the 
1st of August, according to the same author, scarcelyui 
Eider Duck was to be seen on the coast of Labrador. The 
young, as soon aa hatched, are led by the female to the 
water, where they remain, except at night and in stormy 
weather. Their greatest feathered enemy is the Saddle- 
backed Gull, or Black-backed Gull ILarui marittut), which 
devours the ^gs and young, but whose pursuit the young, 
after they have left the nest, elude by diving, at whiob 
both old and young are very expert. 



According to Brunnich and others, the male utters 
hoarse nnd moaning cry at the pairing time, but the cry of 
the female is like that of the common duok. Both sexes 
assist in forming the nest, though the female only sits : 
the male watches in the vicinity, and gives notice of the 
danger. This teems to be conflrmed by the account given 
of the nesting-place at Vidiie. Sometimes two females de- 
posit their eggs in ibe same nest, and sit amicably together. 
The Gulli are not their only enemies in addition to two, 
for the Ravens often suck their eggs and kill their young. 
At sea, aeveral hatches congreealG, led by the females, 
and there they may be seen splashing the water in the shal- 
■ ia-».ii .-jj-.. a... .1.- . r~'-'-'T. "l-i-"r-^r(iTiiii. 



lows, to beat up the small crustaceans and nollusks, and 
diving in deeper water forthe larger marine animals, among 
which muscles and other concbirers, lurMuated testaceans, 

id occasionally sea-eggs {Echini) are said to be taken. 
Utility to Man.—ThA down above described is Ihe prin- 

pol tribute paid by the Eider Duck lo man: but the 
Indian and Oreenlander eat the ftesh, which is dark and 
fishy, and their skin is converted into a worm inner gar- 
ment. According to Sir W. E. Parry, the Esquimaux In- 
dians catch these birds with ipringes made of whalebone, 
and take the eggs wherever they can find them. The skin, 
prepared with the feathers on, forms an article of commerce, 
particularly with the Chinese, M. Audubon is of opinion that 
if this valuable bird weTedomesticated.il would prove a great 
SM^uisition, both on account of its donn, and iis Hcsh as an 
article of food ; and he is persuaded ihat very little atten- 
tion would effect this. Indeed, it appears that the experi- 
ment was made at Bastport with success, but the greater 
number of the ducks were shot, being taken by gunners 
for wild birds. The same author says that, when in cap- 
tivity, it feeds on different kinds of grain and moistened 
corn-meal, when its flesh becomes excellent. Mr. Selby 
succeeded twice in rearing Eiders from the egg, and kept 
them alive upwards of a year, when they were accidentally 
killed. 

Oidomia. {Fleming.'i 
Oaurie Character. — Bill, broad with dilated margins, 
and coarse lamellifbrm teeth, gibbous above the NottriU, 
wfakh ai« nearly mesial, large and elevated. Tail, of four- 
teen feMhera. 

The OidgmuB seek their food at sea principally; and 
have oblained the name of SurfDveht, from frequenting 
ita edge. The prevailing colour of the tribe is black in the 
male, and brown in the female. Tbe plumage is very thick 
and close; and, according to Audubon, tbe dawn in the 

VtlvetDueh iOidemia/tuea) is similar to that of the £td«r 
Dvek, and apparently of equal quality. Their flesh is 
high-flavoured and oily, according to Dr. Richardson, who 
gives that character to the flesh of three species, viz. Oi- 
aemicB pertpidllata, Jiaea, and nigra. The two former, 
according to that enterprising zoologist, breed on tbe 
Arctic coasts, migrate southward in company with Clan- 
gula (Harelda t) glaeiaiit, hailing both on the shores of 

Hudson's Bay and on the lakes of the interior, aa long as 
they remain open, and then feed on tender shelly mollusca. 

Oiaemia nigra, he adds, frequents tbe shores of Hudson's 
Bay, and breeds between the 5Dth and 60th parallels. It 
was not seen by Dr. Richardson and his companions in the 
interior. We select, as an example — 

Oidemia peripicillata, Anat pertpicillala of Linnieus, 
the Black or Sur/Duck. This is the Macreune d large bee 
ou Marchand and Canard Marchand of the French, the 
Black Duek of Pennant, and the Great Black Duck from 
Hvdtoiie Bay of Edwards. 




Bm of OidemU p«n]kkiLlftU, 

DeKnpHon.—MaU, velvet black, with a reddish re 
flexion. Throat brownish. A broad while band between 
the eyes, and a triangular patch of the same on ilie nape. 
Bill reddish orange, the nail paler ; a square bla<:k tpot on 
the lateral protuberance. Lege onagt^ webs brown. Bill 
mtich like that of the Veloel Duck (Ottimua /tteca), but 



F U L 



the laleral protubcranccc ore n&kod uid homf, and the 
central ono it fealheretl farther dovo. The lamina ve 
diilnnt, ind the lower onos particululy prominent, with 
culling ed|;es. Aa In the other Oidemur, me bill and fore- 
head are inflated, earning the head to appear lengthened 
and the crown dcpreised. The nottriU are talher laige, 
and nearer to the point than to the rictus. Length 2i inchea. 
(Dr. RichiTd«on. from a hird killed at Fort Franklin.) 

F^maie and Young. — Black aahy hrown whereveT the 
male iH deep black. Head and neck lighter ; frontal hand 
and great angular apace upon the nape indicated by very 
bright aihy brown. Lateral protuberances of the btU but 
HllTe developed, and the whole hill of an aahv yelloirish 
colour. Feet and toet brovn ; uxb* black. (Temminck.) 
Dr. Richardson observes that the under plumage in parti- 
cular ii paler, that ihc back and trt'wf coverit are narrowly 
edged with grey, that the brciat.JlankM, and ear* have some 
wliilibh edgings, that the bill is black, its base not so much 
indated. and that the noilrili are smaller than in the male. 

GengTophirat Distribution. — Rare and accidental in thi 
Orcadcd, and in the higher latitude* towards the pole 
very rare in the cold and temperate countries bathed by the 
ocean; very common and numerous in America, at J 
son's and Baffin's Bajs. Such is Tcmminck's account 
Nutlall says that this specicsof duck, wiih other dark kinds 
commonly called on the other side of the Atlantic 'coots,' 
may be properly considered as on American species; its 
visiti in the Orkneys and European seas being merely ac- 
cidenlal. They breed on the Arctic cuasts, and extend their 
residence 1^ the opposite side of the conlinenl, having been 
feen at Noolka Sound by Cautain Cuok. The bird is not 
Mentioneil in the notice of ihc animuU which were met 
uiili during iho period in which the expedition remained 
ivithin Ilie Arctic Circle, appended to <Jap<ain Sir W. E. 
Parry's First Vojage, nor in Captain James Ross's Ap- 
iieiidix to Captain Sir John Ross's ]..ast Voyage. The 
Prince of Muaignano notes it as very commoil, and moat 
Abundiint in the sea in the neighbourhood of the ahore at 
Philtidelphia. 

llabilf, Rrproduction, ^e.—\n aummer the Surf Duck 
fuL'ds principally in the sea, and haunts shallow estuaries, 
liars and bavs, where it may be seen constantly diving for 
ils Khelly food. The surf is a favourite slalion with it. 
lliids>iir» Bay nnd Labrador ore among its breeding places, 
and ilic lie.^1 is fiimitd of giass wiih a lining of down or 
fi'iitliers oil llie bordera of freah-waler ponds. The eggs 
are white, and from four to six in number. The young are 
hatcheil in July, and detained on the borders of the ponds, 
irhere they were exclude<l rrom the cgi;, until thev are able 
to Ily. Their migrations extend to Florida, but liiey often 
remain throughout the winter along the shores and open 
bays of the United Stales. At the end of April or early in 
Mav they again proceed northward. 

t/lilHy to Man— The flesh of the old birds is very dark, 
red, ana fishy when dressed ; the young are of bellor 
flavour. They are hoivcvcr often eaten by Ihe inhabitants 
of the coasts frequented by them; and being dillicull to 
approach, they are decoyed by means of a wooden figure of 
a auck of the same general appearance with themwlvet. 



8 F tJ L 

Fuligula. (Ray.) 

Gtnene CharactrT.—'BiU flat, broad, long, with hardly 
any gibbosity at the hue, and rather dilated at the ex- 
tnmity. NiMlriU suboval, basal. Tail short, ori4liM- 
thers. graduated laterally. First quill longeat 

The aea, and iu bays and estuaries, are the vindpal 
haunta of this ganus. Dr. Ricbardaon stalas that Putigula 
Valitneria, /erina, tnarila, and rujllorquei. breed in all 
parts of the fur countriea, from the SOlb parallel to their 
most nortliam limits, and associate much on the water with 
the Analirut. Fuligula nibida, he remarks, Irequenli the 
small lakei of the mierior up to the SHih parallel, and hi- 
adds that it is very unwilling to lake wing, and dives re- 
markably well. In swimming, according to the same ob- 
server, it carries its tail erect, and, from the shortnc^ of 
its neck, nearly as high at ils head, which, at _■ 



TlK- 



of Wilson, may be selectal as an illustration of Ihe genus. 

DeteripHon. — ^The following accurate description of a 
male, killed on the Saskatchewan on the 3rd of May, l-'27. 
is given by Dr. Richardson in' Fauna Boresli- American J.' 
CoTiHw.— Reeioii of the bill, top of the head, chin, base of 
the neck, and adjoining parts of the breast and back, rum)-, 
upper and under tail-coverta, pitch-black ; sides of the beuii 
and the neck reddish-orange ; middle of the back, scapuluR>, 
wing-coverts, tips of the seconrlarifS, tertiaries, Hank-, 
posterior part of the belly and thighs, greyish-white, flntly 
undulated Willi hair-brown ; primaries and their covtis 
hair-brown, their tip* darkest; secondaries ash-grey, tippid 
with white; the two adjoining tertiaries edged with bLic'.. 
Belly while, faintly undulated on the medial line. In some 
specimens the while parts are glossed with fetTUBlnoii!'. 
Bill and Ug*. bUckish-brown. Form.— Bill lengthened, 
the depressed frontal angle longer, the nostrils farther 
from the front, and the unguis differently shaped aiid 
smaller than ia Fuligula ferina {\he Pochard); theu/Kc 
lamina flat, cuneale, not prominent, and confined wiihiii 
the margin of Ine mandible. The bill and head of iIil- 
Canvass-back approach somewhat to the form of ihe A"'"'^ 
Duck, being much lengthened, and of equal brendih 
throughout. Firil qttill the longest. Length, 34 inchi^ 

Frmo/e.— Ground colour of the upper plumage and flan'.> 
liver-brown ; sides of the head, neck, nnd breast, fuTni/i- 
nous; shoulders, shorter scapulars, and under pluinu;.'. 
edged with the same. Middle of the back and winjj-cjii'tii 
clove-brown, finely undulaled with greyish-white. Tli. t^ 
arenounduhted markings on theleriiariesand seco:;!Drii%, 
and only a few on the lips of the scapulars. Bill as in liio 
male; the neck more slender. (Dr. Richardson.) 





BDl nrCiBTUrUeli Dock. 
peograpkicai Dittribulion. — We have above gi^-en Dr. 
Iticbardsou's account of its breeding from the SDlh parallel 
to the most northern limit* of the fur countries. Wlien 
the worlL of incubation is past, flocka of CaovaM-becLs 
pursue their course to the southward, and arrive about ibc 
tniddle of October on the sea-coasta of the United Slates. 
The Hudson, the Delaware, and the faaya of North (Jar.- 

• Coaa AUbjs (Ddii), 



P U L 

lina, are Tisited hy Mine of these flock* ; and it is stated 
that they are abundant in the river Neuse, in the vicinitf 
of Newbern, and probably in most of the other soulhero 
waters doim to the coast of the Gulf of Meitico, being seen 
in winler in the mild climale of New Orleans, at which 
season a few pairs arrive in Masiachuaetts Baj, near Cohaset 
and Si. Marlha'a Vineyard. But it is to Chesapeake Bay, 
its EBstuaries and rivers, among which the Susquehanna, 
the Patapsco, James's River, and the Potomac, may be 
particularly mentioned, that the great multitude of Can- 
vasa-back Ducks resort,— (Wilson ; Nuttall.J 

Habitt, Food, ^. The canvass-backa associate with the 
pochards, and are wailed upon by Ihe bald-pates or wigeons 
iMareca Americana), which rob them in the manner de- 
scribed in the article Ducks (vol. ix. p. ISJ). - They are 
named in different parts of the Union while-hacks and 
sheldrakes, as well as eanvass-backs. Zottrra marina 
and Rmipia viaritima form their food, as well as the fresh- 
water raiisneria, which lost is limited in its diatribulion. 
The sea-wracks or eel-crass, as the long marine v^^tables 
above alluded to are called in America, are widely spread over 
the Atlantic, and over the mud-Hats, bays, and inlets whore 
salt or brackish water Hnds access. The canvass-hacks 
dive for and generally pluck up the sea-wrack, and feed 
only on the most tender portion near the root. They are 
leryshy birds, and most difficult to be approached. Various 
Blratagems are resorted to for getting within gunshot of 
them ; and in severe winters artificial openings ore made 
in the ice, to which the ducks crowd and fall a sacrifice to 
their eagerness to obtain food. That they will eat seeds 
and grain as well as sea-wrack, &c., was proved by the loss 
uf a vessel loaded with wheat near the entrance of Great 
Kgg Harbour, New Jersey, to which great flocks of canvoss- 
backs were attracted. Upon this occasion as many as 240 
were killed in one day. (Wilson ; Nuttall.) 

UHtity to Man. — The canvass-back, which is lean on 
its first arri\-al in the United Stales, becomes, in November, 
about ihiee pounds in weight, and in high order for the 
table: there are few birds which grace tne board better. 
The Prince of Muaignano is etoauent in its praise : * Carne 
della massima squisitezzo, granaemente ricercata dai gas- 
tronomi. La miglioce dello Anitre. Forse il miglior uccello 
d'Ainerica.' Any attempt to introduce the binl into Eng' 
land WDuI'l, it is feared, proi'e a failure; for even if the 
ordinary ditEculties should be got over, the absence of the 
food to which it is supposed to owe its exquisite Havour 
would reader the success of the experiment very doublAil.* 



Clanguls (Boi£>. 

Bin narrow, elevated at the base, somewhat attenuated 
at the anterior extremity, and short. NotlriU inclining to 
oval, submesial, or rather anterior to Ihe middle of the bill. 
Tail rather long, of 16 feathers generally. 

Though many of this genus frequent Ine sea, the species 
are more generally met with in the fVesh waters than the 
other Sea Ducks, Thus Dr. Richardson remarks thai 
Clanguia vulgari* (Common Golden Eye) and albeola 
rSpint Duck) frequent the rivers and fresh-water lakes 
throughout the fiir conr.triea in great numbers. They arc, 

■ Tilt WMtiTD Duck IFtSftda SItUfrO h>i Ixin *1iTi>itd lo • Etani b> 
Rtba auWr Ih* nun* ot CelSdttr. 
P. C, No. 659. 



as he stales, by no means shy, allowing a near approaeli to 
the sportsman ; but at the flash of a gun or even at the 
twang of a bow, they dive so suddenly that they ore seldom 
killed. Hence the natives impute supernatural powers to 
them, as the appellations of 'Conjuring DuckH* and 
' Spirit Ducks' sufficiently testify. Dr. Riuhardson says 
that the manners of Clangulo Barrovii (Richardson and 
Swainson), described in 'Fauna Boreal i- Americana,' and 
which has hitherto been found only in the valleys of the 
Rocky Mountains, do not differ from those of the Common 
Golden Eye. He speaks of Clan^lu hiilrionica as haunt- 
ing eddies under cascades and rapid streams, as very 
vigilant, taking wing at once when disturbed, as rare, and 
as never associating, as far as he saw, with any other bird. 
The high northern latitudes may be considered generally 
as the localities of this genus,* which we proceed lo illus- 
trate by Clanguia albeola, Ataa albeola of Linneus, th« 
^ril Duck. 




This is the Sugil Duck of Pennont ; the Bi^ei't Head 
Duck of Calesby ; Ihe Liitle black and toAite Duck of Ed- 
wards ; ihe Sujfel- headed Duck of Wilson ; Wakai»hte~ 
wefsheep. Wain haisheep, and Wappano-sheep of the Croe 
and Chippeway Indians. 

Dr. Richardson thus describes a male and iemale killed 
on the Saskatchewan. in May, 1827. 

Malt.— Colour. Forehead, region of the bill, nuchal 
crest, and upper sides of the neck rich duck green, blendinr 
with the resplendent auricula-purple of the top of Ihe head 
and throat. Broad ba:id from the eye to the tip of Ihe oo- 
cipital crest, loner half of the neck, the- shoulders, exterior 
scapulars, intermediate and greater coverts, outer webs of 
five or six secondaries, flanks, and under plnmage to the 
vent pure white. Back, long scapulars, and tertiariei 
velvet black; lesser coverts bordering the wing the same, 
edged with while; primaries and their coverts brownish- 
black. Tail-coverts blackish-grey ; toil broccoli-brown. 
Vent and under tail-coverts greyish. Bill bluish-black. 
Legt yellowish. In many sprine specimens the under 
plumage is ash grey. Form.— Bill smaller in proportion 
than tnat of the common Garrot. and Ihe nostrils nearer 
the ba.se ; but otherwise similar. Head large, with Ihe 
upper part of llie neck clothed in velvety plumage, rising 
into a short thick crest. Wings two inches and a half 
shorter than the taiL JoiV— lateral feathers graduated, 
three middle pairs even. Length sixteen inches ; but indi- 
viduals differ in size. 

Female. — Considerably smaller. Head and dorsal plu- 
mage dork blackish-brown ; the forepart of the back, sia- 
pulars, and tertiaries, edged with yellowiiih brown. Foie 

Cof the neck, sides of the breast. Honks, and veul- 
tiers, hlackish-grey ; breast end belly while, glossed 
with brownish-orange. White hand un the eon and occiput 
much narrower than in the male. The white speculum is 
less perfect, and Ihe whole of Ihe lesser coverls and sca- 
pulars are unspotted blackiah-hrown. Bill aad/eel brownish. 
Total length fourteen inches and a half. 

Voung male* resemble the females. ('Fauna Boteali- 
Americana.*) 
• Th. ConiiDOiiOold.iiEie.1 



f^U.'i" 



d bi T. C 

IB m> Bciu 



it(CIaanJa nJlorir. Jmti Cliaftim, 

i Aguiri Cludib Ham^ lud t-Un- 
rop«, Ihe fomrr bsTiof bHP aavl im 
la knnhwiaikatn IhquaajHp 

Vol. XL-C 



10 



OeograpMeal Z>t'rirt£irftOR.— Abunduit in the 
on tha riven ind freth-wHor lake* of lbs fur e 
Id •utumn and «inler very romraon in tho Unitad Slalei, 
■ometimes on the te>-ahoTM. Caleiliy mjs ihat the Buffel'i 
Head Durk appeva in Carolina durini tho winter only. 
On the rivor NeuM, in Norlb Carolina, they bave been seen 
in abundance in February. In April and May Ihono in tbe 
■ouih lake their depwture northward. 

Habitt. Food, Bsproduetiim.—Tidi ipecies i» a mo«t 
expert diver, wliMber it rcMrta In ihat feat aa a mode of 
earape, or »a ibe means of procuring tho »ea-WTttck and 
laver (Ulea /ac(u£a),and cruslac«ans and moUuika, which, 
al parlicolar leasons of ihe year wbon it visiU the tea baya 
and uU marebea, furm ita favourite food. The rapidity of 
its diMppearance from the surface, and tha artful way in 
which it conreaU itself after il hai vanished under water, 
have earned for it the appropriate name of" Spirit Duck.' 
or * Conjurer.* A bird is rmrely hit, and when it ia, if not 
killed oulrighl, it can rarely bo captured; w quick is Ibe 
Spirit Duck in avoiding Ihe shot aliugether, and so dex- 
lerou* in eiadin« ill pursuer, if only wounded. About 
Hudson's Bay ihey are said to form their nests in hollow 
trees in woods sdjacenl to water, (Wilson ; Nuttall). 

Ulililt/ to Man —The llcsh of the Spirit Duck is not in 
high repule but the females and young are tender and 
well-flavoured in the winler. The bird becomes so fat that, 
in Pennsjlvania and Nuw Jersey, it b commonly called 
' Butter-Box,' or ' Buller-Ball.' 



(V /h. 



h. 

/ 




or Rirtldi (Imd 



This ia tbe Canard d longue Queue, ou Canard de 
Miclnn of tbe French; Euentn. Wintar Ente of the Ger- 
mans ; Ungta, AnKellaikr. Tratfnmer of the Norwegians ; 
Oedel of the Fcroe lalandera ; HaOld. Ha-Blta of tbe 
Icelanders; Sinailoui-tmUd Sheldrake, Sharp-tailed Dudi, 
Calao.Calaw, Coal and Candle Light of the modem British - 
Hwyad gynffbn gwennol of tbe antient Britiah ; Old (Vife 
and Sval'lme-laiUd Duck of the Hudson's Bay 
- - ' ~ iiJi. 



Harelda. (I^ch). 

Generie Chararlfr.—Rilt very shorl, high a> the base, nail 
bro.id and arched. Laminir- prominent, Irenchnnl, and dis- 
iBiii ; ihe iii'per laminB prujccliiif- below the maririn of the 
mnriilibli.-, ilm loner laminte dliiili-d into a nearly equal 
duiil'le wrieii. Sntlnh oblong, large, and nearly biual. 
r>i,elifa<< \\\f.h: ntH'k railier thick. Tail very long, of 
fonrieen fealhrits. Ton &hurt. 

Example. Harelda glacialii, Anai gtaeiali*. Linn, the 
Vong-latted Duck. 



Bay residents; 

South-Southerly of the United States; Aldiggte-areon 
of the Esquimaux ; Caecdwee of the Canadian voyageurs ; 
and Hahhateay of the Cree Indians. 

Deicription.—Old MaU (Winter). Summit of the head, 
nape, front, and lower parts of the neck, lone scapulars, 
belly, abdomen, and lateral tail-feathers, pure white; cheeks 
and throat ash-colour ; a great apace of maroon-bro«n on 
tho sides of the neck; breast, back, rump, wings, and the 
two long featheraof the middle of the Uil brownish; Hank* 
ahh-coloured ; the black of the bill cut tronsverselj' by a red 
hand; tarsi and toes yellow; weba blackish; ins ornntre. 
Length, composing tho long tail-featheia, twenty to twenty- 

Old /•>ma/«.— Differing much from the male. Tail short. 
the feathers bordered with while and the two middle ones 
not elongated ; forehead, throat, and eyebrows whitish a.-h ; 
nape, front, and lower part of the neck, belly, and abdomen 
pure while ; top of the head and great space at the sides of 
the neck blackish ash ; breast variegated with ash-colour 
and brown ; feathers of the back, scapulars, and wing-coveria 
black in thj middle, bordered and terminated with ashy- 
red ; rest of the other peils brown ; the bluish colour of the 
bill cut by a yellowish bond; iris brigbt brown; foal lead- 
colour. Leni^lh 16 inches. 

Young ((f the Fear.— Not differing much from the old 
female ; Ihe whiteness of the face ia varied with numeroui 
brown or ash-coloured apols ; throat, ttont of the neck, and 
nape ashy-brown ; lower part of the neck, a large spot be- 
hind tbe eycK, belly, and abdomen white ; breaal and thighs 
varicfcated wiih brown and ash-coloured spots. (Temminck.) 

Summer Dreu.—Male. kdled May I, 18i6, on the Sas- 
katchewan. Colour. — The whole upper plumage, the two 
central pairs of Oil feelhers, and the under plumage to the 
fjre part of the belly brownith-black; the leaser quills paler. 
A Iriangulat patch of the feathers between the shoulders, and 
the scapulars, broadly bordered with orange-brown. Sides 
of the head from the bill to tho ears aiih-grey ; eye-slnpe 
and poalerior under plumage pure while. Flanks, side> of 
the rump, and lateral tail-foathera while, stained wiili 
brown ; axillaries and inner wing-covrata cbn'e-biown. Bill 
bUck, with an orange belt before tbe nostrils. Ltgi dark- 
brown. Sjiecimens killed a fortnight or throe weeks laipr 
in the season al Bear I^ke, on their way to (be breedini;- 
pleces, differed in bavingalsree white palchoolbehindhead 
and occiput, with scattered while feathers on the neck and 
among the scapulars ; the sides under (be wings pure peart 
grey, and the sides of Ihe rump unstained white. (l>r. 
Richardson, ' Fauna Boreali-Amerieaiu.') 

Captain, now Major, £dward Sabine (Supplement lo 
Appendix of Captain Sir W. E. Parrr'a Fint VoT^ge) mttattm 



11 



^ u t 



■ male obtdn«d io Jane, corrMpoodbg precisely with the 
indit-idunl killed in Baffin's Bay in the summer of 1S1B, 
which furnished the description of the full breeding plum- 
s' in the ' Memoir of the Greeiiltnd Birds.' An account, 
adds the author, of this state of plumage is yet wanting to 
complete the histary of this species in M. Temminck'i 
second edition, The plumage of a young male killed on 
the aind of June cocresponded precisely with M. Tem- 
minck's male of one or two years old. Dr. Richardson 
observes (foe, eit.) that Captain Sabine describes the plum- 
age of the specimens killed at Bear Lake as the pure 
breeding plumage; but individuala coloured like the one 
killed on the Saskatchewan are, he remarks, otlen seen at 
the breeding stations. He quotes Mr. Edwards, surgeon 
of the Fury (Sir W. K. ParryS 2nd Voyage), as describing 
the Long-tailed Ducks killed at HelviUe Peninsula between 
the iBt and 2Sth of June as follows :— Tbey bad all a dark 
silky cheslnut-brown patch on the side of the neck; a 
mixture of white in the black stripe from the bill to the 
crown ; the crown and nape either entirely while, or mixed 
with black ; scapulars and upper lail-coverts edged with 
white ; a broad white collar round the lower part of the 
neck, in some individuals tipped with black or brown ; 
occasionally a white band on the breat The colour of the 
belt on the bill varied from rose-red to violet 

Mature Femaie, killed May 2S, lat. 63^". Upper plumage 
and sides of the breast pale liver-brown, with dark centres ; 
the winfr-coverts, scanulats, and hinder parts mostly edged 
with white. Top of the head blackish-brown, its sides 
anteriorly broccob-brown ; ears and base of the neck below 
clove-brown. A spot at the base of the bill and a stripe 
behind the eye white. Throat and collar ash-grey. Tail- 
feathers brownish-grey, edged with white, short and worn. 
(Dr. Richardson.) 

Geograplkeal Dutribution,— The Arctic seaa of both 
worlds. An accidental visitor on the great lakes of Ger- 
many, and along the Baltic. Otlen, but never in ttocks, 
on the maritime coasts of Holland. (Temminck.) Abund- 
ant in Sweden, Lapland, and Russia, ((jould.) Noted 
in the list of birds seen within the Arctic Circle and as 
breeding in the North Georgian Islands, but not ct 
there. (Supplement to Appendix to Captain Parry' 
Voyai5e.) Females taken in Duke of York's Bay. (Captt ._ 
Lyon's Journal.) Abundant on the Arctic Sea, associating 
with the Oidtimte, remaining in the north as long as it 
can find open water, and assembling in very large flocks 
before migrating. Halts, during its progress southwards. 
both on the shores of the Hudson's Bay and in the inland 
Iftkes, and is one of the last of the birds of passage which 
quits the fur countries. (Dr. Richardson, * Fauna Boreali- 
Americana.') Captain James Ross describes it as the most 
Doisy Rnd roost numerous of the ducks that visit the shares 
of Boothia. (Appendix te Captain Sir John Ross's Last Voy- 
age.) The species is abundant in Greenland, Lapland, 
Russia, and Kamtchatka, and (locks pass the winter (fhim 
October to April) at the Orkney Islands. They are seldom 
seen in ilie southern parts of England, unless the weather 
he very severe. Id October they visit the United States, 
wid abound in Chesapeake Bay. 

Habit*, Food, Iteproduction, if*.— Lively, most noisy, 
and gregarious, the Lon^-tailed Duck, with its swallow-like 
appearance in flight, swims and dives with all the expert- 
nese of the Spirit Ducks. Dr. Richardson stales that in the 
latter end of August, when a thin cnut of ice forms during 
the night on the Arctic Sea, the female may be alien secu 
breaking a way with her wings for her young brood. The 
same author states that the eggs are pale greenish-grey, 
with both ends rather obtuse, 36 lines long and 18 wide, 
Tbey are about five in number; and in Spitibergen, Ice- 
land, and along the grassv shores of Hudson's Bay, near 
the Bi-B. this species is said to form its nest, about the mid- 
dle of June, hniug the interior with the down of the breast. 
Marine productions principally, both animal and vegetable, 
form it« food, particularly tha Zottera, or Grass-wrack, for 
whirb it dives like others of its congeners. 'Late in the 
evening, or early in the morning,' writes Nuttall in his 
Manual* ' towards spring more particularly, vast flocks are 
seen in the bays and sheltered inlets, and in calm and 
fo|,'gy weather we hear the loud and blended nasal call 
reiterated -for hours from the motley multitude. There is 
something in the sound like the honk of the goose, and, 

■ Misul et llig Oridihalen 'I !>>■ tTniM Suta ud «C Cuadi,' ■ v«U, 
Bn^ltoMaa. AMMiMlgltBlllBtfnUHlM^ 



„ fkr u words can express a subject so uncouth, it resem- 
bles the guttural syllables ogH, ough, egh, and then ngh, 
ogh, ogk, ough, egh, given in a ludicrous drawling lune; 
but still, with ail Uie accompaniments of scene and season, 
this humble harbinger of spring, obeying the feelings ot 
nature, and pouring forth his final ditty before his de, ar- 
turo to the distant north, conspires, with the novelty of the 
call, to please rather than disgust those happy few who may 
be willing to find " good in everythbg,"' 

Utility to Man. — The old birds are not considered ns of 
much value for the table ; but the young birds are tender 
and juicy. If, as is on good authority asserted, the down 
which the Long-tailed Duck strips from its breaal as a 
lining for the neit is as soft and elastic as that of the Etder 
Dock, it may considered as ofiering no mean contribiiiion 
to the comforts of man, a contribution which, however ap- 
parently hitherto neglected, deserves the attention of th» 
uteUigent and enterprising. 



In addition to the genera above-mentioned, OymnHra 
(Oxyura of Bonaparte), Macropu*, and Mieroplenu find a 
place among the Sea Duckt. 

The species from which the genus Oxyura is establisbed 
is bred, according to Nuttall ('Manual'), in the north, and 
principally haunis f)'esh-water lakes, diving and swim- 
ming with great ease, but it Is averse to rising into the air. 
It is small, and is said, by the last-named author, to be 
nearly allied to .iJRiu/eucocmAa/a, which inhabits the salina 
lakes and inland seas of Siberia, Russia, and the east of 
Europe ; and also to have an affinity with A. Jamaiceruit of 
Latham. Nuttall thinks that it is perhaps identical with 
A. spinosa of Guiana, if not also with A. Dominica of 
Gmelin, a native of St. Domingo, and probably only resident 
there during the winter. He also observes that the nam* 
of OTi/ura naving been previously employed for a sub-genus 
of Creepers, it was necessary to alter it ; bot the student 
should remember that Gymnura had been preoccupied by 
Sir Stamford Rallies tor a genus of mamnnfers; and that 
Spix has named a family of South American monkeya 
(fymnuru Xtie Ptinca of Musigoano, howevei, oomoted 



F U L 



12 



F U L 



btmself ftod changc>dthe name to Eri$maiura> Mr. Gould 

Save the name of Undina to the genus, and figures the 
European species under the name of Undina leucoce- 

phala. 

It should he rcmemhered that the suhgeneric term Ma- 
tropui has heeu long applied as a generic name for the 
Kangaroos. 

Micropierui is the genus containing the well-known 
Baee-HorH of Cook {Micropterus braehypterus. Anas bra- 
ehyptera of authors). CapUin Phillip Parker King, R.N., 
who has added a second species (Micropterui Patachonieus), 
gives these short-winsed but rapidly progressing Sea Ducks 
the familiar name of Steamer IXicks or Steamers. 

At a meeting of the Zoological Society, in December 1837, 
Mr. T. C. Kyton made some observations on the Anatida, 
which family he regarded as connected with the Grallato- 
rial Birds by means of the Flamingo on the one side and 
tlie itmipalmated Goose on the other, with the Divers 
of the family i4/cflA» by the Mergansers^ and also with the 
Cormorants through the Erismalurime. Mr. Ejrton di- 
vides the AnatidtB into the subfamilies Plectroptenna, An- 
serine, Anatime, Fkdigulin€e,Erismaiurin{e,Bxid Merging. 

The Anatina, according to Mr. Eyton, contain the fol- 
lowing genera : Tadoma, Eeach ; Casarka, Bonaparte ; 
Dendrocygna^ Swainson; Levtotarsis, Gould (L. Eytoni); 
Da/lla, Leach; Aforeco, Stephens ; ijio, Boi6 (Anas sponsa, 
Linn.) ; PtpcOonetta, Eyton (Anas marmorata, Teram.) ; 
Querquedula, Auct. ; Cyanopterus (Anas Eqfflesii, Kmg) ; 
Ehynchaspis, Leach ; Malacorhynchus, Swainson ; Chau- 
liodus,* Swainson ; Anas, Auct. ; Carina, Fleming. 

Mr. Evton's Fuligulinte consist of the genera— Affcrop- 
ierus. King; Melanitta, Boi6; Somaleria, Leach; Polys- 
ticia, Eyton (Anas disnar, Gmel.) ; Kamptorhyuchus, Eyton 
(Anas Labradoray Wilson^ ; Callicher, Brehm ; F^tligula, 
Ray ; Nyroca, Fleming; Harelda, Leach; and Clangula, 
Leach. 

Mr. Eyton stated, that characters of the genera and spe- 
cies would be given in his forthcoming monograph on the 
Anatidtr. 

FULLER. THOMAS, was the son of the Rev. Thomas 
Fuller, rector of Aldwincle, in Northamptonshire, where 
he was born in 1608. He was educated under his father, 
ond was sent at the early age of twelve years to Queen's 
College, Cambridge. He became B.A. in 1625, and MA. 
in 1628, but afterwards removed to Sidney College, where 
he obtained a fellowship in 1631, and nearly ot the same 
time the prebend of Nctherbyi in the church of Salisbury. 
In this year also he issued his first publication, a poem, 
now little known, entitled ' David's Hainous Sin, Hearti 
Repentence, Heavie Punishment,' in 12mo. He was 
soon after ordained priest, and presented to the rectory 
of Broad Windsor, in Dorsetshire ; but growing weary 
of a country parish, and uneasy at the unsettled state of 
public affairs, he removed to London, and disting;uishcd 
nimself so much in the pulpits there, that he was invited 
by the master and brethren of the Savoy to be their lec- 
turer. In 1639 he published his ' History of the Holy 
War:' it was printed at Cambridge, in folio, and so 
favourably received that a third edition anpeared in 1647. 
On April 13, 1640, a parliament was called, and a convoca- 
tion also began at Westminster, in Henry Vllth's chapel, 
having licence granted to make new canons for the better 
government of the church : of this convocation he was a 
member, and has detailed its proceedings in his ' Church 
History.' During the commencement of the Rebellion, 
and when the king left London, in 1641, to raise an army, 
Mr. Fuller continued at the Savoy, to the great satisfaction 
of his congregation and the neighbouring nobility and 
gentry, labouring all the while in private and in public to 
Ber>'e'the king. On the anniversary of his inaugura- 
tion, March 37, 1642, he preached at Westminster Abbey 
on this text, 2 Sam. xix. 30, * Yea, let him take all, so 
that my lord the king return in peace,' which, being 
printed, gave great offence to those who were engaeed in 
tlie opposition, and exposed the preacher to a go(^ deal of 
danger. 

In 1643, refusing to take an oath to the parliament, unless 
with such reserves as they would not admit, in April of 
that year he joined the king at Oxford, who, having heard 
of his extraordinary abilities in the uulpit, was desirous of 
knowing them personally, and accoruingly Fuller nrcached 

* Prr-occnpied by Scbaeider for a geotts of K;sl«t»f— CliAAlivdai Sioaoi, 



before him at St. Mary's Church.' He had before preached 
and published a sermon in London, upon the * new- 
moulding church-reformation,* which caused him to be 
censured as too hot a rovalist ; and now, from his fiormo.i 
at Oxford, he was thought to be too luke-warm, which run 
only be ascribed to his modemtion, which he would mu- 
cerely have inculcated upon each party as the only nieaii4 
of reconciling both. During his stay here, bis leaiiienro 
was in Lincoln College, but ne was not long aAer scqucH- 
tered, and lost all his books and manuscripts. This lo^>, 
the heaviest be could sustain, was made up to him partly 
by Hennr Lord Beauchamp, and partly by Lionel Cranfield, 
earl of Middlesex, who gave him the remains of his father's 
library. That, however, he might not lie under the suspicion 
of want of zeal or courage in the royal cause, he determined 
to join the army, and therefore, being well recommended 
to Sir Ralph Hopton in 1643, he was admitted by him in 
quality of chaplain. For this employment he was at liberty, 
being deprived of all other preferment. Though he attended 
the army from place to place, and constantly exercised his 
duty as chaplain, he yot found proper intervals for his favorite 
studies, which he employed chielly in making historical 
collections, and especially in gathering materials for his 

* Worthies of England,' which he did, not only by an ex- 
tensive correspondence, but by personal inquiries in every 
place which tne army had occasion to pass through. 

After the battle at Cheriton-Down, March 29, 1644, 
I^rd Hopton drew on his army to Basing-Housc, and 
Fuller, being left there by him, animated the garrison to 
so vigorous a defence of that place, that Sir William Waller 
was obliged to raise the siege with considerable loss. But 
the war coming to an end, and part of the king*s army 
being driven into Cornwall under Lord Ilupton, FLllcr, 
with the permission of that nobleman, took refuge at Exeter, 
where he resumed his studies, and preached constantly to 
the citizens. During his residence here he was appointed 
chaplain to the infant princess, Henrietta Maria, who wps 
born at Exeter in June, 1643. lie continued his attendance 
on the princess till the surrender of Exeter to the parlui- 
ment, in April, 1646. He is said to have written his * (luod 
Thoughts in Bad Times ' at Exeter, where the book was 
published in 1645, 16mo. On the garrison being forced to 
surrender, he came to London, where he found his lecture- 
ship at the Savoy fillefl by another. It was not lon;4 
however before he was chosen lecturer of St. Clement's, near 
Lombard Street, and shortly afterwards removed to St. 
Bride's, Fleet Street In 1647 he published, in 4to., *a 
Sermon of Assurance, fourteen years ago preached at 
Cambridge, since in other places, now bv the importunity 
of his friends exposed to public view.' He dedicated it to 
Sir John Danvers, who had been a royalist, was then an 
Ohverian, and next year one of the king*s judges; and m 
the dedication he says, that * it had been the pleasure of the 
present authority to make him mute, forbidding him, till 
further order, the exercise of his public preaching.' Not* 
withstanding his being thus silenced, he was, about 1648, 
presented to the rectory of Waltham Abbey, in Essex, by 
the earl of Carlisle. In 1648 he published his < Holy 
State.' folio, Cambr. His ' Pis^ah-sight of Palestine and 
the Confines thereof, with the History of the Old and New 
Testament, acted thereon,' was published, fol. Lond. ]60O« 
and reprinted in 1662. At this period he was still emploved 
upon his * Worthies.' In 1651 he published* Abel fte- 
divivus, or the Dead yet Speaking ; the Lives and Deaths of 
the Modern Divines.* Lond. 4to. In the two or thrtn? 
following years he printed several sermons and tracts up*.it 
religious subjects: 'The Infant's Advocate,' 8va Lmd. 
1653; • Perfection and Peace, a Sermon,* 4lo. Lond. 1653 

* A Comment on Ruth, with two Sermons," 8vo. Lond. 
1654; * A Triple Reconciler,' 8vo. Lond. 1654. About this 
last year he took as a second wife a sister of the Viscount 
Baltinglasse. In 1655, notwithstanding Cromweirs pro- 
hibition of all persons from preaching or teaching sciiool 
who had been adherents to the late king, he continued 
preaching and exerting his charitable disposition towards 
those ministers who were ejected, as well as towanis 
others. In 1655 he published in folio ' Tlie Church His- 
tory of Britain, from the birth of Jesus Christ until the 
year mdcxlviii..' to ^hich he subjoiued * The History of 
the University of Cambridge since the Conquest,' and *'th^ 
History of Waltham Abbey, in Essex, founded by King 
Harold.* The Church History was animadverted upon bv 
Dr. Peter Heylyn in his • Examen Historicum,' to whicli 



PU M ] 

Mr. tivingitoii, wm dkiwled, uid hk oppoiwnta mn, in k 
coDudenblfl degree, lucceisfuL Ub oonitituiioii liad been 
impaired by bis numeroui Uboun. and a severe coM whieb 
be Rsughl by ineautioiu expoiure ia giving direclinni la bu 
workmeD, to^tber with ths anxiety and fretfulnetu occa- 
■ionod by the law-auita about bi« patent rigbla, brought hit 
liA to a premature tvmination on the 14th of February, 
IBia, in his fortjp-nintfa year. Hia death occaaioned estra- 
ordinarydMnoutntioiu of oatioDkl mourning iu the United 
Staiea. 

Id penwn be wu UH. tod though ilender, well formed. 
He appear* to have been an tuniabl*, aocial, and liberal 
man. {Encyeiopitdia Jmeriaaia; Dietioitnain dt la 
Coavertation.) 

FUMARIACB.S, a small natural order of Zii^nous 
plnnli, consisting of ileuder-steromed, berbaceoui planla, 
many of which scramble up othen b* aid of tbeir twist- 
ing Icaf^ttalka. They are rather lucculent in texture, with 
watery juiro. Their leaves, which have no stipules, are 
repeaiedly divided till the terminal lobes become small 
ovate leaflets ; their flowers, which are extremely irregular, 
cansiat of two membranous, minute, ragged sepals, two ex- 
terior distinct linear petals, and two others, which hold 
flrmly together at the points ; there are six stamens united 
into two parcels, and the ovary is a ono-celled case with one 
or many seeds, whose pUcentatioQ is parietal ; finally, the 
seeds consist principally of albumen, in which then ripens 
a very small embryo. FUmaria oficinaii* is one of the 
commonest of weeds ; many are objects of cultivatiou by 
the gardener for the sake of their showy flowers ; all are 
reputed diaphoreltcs. Tbayonty inhabit the cooler parla of 
the world, alike avoiding extreme* of heat or cold. It it 
probable that notwithaianding the divenitr of tbeir &ppesr- 
ancu they are only alow insular form of Papavetaoen. 



l-t^lvo irlnlBi •Uinau, KBd vUlil ; V. « tkfBtUuAskl ■KlkwoTtkaDTtrT I 
■. > IniifiiiiiliBd iKtiga at ■ mmi. •bmtBi Iba tnrj : lU ■>» «r Wh b^ 

FUMIGATION is tho application of the rapour or 
fumes from metallic or other preparationt to the body, with 



n of healing either generally, or particular nai 
t of hot tinegar, burning sulphur, and of a 
c vegetable matters, have been long used to counteract 



The vapours of hot v. 



unpleasant or unwholesome smells: this ia effected chiefly 
by the formation uf such at are stronger. The most im. 
portant kind of fiimigation is that which consists in the 
omplo>ment of tuch vapours or gases ai do not merely de- 
stroy unhuallhy odour* bv exciting such as are more power 
ful, but which by their chemical action convert daogerout 
miasmata into innocuous matter. 

The fumigation of the Dist kind, that which is intended 
to produce a beating effect, is now much lest employed than 
formerly : Mill, huvever, the bisulphuret of mercury is oc- 
casion aUy used in vapour, asuhat is termed a mercurial 
fbmigation, in certain forms of syphilis. The use of vinegar, 
of tranuio pMtilles, and even Uw smoke gf burning braim 



t P U M 

pap«r, whieh constitute the aecond kind of Aimigatani, does 
not requireany particular notice: IheiroperalioDcan hardly 
be regarded as any other than thai of substituting one 
smell br another. In the last kind of (bmigaiion thi«e 
substances have been chielly employed, and in the gaseous 
tiate : first, the vapour of burning sulphur, or sulphurous 
acid gas, muriatic acid eas, nitric scid gas. and cblorina 
gat ; all but the last of these, or at any rale the first and 
second named, appear to have been first used and recom- 
mended by Dr. Jamea Johnstone of Worcester, about the 
year 1758; in 1773 Ouyton de Morveau also mentioned 
the application of rauriatie and nitrio acid gases, and in 
18D2 their use was still fiinher extended by Dr. J.C.Smith, 
who received a public mnuneration aa the discoverer, which 
he certainly was not 

Chlorine gas, which is undoubtedly preferable to any dis- 
infeclanl, was fljst recommended by Dr. Rollo, who pub- 
lished a work on diabetet in 1 797 ; he liberated the gas by 
the usual method of mixing sulphuric acid, binoxide of 
manganese, and common salt When it is desirable to pro- 
duce a great eSect in a abort time, this ia still unquestmn- 
■bh' the b«st mode of proce»ding. 

We shall give an abalract of the mode adopted by Hr. 
Faraday in himigating the Penitentiary at Milbank in 
181S. iQuarUrh/ Journal, yolT^iiL, p. 93.) 

The space requiring Aimigation amounted to nearly 
3,000,000 cubic feet; and the Burhc« of the walla, floors, 
ceilings. Sec, was about 1,200,000 square feet This turlace 
was principajly ttone and brick, most of which bad been 
lime-washed. A ijuantity of salt reduced to powder was 
mixed with an equal weight cf binoxide of manganese, and 
upon Ibis mixture wore poured two parts of suiphuric acid, 
previously diluted with one part of water, and cold. The 
acid and water were mixed in a wooden tub, the water 
being first put in, and it being n 
than to weigh the water and acid, b 
and nine of acid were used ; half the acid was first u>cd, 
and when the mixture had cooled the remainder was added. 

Into common red earthen pans, each capable of holding 
about a gallon, were put 3j lbs. of tho mixed salt and man* 
^nosc, and there was then added such a measure of tlit- 
diluted acid as weighed 4) lbs.; the mixture was wi'll 
stirred and then left to itself^ and all apertures were well 
slopped. The action did not commence immediately, to 
that there was sufficient time for the operator to go from 
pan to pan without inconvenience. On entering a gallery 
ISO feet in length, a few minute* afler the mixture ba^ 
been made, the general difi\uion of chlorine was sufficiently 
evident; in half on hour it was often almost impossibk- to 
enter, and frequently on looking along the gallery the )clluw 
tint of the atmosphere could easily be perc4>ived. Up lo 
thu fifth day the colour of the chlorine could generally be 
obsencd in the buildintj; after the sixth day the nans were 
removed, thoueh sometimes with difficulty, and Ine gallery 
thus fumigated bad its windows and doors thrown u|>on. 
The charge contained in each pan was eslimatfd to Jield 
about bi cubic feet of chlorine gas ; in fumigating a tpa<'>: 
of 2,000,000 cubic feet About 700 lbs. of common salt and 
the same of binoxide of manganese were employed : and it 
will appear by a slight calculation, that about 1710 cubic 
feet of chlorine wet« employed to disinfect this space. In 
common cases, Mr. Faraday conceives that about or.r- 
half to one-faurth of this quantity of chlorine would be suf- 
ficient 

When any cause is continually recurring, and in some 
cases almost imperceptibly so, the cbloride of lime or sodj, 
and especially of the former, has been within a few yvan 
successfully employed by M. Labairaque; the exact nature 
of these compounds is still under discussion, but the chlo- 
ride of lime is a substance well known and extensively em- 
ployed under the name of bleacbing-powder. 

Wo shall relate a few experiments performed by H. Gual- 
tier de Claubry, illustrative of the mode in which these sub- 
stances produce their effects. A solution of cbloride of 
lime exposed to the air for about two months, ceased to 
acl upon litmus, contained no chlorine, but a precipitate waa 
formed in it which consisted entirely of carbixiale of lime, 
without any admixture of chloniie ; it was therefore evident 
that the carbonic acid of the atmosphcTe had deoorapoaed 
the chloride of lime, evolved the tdibrine, and precipitated 
the lime. That ibis was the case was proved by pMting 
atmoapheric air through a aolutioo of potash, before it waa 
nuda to MToiM on* of ehlotido of line ; ia tkii mm Um 



vvv 



Cfi 



PU'N 



potash MpanKMtIieearboiiie«dd,M that no ehloiiiie ms 
evolved from the solution of chloride of lime, nor was any 
precipitate formed in it ; in fkct no change whatever oe- 
curred. That it was the caifoonic aeid which prodneed this 
effect, was Airther proved hy passing a current of thia gas 
into a solution of chloride of lime ; hy Mb it loat its hleach- 
ing power, the whole of the chlorine was expelled, and all 
the ume converted into oarhonate» 

In order to show the manner in which these compounds 
of chlorine a.nd lime, and of chlorine and soda, act on putrid 
miasmata floating in the air. some further experiments were 
made in the following manner t^Air was passed through 
hlood which had heen left to putrefy for eif^ht days; being 
then passed through a solution of the chloride of lime, car- 
bonate of lime was deposited, and the air was rendered in- 
odorous and eompletefy purified. In a second similar ex- 
periment the fetia air was passed through a saturated solu- 
tion of potash before it arrived at the solution of chloride of 
lime; the latter had then no effect upon it, and the air re- 
tained its insupportable odour ; this huipened eridentiy be* 
cause the carbonic acid, which would otherwise have evolved 
chlorine to have acted upon the putrid matter, was absorbed 
by the potash. Another experiment was made with air left 
for twenty-four hours over putrescent blood ; the portion of 
it which was passed directly through the chloride was per** 
fectly purified, but when preriousl^ flreed from caibonio 
acid the chloride had no effect upon tt 

These experiments sufficiently prove that the carbonio 
acid in the air, arising from the various sources of respirao 
tion, oombustbn, and the decomposition of animal and ve-* 
getable matter, liberates the chlorine tnm its combination 
with lime or soda ; and as this action is slow, the chlorine, 
though scareelv susceptible of affecting the animal eco* 
nomy, readily decomposes putrid miasmata. It is therefore 
true frimigation by chlorine, only it is less violent than that 
effected by the rapid evolution of the gas, and it continues 
for a longer time. 

It is to be observed that chloride of lime is used in solu* 
tion, and is obtained by dissolving one part of bleaching 
powder in about 100 times its weight of water, and allowing 
the solution to bec<Hne clear. This is to be exposed to in- 
fected air, or in rooms which have any unpleasant odour, 
in flat vessels, in order that a sufficient surface may be acted 
upon. If it should be required, the operation may be quick- 
ened by the addition of a little vinegar, or of muriatic acid 
largely diluted. In some cases, where the disagreeable 
smell is extremely strong, and where it would be difficult 
to expose a solution to slow action, it may be thrown into 
the place, or the powder may be used, the action of which 
would be more gradual and effectual. Chloride of soda is 
prepared onlv in solution ; the process is given in the last 
edition of toe London Pharmacopceia : it is however less 
easily obtained than the chloride of lime, is more expen- 
sive, and not in any respect preferable ; the solution is then 
called liquor sodse chlorinatse. 
FUNCHAL. [Madeira.] 

FUNCTIONS. CALCULUS OP. By the term fync 
tion of a quantity is meant any algebraical expression, or 
other quantity expressed, alsebraically or not, which de- 
pends for its value upon the first Thus the circumference 
of a circle is a function of the radius ; the expression 
(<!*— ac*) (4^ + y*) is a function of a, 6, x, and y. For the 
distinctive names of functions, see Transcendental 
and Algebraical. 

All algebra is, in one sense, a calculus of functions ; but 
the name is peculiarly appropriate, and always given, to 
that branch of investigation in which the form of a function 
is the thing sought, and not its value in any particular case, 
nor the conditions under which it mav have a particular 
value. [Equations, Functional.] For instance, • What 
is that function of x which, being multiplied by the same 
funetion of y, shall give the same function of a? + y / *— is 
a question of the calculus of Functions. 

Various isolated questions connected with this calculus 
have been treated, from the time of Newton downwards, 
particularly by Lagrange, Laplace, Monge, and Suler. But 
the direct solution of functional equations, or at least the 
first attempt to form general methods in the case of func- 
tions of a single variable, appears to have been made by 
Mr. Babbage and Sir J. Herschel (1810-1813). To the 
treatise entitled ' Examples of the Calculus of Differences,' 
by the latter, the former anpended another, containing ex- 
amples of the solutions of nmctional equations. This last. 



and fbB artie^, * Oaleiflus of Fonctioni.* in the 'Xneyclo* 
psdia Metropolitana,' are the only formal treatises on the 
sulyect, of wnich we know. 

A function of c is denoted by fx, ^x, xx,fx, Fx, «:r, 
&c,v &e., the first letter being a symbol of an operation to 
be performed. Thus, ¥/x denotes that when the operation 
signified by /has been performed upon x, that signified by 
F is performed upon the result. When the same operation 
is repeated, the results may be denoted hy /x,Jtx,///x, 
&c., which may be abbreviated into /x, /*x, /»x, &c. Fur 
different points of interest connected with the relations of 
functional forms, see Periodic; Inyxrsb. 

FUNCTIONS, THEORY OF, a name given by La- 
grange to a view of the principles of the Differential Cal- 
culus» of which we have expressed our opinion in the article 
DiFFXRBNTiAL Calculus. The works of Lagrange, in 
which its details are to be found, are ' Th^orie des Fonc- 
tions Analytiques,' first edition, 1797 ; second edition, 1813 ; 
and ' Le9ons sur le Oalcul des Fonctions,' of which the first 
edition is volume 10 of the 'Lecons de TEcole Normale 
(1801), and the second was published in 1806. 

Taking Lagrange's intention to have been the proof that 
algebra, as it existed in his time, was sufficient to demon- 
strate the principles of the Differential Calculus without the 
introduction of limits, we have only to remark that the end 
is completely attained. [Differential Calculus.] It is 

Slain to any one acquainted with that calculus, that a 
emonstration of Taylor's Theorem being once attained, all 
the rest follows. We now proceed to look at the proof of 
this theorem given by Lagrange, with reference to absolute 
correctness or incorrectness. 

La^nge first attempts to prove that eveiT function fx 
has this property, that ^{x + n) can be expanded in a series 
of the form 

^(a? -f A) = fc -*- AA + BA« + CA» -I- 

He says, firstly, that no negative powers of h can enter the 
expansion, for if such were the case ^ (:r + 0), instead of 
being ^x, would be infinite. This is true as to any finite 
number of negative powers of h, but does not exclude an 
infinite series of negative powers. For instance, 

1 I X ^ 

+ 



iT + A 



h* 



X' 



when h- 0, a// the terms become infinite, but the first side 
of the equation is not infinite. Secondly, he assumes that 
there cannot be fractional powers of h, for if such were the 
case, there must be fractional powers in the original 
functbn ^, and if ^x had m different values, and if 

p 
Kh* were one of the terms of the development, the n values 
of this latter, combined with the m values of ^x, would give 
mn different values io^ix + h), instead of m. In answer 
to this it may be asked how is it known, d priori, that 
there must be a series of powers of h, every value of which 
is an expansion of (a? + A)? May it not possibly be true 
that there is an expression of the form 

m n 

^(a? + A) » ^0? + AA«+ BA* + . . . . 

whioh is true under certain conditions, determining which 
of the values of the several terms are to be taken ? Thirdly, 
he assumes that (having thus obtained a series, in which 
only whole powers of A are found) the supposition A = u 
must reduce it to its first term ; an assumption which can 
only be admitted of such a series as M + AA + BA« + . . . . 
when it can be made convergent by giving sufficiently 
small values to A. 

Having once proved or assumed that ^(x + h) can be 
expanded in a series of the form ^ + AA + BA* + . . . 
the proof of Taylor's Theorem, given by Lagrange, does 
not differ from the common one. He calls A the derived 
function of^a*, and denotes it by ^'x: generally, if changing 
X into x + h change P into P + P'A -f . . . .f P' is the de- 
rived function of P. The derived function of ^V, denoted 
by f"x, is called the second derived function of fx, and so 
on. By changing x into a? + A, ^ (a? -i- A), or ^ -I- AA + 
BA* -h . . •• becomes 

(^a?-h«'a?^+ ..) + (A + A'A+..)A + (B + B'A + ..)A« 

I • • • • . 

and by changing A into A + A, f (j; + A) becomes 
ft + A(A + A) + B(A+A)«+ .... 



F U'N 



IB 



PUN 



ThaM must be the saroe, since both repivent f (a?+ A + A) : 
and by nnuating the terms which contain the fini poweri of 
A, ve find 

f'x + A'A + B7*« + \ , . = A + 2BA + . . . • 
whence A = ^'t. 2B = A' = ^"x, and so on. The reader 
will recognise in this process the proof frequently given by 
means of the preliminary lemma, that if 

du du 

The works of Laji^nge on this subject, though defectire 
in their fundamental positions, except upon the explana- 
tion given in Differential Calculus, yet abound in new 
and useful details, given with all the elegance for which 
his writings are distinguished: and the student will find 
them well worth his attention. 

FUNDAMENTAL BASE, in music is the lowest note 
of the Perfect Chord, or Triad, as the Germans call it, and 
of the chord of the 7th : hence it is the root of all real 
chords; — for chords not derived from either the perfect 
chord or that of the 7 th, are considered as suspensions or 
retardations ; or, to speak in unaffected language, the dis- 
cordant notes of wnich they are composed are simply 
appogiaturas. [Chord.] 

The following will show the two Fundamental Chords^ 
and their inversions, with the continued [Continued], or 
ordinarv base^ and the Fundamental Base* 




C§ntiny<rd Bate. 




Fundatncntal Bau, 



Tills term is not the best that might have been chosen ; 
tho same meaning i^ much better conveyed by the word 
radirai, introduced, wo beliuvo, by Dr. CalU'ott. Tlie 
systnn of tlio Funclanjenial Base, founded on harmonics, 
and a continual addition of thirdi to the triad, is indebted 
for its origm to Rameau» the celebrated French composer 
[R\MRAu]. nnd \ias once almost universally received. 
D'Aleinbcrt wrote a book to explain and eulogize it, and 
Marpurg, a most distin<^uishcd tiieorist, adopted it in his 
Ihvuiburh hey dem Generalbasse, But though it may be 
rendered in some degree 6er>'iceablo in the analysis of 
chords, it is in more than one respect erroneous, and 
the rules drawn from it by its author would cruelly fetter 
genius, were they allowed to exert any influence on the 
composition of music. Rameau*s once vaunted system b 
now therefore entirely laid aside, even in the country 
that guve it birth. 

FUNDS and FUNDING SYSTEM. [National 
Debt.] 

FUNDY, BAY OF, is the most extensive gulf on the 
eastern coast of North America, between Cape Florida and 
tho mouth of the St. Laurence river. It separates Nova 
Srotia from New Brunswick, and lies between 44^ and 4G° 
N. Iftt. and 63* and 67' W. long. Its direction is from 
cast-north-cast to west- south-west ; its entrance is at the 
W(«st-south-wcstern extrcmitv. 

This entrance is formed by Brier Island, on the side of 
Nova Scotia and Quoddy Head, on the mainland ; a straight 
line between theso two points passes through the island of 
Grand Manan, which lies about 8 or 9 miles from Quoddy 
point, and 35 miles from Brier Island. In this part the 
bny is about oQ miles wide ; but it narrows by degrees to 
about 30 miles and less, after which it again attains a width 
of between 30 and 35 miles, which breadth it nrcscrves for 
the greatr«^t part of its extent, the shores of No\*a Scotia 
and New Brunswick running nearly parallel. Towards its 
inner extremity it is divided, by a bold headland terminat- 
ing wi:h Cape Chignecto, into two smaller bays, of which 
one extends due cast, and is called the Bay of Minas ; the 



other, preserving the east-north-eastern direction, is named 
Chignecto Bay. The whole length of the Bay of Fundy ii 
about 180 milea. 

Both shores of the large bay are rocky and bold, but 
especially so on the side of Nova Sootia, where a chain of 
hills, probably not lesa than 500 feet above the tea, 
rises at a short distance from the coast. The entrances, 
both of the Bay of Minas and of Chignecto, are likewise 
rocky ; but in the interior the shores ate low, sandy, and 
flat. 

The navigation of the bay is both difficult and danf^r- 
ous, on account of the great strength of the tide and the 
prevailing fogs. The tide rises to a great height, some- 
times seventy feet, and flows with great rapidity, running 
at the entrance about three miles an hour, increasing 
as it advances to more than seven, and at length rushing 
with great impetuosity into the bays of Minas and Chig- 
necto. Fogs cover the bay when the wind blows from iHe 
east and south-east, or from the Atlantic ; and during their 
prevalence many vessels are cast on the rocky shores by tho 
violence of the tides. 

The Bav of Minas has been united with Halifax Har- 
bour, which is situated on the Atlantic side of Nova Sootia» 
by a canal fifty-four miles long, and capable of receiving 
vessels which draw only eight feet of water. It is called 
the Shubenacadie Canal. Another canal was projeeteda few 
years ago, which was to connect the most northern cor- 
ncr of Chignecto Bay, called Cumberland Basin, with Nor- 
thumberland Strait. This strait separates Prince Edward 
Island from New Brunswick and Nova Sootia, and one of 
its bays, called Bay Vertc, is separated firom Cumberland 
Basin only by an isthmus eleven miles across. The advan- 
tages of such a canal are obvious ; but we are not awaro 
that it has been executed. (M'Gregor*s Britieh America ; 
Bouchette's British Dominions in North America,) 

FUNEN, or FUHNEN (in Danish Fyen), a • stiff or 
province of Denmark, consisting of the islands of Fiiix'n, 
Langeland, Taasing, and several islets. It has an arta 
of 1286 square miles, and a population of about 160,000 ( in 
1801, 121,3*8), and is divided into the two circles or baili- 
wicks of Odense and Svendborg, which contain 3 earldoms, 
4 baronies, 9 towns, and 201 parishes. It is a bishop's ^ec•, 
and is subdivided into 15 minor circles or hcrredcr, in 
which there are 180 s^eignorial estates. The soil is a layer 
of rich loam on a substratum of clay or sand : it has some 
hills, but no streams deserving tho name of rivers. The 
produce is grain, vegetables, flax, &c., and great numWrs 
of horses and cattle are reared. The whole of the to\vn^ 
are in the island of Fiincn, with the exception of Rudkici- 
bing, in the island of lAngeland, a place of much trailc, with 
about 250 houses and 1500 inhabitants. 

FUNEN, or FYEN. an island situated in the Baltic, 
between the eastern coast of the duchy of Schleswis and 
of Jiitland, and the western shores of the island of Seelantl, 
from which parts it is separated by the Groat and Little 
Belts, between 55' 2' and 55" 47' N. lat. and 9* 46' and 
10* 51' E. long. Its area is about 1176 Si|uare miles, and 
its population, which was 91,333 in 1769, is at pre^fiit 
about 1 44,000. The surface is a level, varied by hills in the 
southern districts, but they never rise above 500 feet. The 
north-east of the island is deeoly indented with bays of tho 
Kattegat, particularly the ' Odense (lord,* and is more uiii- 
form and less wooded than the south. The soil is in gene- 
ral rich and productive. Fiinen abounds in small streams, 
here called Aas, and lakes: the most considerable lakes 
are those of Arreskov, Brendegards, and Juulbyc. Tlic 
canal of Odense, which commences at Odense and termi- 
nates at Skibhusene, on the Odense fiord, is about twj 
miles and a half in length, ton feet deep, and fifty feet in 
breadth at the surface. The climate is damp and variable, 
but milder than that of Sceland. About 610,000 acres are 
arable and meadow land. The principal crops are barley, 
oats, and buckwheat, and the quantity of grain annually 
exported amounts to about 100,000 quarters. Much flax and 
hemp are raised, and the growth of hops exceeds 2300 cwt& 
yearly. With the exception of potatoes, the cultivation of 
vegetables is limited, but the orchards are numerous, and an 
iniorior kind of cider is made. About 78,600 acres are 
occnnied by woods and forests, which> with the peat-moom, 
supply fuel. The Fiinen breed of horses is much soui;bt 
after, and the stock of the island, including that of Langc- 
land, is upwards of 42,000: that of hom«l cattle it about 



FUN 



17 



PUN 



81,000, and of sheep, mwtly of improTod breeds, 90,000. 
Tt is estimated that upwards of 20,000 swine are fed. 
Honey and wax are regular articles of exportation. There 
IS no game besides hares and rabbits, but a great quantity 
of wild-ibwl and poultry, especially geese. The fisheries 
are productive. The only minerals are freestone, chalk, 
and limeftone. There are no manufiicturing establish- 
ments ; the peasantry however are industrious operatives 
under their own roo&, and make their own woollen and 
linen yam, stockings, and clothing. The townspeople pre- 
pare leather and manufacture brandy. Gloves are made 
at Odense, and woollens and linens are printed at Svend- 
borg. 

The exports of Funen consist of com, peme, brandy, 
apples, horses, oxen, butter, salted meat, tallow, hides, hops, 
linen, honey, and wax. Odense, which by its canal lias a 
direct access to the sea, is the great trading mart of the 
island. There is a good road from Middeuahrt to this 
town ; but the roads are in general very bad. The people 
of Funen are, like their neighbours, somewhat indolent and 
shy of work, as well as phlegmatic : they are however an 
honest, sound-hearted race. Their religion is the Lu- 
theran. 

The principal towns in Fiinen are Odense, the capital 
and episcopal residence, pleasantly situated, and reputed to 
be the most antient town in Denmark ; in 55** 25' N. lat., 
and 10° 22' E. long. It has about 1100 houses, and 8600 
inhabitants. Here are a royal palace, built by Frederick 
IV., a townhall, four churches (of which that of St Canute 
is a noble Gothic pile, erected eight centuries ago, and 
containipg the mausolea of St. Canute, Erichslaf, John, and 
Christian HI., kings of Denmark and Norway), a chapter 
seminary, gymnasium, theatre, two public libraries, hospi- 
tal, house of correction, &c. Assens, on the western coast, 
at the entrance into the Little Belt, another old town, has 
an indifferent harbour, a townhall, one church, about 350 
houses, and 2330 inhabitants. Bogense, on the north 
coast, the smallest town in the province, has one church, 
about 250 houses, and 1000 inhabitants. Kierteminde, 
beautifully situated on a bight of the Great Belt, which is 
crossed by a large wooden bridge, has one church, a 
school, two hospitals, about 260 houses, and 1500 inhabit- 
ants. Middelfahrt, on the Little Belt, has a townhall, 
church, hospital, school, about 240 houses, and 1300 inha- 
bitants, and a ferry about a mile across to Snoghoi on the 
Jutland coast Svendborg, the chief town of tim bailiwick 
of this name, is at the south-eastern extremity of Fiinen, 
on an arm of the Baltic which separates that island from 
Taasing ; in 55*" 5' N. lat and lO"* 38' B. long. It has two 
churches, a townhall, three schools, about 350 houses, and 
3400 inhabitants, and exports much grain, &c. Nyeborg, 
a fortified town on the eastern coast, contains the remains of 
the palace in which the kings of Denmark held Uieir 
courts and national diets, with a church, townhall, several 
schools, a hospital and an infirmary, about 300 houses, and 
2900 inhabitants. The Swedes were totally defeated by the 
Danes under its walls in 1659. And lastly, Faaboig, in 
the south-west is a small town with about 260 houses and 
1500 inhabitants, a handsome church, 8cc., and a good 
harbour on an arm of the Little Belt protected at its en- 
trance by the three islands of Lyoe, Avernaiiie, and 
Biomoe. 

FUNERAL, the performance of the rites of sepulture or 
burial; generally supposed to be derived from the Latin 
funis, a torch* because, at least in the Roman times, 
funerals were sometimes performed by torch-light Others 
derive the- word from phonos i^vog), ' slaughter,* as desig- 
nating death. 

The Egyptians are among the earliest people of whose 
religious ceremonies we have authentic accouirts, more par- 
ticularly in what related to their dead. Upon this occasion 
the pasents and friends of the deceased put on mourning 
habits, and abstained from gaiety and entertainments. The 
mourning lasted from forty to seventy days, during which 
time the body was embalmed ; and, when the process was 
completed, placed in a sort of chest, which was afterwards 
preserved either in their houses or in the sepulchres of their 
ancestors. Before the dead were allowed to be deposited in 
a tomb, they underwent a solemn judgment, upon an un- 
&vourabIe issue of wbich they were deprived of the rite of 
burial. 

The mourning customs of tbe antient Jews can only be 
collected from an examination of the Prophets and other parts 
P. C No. 660. 



of Scripture. That tbey sometimes burnt the body is clear , 
but burial in a sepulchre was the more general fashion. 
The circumstances attending the burial of Uie dead among 
the modem Jews are minutely detailed by D. Levi, in his 
' Succinct Account* of their Rites and Ceremonies, p. 162- 
170. 

The funeral rites of the Greeks and Romans have been 
collected vrith great research by Guichard in his ' FunS^ 
railles, et diverges Manidres d'ensevelir des Romains, Grecs^ 
et aiitres Nations,' 4to., Lyon, 1581 ; by Meursius, m his 
treatise 'De Funere Grrocorum et Romanorum,' 12mo., 
Hag. Com. 1604 ; by Gutherius, ' De Jure Manium, seu de 
Ritu, More, et Legibus prisci Funeris,' 12mo., Par., 1615# 
reprinted in 4to., 1615, and again in 8vo., Lips., 1671 ; and 
by Kirchman, * De Funeribus Romanorum Libri IV.,' 
12mo., Hamb., 1605, and Lugd. Bat, 1672. See also the 
' Ceremonies Fundbres de toutes Nations,' par le Sr. Maret 
12mo., Par., 1677. 

In the religious creed both of the Greeks and Romans, 
sepulture was peculiarly an act of piety toward the dead, 
without which it was supposed the departed spirit could not 
reach a place of rest To be deprived of the proper rites 
was considered the greatest misfortune. The funeral rites 
of the Greeks and Romans were in many respects similar* 
and among both nations the practice prevailed of burning 
the dead and collecting the ashes in urns. In the case of 
public funerals, according to Servius*s Commentary on 
Virgil, the deceased was kept seven or eight days, and 
every day washed with hot water, or sometimes with 
oil, that in case he were only in a slumber he might 
be waked ; and at stated intervals his friends meeting made 
a shout with the same view : this was called conclamatio. 
On the seventh dav, if no signs of life appeared, he was 
dressed and placea on a couch in the vestibule, with 
the feet outwards, as if about to take his departure. In 
the course of these seven days, an altar was raised near the 
bed-side, called acerrat on which the friends offered incense. 
The scene here described is frequently represented in an- 
tient bas-reliefs. (See the TowrUey Marbles, vol. ii^ pp. 167, 
228, &c.) On the seventh day the last ' conclamatio^ ended, 
when the couch and body were carried to the rostra, where 
the nearest of kin pronounced the funeral oration, and 
afterwards to the funeral pile. The body having been con- 
sumed, the ashes were gathered, inclosed in an urn, and 
finally laid in the sepulchre or tomb. An apotheosis or 
canonization was frequently part of the funeral ceremony 
of the emperor. 

The Magi among the Medes and Persians neither burned 
nor buried their dead, but left them to birds of prey or 
dogs. (Herod, i., 140; Strabo, 735, 746.) Chardin, in his 
"Iravels,' vol. ii., p. 186, has given a full description of a 
modem Persian cemetery; and Niebuhr describes the 
Parsees near Bombay as still exposing their dead after 
the antient fashion mentioned in Herodotus. (Niebuhr, 
Beisebeschreibung, ii., 50.) ' Tacitus, in his treatise ' De 
Moribus Grermanorum,' (c. 27) notices the simplicity of the 
funerals among the antient Ciermans. Like the Romans, 
they burned their dead. «The things which a German va- 
lued most were his arms and his horse : these were added 
to the funeral pile, with a persuasion that the deceased 
would have the same pursuits in bis new state of existence. 

In the tomb of CSiilderic, king of the Franks, his spear, 
his sword, with his other warlike weapons, and even his 
horse's head, were found. (See Montifaucon, Monumens 
de la MonarcMe Franpoise, tom. i., p. 10.) 

Lafitau, Charlevoix, and other travellers describe the 
same notions of a future state and the same funeral cere- 
monies as prevalent among the savages of America. Dr. 
Robertson {Hist, of Amer., voL ii., b. 4) says, as they ima- 
gine that departed spirits begin their career anew in the 
world whither they are gone, they bury together with the 
bodies of the dead, their bow, their arrows, and other wea- 
pons used in hunting or war ; they deposit in their tomb 
the skins or stuffs of which they make garments, ludian 
corn, venison, domestic utensils, and whatever is reckoned 
among the necessaries in their simple mode of life. 

For the funeral rites of the early Christians, the reader 
may consult Gretser ' De Funere Christiano,' 4to., Ingolst., 
1611 ; and he may learn the customs of a later period from 
Durand, who wrote his ' Rationale Divinorum Otliciorum* 
in the twelfth century. 

Brand, in his ' Popular Antiquities,* vol. ii., p. 139 to 212, 
has much upon the English ceremonials, beginning with 

Vol. XI. — D 



FUN 



18 



PUN 



• Watching vith ihe Dead/ eaDed in tbe north of Sngstdd 
the Lake- Wake; he then prooeeda with 'Layinfi^ ottt or 
streaking the Body ;' settiDg salt or candles upon it ; fune- 
ral entertainments; sin-eatefs; mortuaries; allowing the 
corpbe to the grare. and carrying e>crgreena, torches and 
li{(hts at funerals ; hlack used in mourning ; the pall and 
ander-bearen ; doles and donatk»ns to tbe poor at lunerals ; 
ehurch-yards ; garlands in churches; and strewing flowers 
upon grares. 

Strutt'ft * If annere and Customs,* and Gougli's ' Sepul* 
chral Monumenu of Great Brttain.' are other works to 
which the rsader may refer for the antient funeral rites of 
Bngland. 

Funeral entertainments^ called siliccmta and cceme 
feraUs by the Romans, are of very antient date. They are 
still kept up in the north of England, and are there called 
arrals or arvils. Among some extracts from the Berkeley 
Manuscripts, we read that * From the death of Maurice, the 
fourth Lord Berkeley, which happened June 8th, 1368, 
until his interment, the reeve of his manor of Hinton spent 
three quarters and seven bushels of beans in fatting one 
hundred geese towards his fiineral. and divers other reeves 
of manors the like, in geese, ducks, and other poultry.' 
Walsingham, speaking of those who attended Richard II.*s 
funeral at Langley, in 1399, says, 'Nee erat qui eos in- 
vitaret ad prandium post laborcro.' (Hi$t., p. 405.) Shak- 
spearo has a well-known allusion to these feasts in Hamlet, 
act i^ sc. 2 : 

* Th« Amoral biik4«d mmtt 
Did eoMly fhrniah furUi lk« marriage tablet.* 

FUNERAL ORATIONS, discourses at funerals, are of 
great antiquity. The second book of Thucydides (c. 35, 
&o.) contains the laboured harangue delivered by Pericles 
at the solemn funeral ceremony instituted in honour of 
thotse Athenians who fell at the beginning of the Pelopon- 
nesian war ; and other similar orations are extant in Greek. 
Augustus, at the early age of twelve, performed this office 
for his grandmother, and afterwards, wnen emperor, for the 
young Marcellus. Tacitus tells us that Nero pronounced 
a funeral oration over his wife Poppea. Funeral orations 
were equally common over Christian martyrs ; and Durand, 
in his ' Rationale,' already referred to, says, ' Ceterum 
priusquam corpus hnmo injects eontegatur, defunctua 
oratione funebri laudabatur.' Fuller, in his 'Appeal of 
injured Innocence,' (part iii., p. 75.) and Mu<son, in his 
' Travels in England,' show the continnance of this practice 
to the close of tne seventeenth century. Gay alludes to it 
m his * Dirge :' 

* Twmty irood shilHoi^ in a raf I lalil. 
Be Cm Uie panoo's for hie aermoa paid.* 

T%i practice of delivering what may be properly called 
funeral orations, that is, addresses over the grave or at tbe 
interment of the dead by laymen, is common among the 
French, and is not unfreouent on great occasions among 
the people of the United States. 

FUNERAL SHOWS or GAMES frequently followed 
public fUnerals among the Greeks and Romans. An early 
example of this occurs in the funeral games celebrated by 
Achilles in honour of Patroclus. (Homer. /A'oct.) As the 
dead were supposed to be delighted with blood, various 
animals, especially such as the deceased had been fond of, 
were slaughtered at the pile, and thrown into it ; and, in 
still ruder times, captives or slaves. Among the Romans, 
trladiators, called buttuarii, were made to fight. Junius 
B.utus exhibited gladiators at his father's funeral; and the 
* Adelphi' of Terence, at a later period, was produced for tlie 
fiist time at the funeral of Lucius ilSmilius Paulus. 

FUNFKIRCHEN (in Hungarian Pece, and in the 
national records Quinque Ecclesies), an old town in the 
county of Baranya in Hungary, and the seat of provincial 
admmistration, consists of a single street built at the foot 
of the lofty Mount Metshek, and at the edge of a rich and 
extensive valley, in 46° 5' N. lat and IS** 16' B. long. So- 
\ vman, the Turkish sultan, who resided here, was wont to 
call it ' the Pamdise of the Earth.' The number of houses 
is about 2000, and the population is about 1 l,d00. This 
town oontauia several handsome buildings, an episcopal 
palace, an ecclesiastical seminary, a gymnasium, a cathedral 
standing on high ground (the bite of a Roman castelhma), 
and said to be the oldest in Hungary, a fine, massively- 
butlt church of the Jesuits, several churches, some of which 
were formerly Turkibh mosques, a public library and cabi- 



Tieinity at^ mttitfa of exeellent ooal, and some alum and 
vitriol works, as well as extensive \-ineyards. Large quan- 
tities of grain and tobacco are grown about Fiinfliirehir). 
and much rape-seed is raised for making oiL The trade </f 
the town is chiefly in the produce of the country, and in 
leather, which is manufectured here, and in great request 
throughout Hungary. There are mineral springs and 
baths. Some have supposed that the Roman colony Ser« 
binum was planted on thia spot It was in the hands of 
the Tnrks from 1543 to 1686, and is the place of aaiembly 
for the provincial states. 

FUNGL Under this name botanists comprehend not 
only the various races of mushrooms, toadstools, and simi- 
lar productions, but a large number of microscopic plants 
forming the appearances called mouldiness, miloew, smut, 
rust, brand, dry-rot, &c. Notice has been occasionally 
taken of these plants under their respective heads ; in this 
place some general account will be given of thomas a large 
natural order. 

Nothing can well be more different than the extremes of 
development of Fungi, if the highest and the lowest fbrms 
are contrasted ; as for example, the large fleshy Boleti, whicb 
inhabit the trunks of trees, and the microscopic mould' 
plants, composed of threads much too delicate to be distin- 
guished by the naked eye. Nevertheless, it turns out upon 
inquiry that the latter is only a simple form of the former, 
or, in other words, that a tioletus is merely an enormous 
aggregation of the vegetable tissue constituting a Mucor. 
developed upon the same plan, subject to the same iutlu- 
enoes, possessing a similar chemical charaeter, and propa- 
gating by means which are altogether analogoua. 

Viewed with relerenee to their whole extent, the plants 
of this order may he described as cellnlar or filamentous 
bodies, having a concentrio mode of development, often 
when foil grown almost amorphous, absorbing oxygen ond 
exhaling carbonic acid, and propagating either by means of 
microscopic granules, which are lodged in particular reccp 
tacles, or by a dissolution of their whole tissue. 

That they are cellular or filamentous may be easily 
ascertained by examining them with even an indifferent 
microscope ; perhaps they might be even simply described 
as cellular, for their filamentous tissue seems nothing but 
cells drawn out. Sometimes, as in the genua Uredo, ihey 
consist of spheroidal cells, having bttle connection with 
each other, each cell containing propagating matter, and all 
separating firom each other in the form of a fine powdrr 
when ripe : the smnt in com is of thk nature ; or, as in 
CylindroBporimn, the cells are truncated cylindm not 
adhering, to far as we can see, and separating in Uke man- 
ner when ripe. In plants of a more advanced organiza- 
tion, as the genus Monilia, the constituent cells are con- 
nected in series, which preserve their spherical fomv and alsi » 
contain their own reproductive matter; while in such 
plants as Aspergillas the cells i>artly combine inter thread-^ 
forming a stem, and partly preserve their spheroidal fonu 
for the fructification (/jr. 24). From adhering in simplo 
series, the structure of Fungi advances to a combination of 
such series into strata, whence result the various kindd of 
dry-rot, thick leathery expansions developing amidst derat- 
ing timber ; a more complicated form is thence produced 
in the form of puff-balls, truffles, sclerotiums, andihc like, 
in which a figure approaching that of a sphere is the result, 
the reproductive cells being indiscriminately confused iii 
the interior of such plants; and finally, the organisation i^ 
so much complicated, that, independently of a mere aggre- 
gation of tissue, we find envelopes of various kinds fur the 
protection of the propagating mass, as in Agaricns and 
Geastrum, and special receptacles for the propagating^ 
matter, as in Boletus and numerous others. 

It is probable however that in all Fungi, and oertain that 
in most of them» the first development of the plant oonsi«ts 
in what we here call a filamentous mattor, wnich rsdiatc< 
from the centre formed by the spore (or seed), and that all 
the cellular spheroidal appeamnces are subsequently dr\e- 
loped, more especially with a view to the dispersion of il t> 
s|M3cie8. We purposely say dispersion, not multiplicatK»n ; 
for it is certain that the filamentous matter is quite a« 
capable of multiptyino' a fiingus as the cellolsrorspheKmlat. 
This is partly proved oy the common miMtiroom (A}>ariM.^ 
campestris), whose filamentous matt^ is commonly sold, 
under the name of spawn, for tho artificial multiplication «jf 
that species in garoens; aisd mens completely by some 



ttet of coins» two monasteries, two hospitals, &c. , In the J recent experiments of M. Audouin, who found that Usm 



PUN 



19 



PUN 



Botrytis Basaiaaa would inoculate catorfHllan and other 
larv» as readily by minute portions of its spawn as by its 
spores or seedlike spberoidid particles. Although, however, 
there seems so much reason to ascribe the presence of a 
filamentous spawn to all Fungi, yet it is seldom seen by the 
ordinary observer; for it dev^ops out of sight, under 
ground, in the midst of the decaying matter on which Fungi 
so often appear, or through the very substance of living 
matter ; and it is only the aggregation of spheroidal matter 
which we see. It would appear that for the growth of the 
former darkness is necessary, and that the latter is stimu- 
lated into existence by the action, of a feeble quantity of 
light. To apply to these parts familiar and eouivalent 
names, we should say that the stalk or stem radiates in 
dark damp situations, where it is buried from sight, and that 
the spheroidal part or fructification alone is able to develop 
beneath the light of day. The spawn of the mushroom is its 
stem, the muwoom itself is the fructification of the plant 

It is generally believed that spiral cells are unknown in 
Fungi ; Ckirda however, in his recent microscopical work on 
these plants (leones Fkmgorum huciisque cfjgniiorurn, Prag. 
1837), figures them in the senus Trichia, calling them 
elaters, and thus assigning them a nature analogous to 
that of the organs known by the same name in Junger- 
manniaoes and MarohantiacesB. 

The concentric growth of the filamentous stem or spawn 
of Fungi may generally be witnessed in damp cellars, when 
they begin to grow without impediment upon the walls or 
decaying wood. Nothing is more common in such situa- 
tions than to see a beautiful white flocculent matter, which 
a breath almost will dissipate, spreading firom a centre 
ncariy equally in all directions ; such appearances, formerly 
called byssi, nave been ascertained to be the spawn of va- 
rious kinds of Fungi^ the fructification of which is probably 
never developed. Evidence of the existence of a similar 
mode of growth may be found when the spawn itself is not 
visible, as in fields where Fungi so often spring up in circles 
or rings ; this arises from their stem having originally 
spread circularly from its point of origin, and throwu upits 
iVuL'tification at the circuinference of the circle so formed. 

Unlike other plants. Fungi, instead of purifying the air by 
ribbing it of its carbonic acid and restoring the oxygen, 
vitiite it by exhaling carbonic acid and absorbing oxy- 
pen. This has been proved experimentally by Dr. Marcet 
of Geneva ; and (Lindley, Intr. BoL, ed. 2, p. 324) will 
probably explain the cause of Fungi being so universally 
destitute of green colouring matter, which we know re- 
sults from the decomposition of carbonic acid. It afibtds, 
no doubt, an additional argument to those who believe 
that Fungi are an intermediate kingdom between plants 
and animals ; an idea which, like that of believing them 
to be * atoms of vegetable matter combined by the ex- 
piring forces of nature,' we do not think it necessary 
seriously to discuss. That they are not equivocally gene- 
rated is sufficiently proved by each species having its own 
particular kind of seed or spore : a provision that would be 
perfectly unnecessary if the species sprang up out of decay- 
ins^ matter by the mere action of particulu: combinations of 
external forces. To assert the existence of fortuitous crea- 
tions in this class of plants is contrary not onlv to analogy but 
to the plainest evidence. The experimental observer may 
indeed discover that Fungi will regularly develop in one 
kind of chemical mixture and not in another : Dutrochet, 
for example, found that, if he acidulated a weak solution of 
white of eg^, different species of Monilia rapidly formed 
upon it ; while, i£he rendered such a solution slightly alka-- 
line, the genus Botrytis made its appearance, and that the 
solution in its simple state, neither alkalescent nor acidulated, 
produced no Fungi — a remarkable circumstance enough. 
But it would be too much to infer from such an experiment, 
* that invisible germs of a filamentous plant may be created 
by tb« chemical action of an acid or an alkali on organic 
matter dissolved in water, and that they develop by virtue 
of the vital action which would be the necessary attribute of 
this chernkxhorganic molecular eonyfwuad:* on the contrary, 
the experiment only showed that the seeds of Fungi, like 
those of oth«r plants^ require special soils in which to grow ; 
that Botrytis-will not grow in acid mucilage, nor Monilia in 
alkaline, nor either in mucilage in a neuter state. This is 
only what happens ixx plants of a more highly organized 
nature. Who ever saw the horned poppy of the sea-shore 
growing spontaneously m an inland fiel^ the marsh mari- 
gold on a dry heath» or the reindoec lichen of Lapland on 



a heath in Italy ? Let any one take a few different kinds o. 
seeds and commit them all to the ground in the same place ; 
some will spring up and flourish, others will just appear 
above ground and then perish, others will make an attempt 
to germinate. This, an every-day event, is a sufficient explaim- 
tion of tlie fact elicited by M. Dutrochet*s experiment. 
Every kind of seed has something specific in its nature, in 
consequence of which it requires particular kinds of soil, and 
some special combination of heat, light and moisture, to be 
roused into a state of vegetation. As to the presence of 
the seeds of the Botrytis and Monilia in the vessels in 
which M. Dutrochet's experiments were conducted, it is 
perfectly easy to conceive that the seeds of such common 
plants exist everywhere suspended in the air or adhering to 
the cleanest vessels ; they are so numerous as to baffle all 
powers of calculation ; they are so minute as only to become 
visible when aggregated in masses of many thousands, and 
so generally dispersed that it is difficult to conceive a place 
in which they may not be reasonably supposed to exist. 
The very general existence of dry-rot is no weak evidence 
of this ; but upon that subject we have already made what 
observations we have thought necessary. [Dry-Rot.] 

Fungi are among the most numerous of idl plants iu re- 
gard to genera and species, so abundant indeed that no one 
has as yet attempted to form an estimate of their numbers. 
Fries somewhere asserts that he had discovered above 2000 
within the compass of a square furlong in Sweden ; even the 
European species of microscopic Fungi are but little known, 
if we are to judge from the numerous new kinds introduced 
into Corda's recent work ; and as for those which inhabit 
the tropics, our knowledge of them amounts to little or no- 
thing. It is generally asserted that they are uncommon in 
tropical countries, but it is doubtful whether this is true, and 
at all events it appears from the evidence of a recent travel- 
ler in that island that they are extremely abundant in Java. 
They usually prefer damp, dark, un ventilated places, such 
as cellars, vaults, the parts beneath decaying bark, the hol- 
lows of trees, the denser parts of woods and forests, or any 
decaying matter placed in a damp and shaded situation ; and 
are most especially averse to dryness and bright light. Even 
when they appear upon the live leaves of trees, the stems of 
com, or in similar situations, it is either at the damp and 
wet season of the year, late in the autumn, or in damp and 
shaded places ; and M. Audouin has shown experimentally 
that when live insects are attacked bv them it is only when 
they areoonfined iti damp unventilated places. (See Compter 
rendusj 2nd half-year, 1837.) In stations favourable totneir 
multiplication tliey often commit extensive ravages, attack- 
ing and destroying timber, and producing decay in all kinds 
of vegetable matter of a soft and succulent nature ; nor is it 
to dead matter that their ravages are confined. They some- 
times fix themselves upon live insects, producing great havoe 
among the silkworms in the manufactories of Italy, and are 
probably the cause of a more extensive destruction of such 
animals than we at present have any idea of. Under the 
name of mildew and blight they commit excessive damage 
among living plants, as the farmer and orcbAirdist know too 
well to their cost 

The systematical arrangement of these plants has 
long exercised the ing^enuity of botanistSi who have 
contrived various schemes of classifying them according 
to what are believed to be their natural relations. The 
most celebrated of them is the myoological system of Fries. 
We cannot enter at any lencrth into the details of this 
arrangement; but, as some difficulty attends the study of it, 
a short explanation of its fundamental principles may be 
useful. We shall therefore give a brief explanation of the 
leading features of this author's arrangement. 

Fries in the first place divides the whole order into fbiir 
Cohorts, distinguished by the following characters : — 
Cohort I. Hymbnomycbtxs. AHymenium present; that 
is, the fungus opened out into a fructifying membrane, 
in which the spores (seeds) are placed, usually in the 
inside of asci (transparent simple cases). The texture 
wholly filamentous. 
Cohort II. Pyrenomycbtes. A Perithecium present; that 
is, the fungus closed up ; then perforated by a hole 
or irregular laceration, and enclosing a distinct kernel 
holding ascL Texture obscurelv cellular; that of' the 
sUt>ma (receptacle) somewhat filamentous. 
Cohort III. Gasteromycstes. APeridium present; that 
is, the fungus at first closed up and containing loose 
spores, having no asci. The texture cellular. 



FUN 



20 



TUN 



CobortlV. CoNioinrcrra*. Spore* naked; that is, the 
ftingui in iU elementary itale, evenluBllj' haviiiK Ibe 
xporei quite nakt-d, although they may have Wn 
coTored at flnt. The texture between filamentoui and 
cellular; and the thollus often appoionlly absent 
He then subdivides these cohorts each into four Ordora, as 
foUowB : — 

Cohort I.— HrMBIfOHYCBTH. 

Order 1. Pileati. The HTmeDium on the under tide and 

havine aaci (fig. 1, Agaiieus). 
Order i. hlvellaeei. The Hymenium on the upper side, 

and having aaci IJIg. 2, Morchetla). 
Order 3. Clavati. The Hymenium on both sides and 



founded vith the Kceptacle. Aaci none. Membranous 
or gelatinous, irith » fiUmenloiis lexlura ifigi. 4, i, 
Dacrymyces). 





Ujnifiiinnjralcni F^in^, 

1. A(Vlcui>diitDi.ndiiFFJln iiic; 3. Murchvlln riculeDU. Irdiind lu llu: 

K;i«T»m oinFiM. mliiDpdtnilii, V Uuly'^y'*' ■Ullilin.FOWlligiii wnn}', 

Cohort II,— Pyrbnoicycktes. 

Order I. SpPurriacei. The kernel Blled with asci, and deli- 
quescent {/igt. 6, 7, Cucurbitoria). 

Order S. Phaadtacei. The kcrucl QUed with asci, aiid dry 
(_fie*. 8, 9, Cenangium). 

Order 3. Cftigporei. The kernel filled iviih naked sj ore- 
cases, and disintegrating (J!g- 10. Spha;ronema). 

Order 4. Xylomatei. The kernel filled with naked spore- 
cates, and dry (^t. II, 12, Acliaolhyrium). 



Cohort ni.— Ga«tkboiitcbtbi. 
Order I. Angiogiutret. Spore-caw* immerttjd in a rivfji. 

(acle distinct from the peridiun. 
Orders. Triehotpermi. Bpororasea naked, anions liln- 

menls distinct from the peridiuin (Jigs- 17, IH, SrUrti- 

derma: fig. 13, 14, Armia). 
Order 3. tiiehodermaeei. Spore'COMS naked, covered by 

filaments constituting a pendiuto 0^*. IS, 16, 8i-u- 

Order 4. ikUmliacei. Spore-cases immersed in a niip- 
taclc constituting the peridium (J!gt. 19, 20, Cliti'U' 
rainm). 




Coliort IV.— CoNioHYCBTBB. 

Order J. Tubercuiarim. Spore-cose* plunged in an en- 
tangled receptacle, upon a free receptacle (jtg*. 21, 2'i. 
Fuwtrium). 

Order 2. Mucorini. Spore-cases upon a filamentous recep- 
tacle, at first enclosed in a little peridium ifigt. 23, 'J6, 
Stilbum). 

Ordei' 3. Mticedinti. Spore-cases at flrat concealed by 
filaments (Jiga. 23, 24, Aspergillus). 

Order 4. Hypodermi. Spore-cases spriDging from tindci 
the cuticle of trees (figi. 2^, 29, Exosporium). 




PUR 



2i 



ThoM who wiah to beoome acquainted vitb this Bulycrt 
practiealljr and in iti details ihould consult, not any, but all 
of Ilie folloving works : —Friea's Syttema Mycobtgicum ; 
Greville'i Crypltvamic Flora; Netiet Syttem der Pitz»; 
Cotda.'t leonii ; Kndlichar's Genera Fttmtarum; uid the 
last part of Hooker's Briluk Hora. Sowerby's Ftttm and 
BuUuud's Hgure* are standard trorks of reference for figure* 
of these plants. 

FU'NGIA. mArwpKiatKB*.] 

FUNGIC ACID, en acid discovered by Braconnot in 
the juice of most Fungi. This acid exirts partly in a free 
state in the perixa nigra, and combined witn potash in the 
bokliu jugiandis ; it may be obtained &om the iuice of 
either of these vegetables by evaporating it to tne con- 
sistence of a syrup, and tieatinz it with alcohol. The por- 
tion insoluble in alcohol is the ningate of pota«h. which is 
to be decomposed by acetate of lead ; the fungate of lead 
is to be daconipoaod by dilute sulphuric acid, or by bydro- 
sulphurio acid, by which the lead is separaled in tlie stale of 
■tilphate OT sulphuret, and Iha fungic acid is left in tmlution. 

This acid, wnen pure, is colourless, very sour, uncrys- 
tsliiuble, and deliquescsnl ; with Ume it forms a diffi- 
cultly soluble salt, and with potash and soda deliquescent 
uncryitallinble salts ; in these and some other properties 
it resembles impure malic acid. Some doubt exists as to 
whether it is a distinct acid. 

FUNGIN, the name given by Braconnot to the fleshy 
substance of mushrooms, purifled by digestion in a hot 
weak solution of alkali : it is whitish, soft, insipid, and but 
little elastic It is not acted upon by water, alcohol, eelher, 
dilute sulphurio acid, potash, or soda ; it is dissolved by 
hydrochloric acid when heated, and it decomposes and is 
decomposed by nitric acid ; the results are much gas, oxalic 
acid, a bitter yellow matter, and two fatty subatances, ono of 
which resembles wax, and the other suet ; the latter is most 
abundant It is a highly nutritious substance, and in n^ny 
of its properties it strongly resembles lignin. 

FTTNICULAR CURVE. [Catbnahy] 

FUNNEL, a hollow conical vessel with a small nipe 
issuing from its apex ; it is en instrument much used m 
common and domestic life for conveying fluids into vessels 
of small apertures, and in chemical operations it is used 
not onlv for this purpose hut for the important one of flller- 
JDg. [Filter.] For the mere purpose of the transfer from 
one vessel to another of such fluids as do not act upon 
metals, funnels are commonly made of Clipper, pewter, or 
tin plate, and this is especially the case when they arc em- 
ployed for convejing powders into bottles. When how- 
ever they are employed by the chemist with acid, alkaUne, 
or such othnr solutions as dissolve or corrode the metals, 
then funnels are mode of earthen or stone ware, or of glass. 
When used for filtration, especially in smaller and nicer 
operations, those of glass are always to he preferred, and 
of that kind called ribbed funnels, which, on account of the 
channels that their construction admits of between the 
filter and the ftinnel, allow of tho more leady passage of 
the filtered fluid. 

FURIES. [EnHBNiDBs.] 

FURLONG. rMEAiuKHs.] 

FURNACE. The common grate is the most famihar 
example of a ftimace. It is constructed of iron, and of va- 
rious forms. The fuel is kept in it only bv bars, in order to 
throw the beatout into the room. Indeeo this is its princi- 
pal us«; and although its heat is barely sufficient to melt 
thin plate silver, yet many chemical operations may be per- 
formed in Iho common stove, and its flat sides or cheeks 
furnish a lower dej^e of heat, on which evaporation and 
digestion may be effected. 

For the smollw operations ia ohomistry a groat variety 
of furnaces have been invented : these it would be quite 
t^eiesi to describe. We shall therefore mention only a few 
of the more important and generally employed. The an- 
nexed flgiuierepresents atrtna/umnce.* in this a very high 
temperaluro is produced without the use af bellows, by 
means of a powerful draught. The chimney of a wind fur- 
nace should be luurow and high ; the Aimace, represented 
ts connected with and pnyectins fin)m the chimney, should 
hoof such abeigbl as to allow the operator to look into it ; 
it should be btm IS to 15 inches square, and furnished 
with moveable ban and a cover ; every part exposed to the 
Are ohouU be constructed of the most refracloty bricks. 
When a very strong beat is required the air should be con- 
teyed by pipes diiectly Ihna vithoutrdoor to the ash-pit 




In the Bgure a crucible is represented as pieced Li the fur- 
nace, and its cover is on. 

This furnace is much employed in the reduction of me- 
tals, and in the assaying of copper and various other ores. 
The fiiel used is either coke or a mixture of ooke and 
charcoal. 

The above cut represents the blatt Jitrnaoe which Mr 
Faraday states in his Chemical Manipulation to have been 
for some years in use in the laboratory of the Royal Iiisti- 

The exterior consists of a blue pot eighteen inchei io 
height and thirteen inches in external diameter at the top. 
A small blue pot of seven and a half inches internal diame- 
ter at the top, bad the lower part cut off; so as to leave an 
aperture of five inches. This, when put into the lawerpot, 
rested upon its lower external edge, tho tops of tne two 
being level. The interval between them, which gradually 
increased from the lower to the upper part, was uled with 

C'veriied glass-blowers' pots, to which water enough had 
n added to moisten the powder, which was pressed down 
by sticks, so as to make the whole a compact mass. A round 



space beneath it therefore constituted the air-chamber, a 
the part above it the body of the furnace. The former is 
7}- inches from tho grate to the bottom, and the latter 7( 
inches from the grate to tbe top ; a horizontal hole, conical 
in fbrm, and 1^ inch in diameter on tbe exterior, was cut 
through the outer pot, forming an opening into the air- 
chamber at the lower port, its use being to receive the 
noiile of tbe bellows. Care must be taken that the fumaca 
is perfectlv dry before it is used. 

The fiiel employed is coke, and the furnace is used with 
a pair of double bellows mounted on an iron frame, tho fur- 
nace being raised upon an iron stool so as to bring the aper- 
ture of the air-chamber to a level with the nozzle of the 
bellows. 

This furnace is sufficiently powerful to raelt pure iron in 
a crucible in 12 or 1 5 minutes, the fire having been previously 
lighted. It will effect the fusion of rhodium, and even 
pieces of pure platinum have sunk together into one button 
in a crucinle heated by it; allkindsof crucibles, including 
the Cornish and the Hessian, soften, fuse, and become 
fhilhy in it 

The otny or eiq>eUing /itmace is a small ftirnace made 
of iron, lined with relhiclory ciny, and containing a muffle 




H^ 



FUR 



22 



FUR 



[MuTFLsl; it U used principally for the cupeUation of gold 
and silver, which is placed wpon a cupel in the muffle, pre- 
viously heated to redness. Tne interior of the Airnaoe con- 
tains merely the muffle restins upon two ban of iron ; it is 
pikt about two-thirds into the rurnace, and there is conse- 

?uently left a space between it and the back part of the 
urnace: a is the orifice of the muffle, which maybe closed 
by iron slides placed at the side. The opening b, placed 
below the grate, and which is also provided with slides, 
serves as wdl as the upper opening e to regulate the 
draught Charcoal is used in this furnace. 

For metidlurgic operations on the largo scale, as well as 
in making alkalis, red lead, &c., the reverberatory fyr- 
nace is much used. This is shown in the annexed figure. 




u 






— -I fi jr_ 

IIJIIIIII.IM.IIlJlH !! , M' i llK 



r 



x±i 



rri \ , \ -i 



LL 



1 1 1 > • I 1 1 




A is the space furnished with a grate or bars, to con- 
tain the combustible, which is either coke, coal, or wood, 
according to circumstances; B£F is the part on which 
the Hame acts, £ F is the roo^ BC the hearth on which 
the substance to be heated is placed, and this is either 
horizontal or inclined; lastly, C! is a low wall or the 
bridge of the furnace, which retains the fuel in its place, 
and :>crves to direct the flame towards the roof: a shows 
the opening of the furnace, usually placed at its side: 
through this the substance to be heatea is introduced, aim 










CmkM rif -Iioa Funwoe. 









f --. 



t*. 7- \., 



-1 

-31 



it is afUnraidA cloted ; ofUn alio then u an opening at 
B, to allow of a melted metal to flow out H ia a very hiKU 
chimney that produce! the draught, and which may bo 
closed by a damper. As this furnace is employed for a va^l 
number of purposes, it is evident that various umohs must be 
used ; these however it will not be necessary to describe. 

The coke pig-iron fumaee (see preceding figure) is that 
used in South Wales in the making of pig-iron ; the height 
of this furnace, from the bottom at A to the flUing-place at 
B, is dO feet; the height of the hearth, firom A to C. h^ 
feet ; from C to the top of the boshes at D, 8i feet The 
diameter of the hearth from A to C increases from .3 feet to 
3i feet The extreme width at the top of the boshes D is 
1 1 feet. The diameter of the oharging-place B is 6 feet 

S £ B E, the lining, is composed of a double circle of fire- 
bricks, about 15 inches longeach, with a space for an inttrr- 
mediate packing of sand. ¥ F, the hearth, is ooostructed of 
largo blocks of breccia, or plum-pudding stone ; G 6 ara 
tbo twyres, or openings by which the blast is discharged into 
the furnace from the blowing cy Under, which is worked 
by a steam-engine. The contents of this furnace are 6U i & 
feet; and it is capable of producing 100 torn of pig-iron 
weekly. 

FURNA'RIUS. [Crebpbb, vol. viii. p. 148.] 

FURNEAUX'S ISLANDS. [Bass'i Straits.] 

FURNES, or VEURNE, a small town in West Flan- 
ders, within three miles of the sea-coast, between NU>u- 
port and Dunkerque, in 51° 5' N. lat., and 2° 42' K. 
long., 12 miles east fVom Dunkerque, and 26 south-wobt 
fi*om Bruges. The town was antiently close to the m.m, 
but having been destroyed by the Normans it was inbuilt 
on its present site by Baldwin, surnamcd Iron-arm. 
A battle was fought on the plains of Furnes in 1297, be- 
tween Count Robert of Artois, commanding the troops of 
Philip the Fair, and Count Guy of Flanders, who ct)in> 
manocd for Edward the First of England. Fumes bun 
often been taken by the French ; it was carried by I^uis 
XV. in 1744. and restored by him in 1748» under tlie 
treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. It came into the possession of 
the French at the beginning of the Revolution, and £>rmed 
part of the department of the Lys until 1814. 

The town is well built, and in 1830 contained 756 housci^, 
inhabited by 954 families, and 4253 individuals. There are 
a cathedral, two churches, a chapel, an hospital, a college, 
and several convents. A brisk trade is carried on in various 
kinds of agricultural produce, and the town contains tan- 
neries, breweries, ropewalks, salt refineries, and oil-mills. 

Furnes was a place of some importance before the late 
peace, on account of its fortifications, which have since 
been demolished. 

FURNES CANAL. This work begins at the town of 
that name, where it is connected with the canals of Ber- 

fues, of Loo, and of Dunkerque, and is carried to Nieuport, a 
istance of five miles and thi«e-quarters. It thus forms 
part of the canal communication between Bruges and Dun- 
kerque, which is of importance to the trade of the province, 
and is especially useful for the conveyance of eoals. Some 
considerable works are in progress at Nieuport, which ^ill 
render this canal further useful for discharging the super- 
fluous water of the Yser into the North Sea. 
FURNESS ABBEY. [Lancashire.] 
FURRUCKAB AD, a district in the province of Agra, 
forming part of the Doab of the Jumna and Ganges, an«l 
lying between 27** and 28"* N. lat. This district is boundtd 
on the north by Bareflly and Alighur, on the east by Bu- 
reilly, on the south by Etawah and Caunpore, and on the 
west by Alighur. Previous to 1801 Furruckabad was under 
a Patau chief, who was tributary to the king of Oude ; but 
in that year, by an arrangement made between the £ngU>!i 
and that monarch, thcwtribute was transferred to the £;i^t 
India Company, and in the following year, by a further ar- 
rangement mado with the nabob of Furruckabad, the Com- 
pany assumed the civil and military government of the dis- 
trict, making a fixed annual allowance to the nabob ot 
180,000 rupees (18,000/.) It is hardly possible to give too 
unftivourable a description of the state of anarchy and law- 
less violence which previous to that time reigneid through- 
out the district. There did not exist even the semblaiire oc 
a court of justice, in which criminal acts co«ld be punished 
or civil wrongs redressed. No well-disiposed person durst 
remain abroad after night-fall ; hous^ were forcibly entered 
by robbers even in the day-tim& and murders were com- 
monly peipetmted in the streets in the ftoe of day. Sinc« 



PUR 



29 



FUR 



tbe BnglMh hare aasttmed the co^emment tti^se 6f?ik have 
been r^reased, the persons ana prope^ of the inhabitanta 
have been effectually protected; gangs of robbers have been 
extirpated ; and as toe consequence of Ihie alteration, the 
value ef hoaset and land has increased many fold, the 
aseessnent has been punctually paid, and cultivatioa has 
been greatly extended. According to a statistical return 
made by the collector of the distriet in 1813, there were then 
in cultivatim 1,80^,383 snudl bi^hs, abool 600^00 acres oi 
land, tfaeiereime assessed upon vhidi was 10,28,485 rupees 
(102,848/.X or abotit 3i. 5dL per acre: there were further at 
that time 3»97»350 begahs fit for cultivation, and 10,46,704 
begahs of waste land in the district, the extent of which 
appears therefore to be abotit 1640 square miles. 

FURRUCKABAD, the capital of the district, is situated 
at a short distance fiom the western bank of the Ganges, 
in 27'' 24^ N. l&t, and 79** 27' E. long.: this is one of the 
principal towns of Upper Hindustan. It is inclosed by a 
wall ; the streets are wide, and in the best parts of the town 
the houses are good, and surrounded by trees^ but the 
greater port of the dwelhngs within the waHs are wretched 
mud hovels. An actual survey of the town was made in 
1 SI 1, at which time it contained 13,348 dwellings and 1651 
shops. Allowing the usual number of five persons to a 
dwelling, the population must then have amounted to 
66,740 persons, exclusive of the floating population, visitors 
and stcangers, which, as Furruckabad is the chief emporium 
of trade in the ceded and conquered provinces, are always 
present there in considerable numbers. 

FURS and FUR TRADE. The use of furs appears 
to have been introduced into civilised Europe by the 
northern conquerors. In the sixth century the skins of 
sables were brought for sale from the confines of the 
Arctic Ocean to Rome, throueh the intervention of many 
diflerent hands, so that the ultimate cost to the consumer 
was very great. For several centuries i^er that time fhra 
could not have become at dl common in western Europe. 
Marco Polo mentions as a matter of curiosity in 1252, that 
he found the tents of the Cham of Tartary lined with the 
skins of ermines and sables which were brought fVom 
countries fiir north, from the land qf darkneis. But in 
less than a century from that ti|ne the fashion of wearing 
fVirs must have become prevalent in England, for in 1 337 
Edward the Third ordered that all persons among his sub- 
jects should be prohibited their use unless theycmild spend 
one hundred pounds a year. Hie furs then brought to 
England were Aimished by the traders of Italy, who pro- 
cured them from the north of Asia. 

The fur trade was taken up by the French colonists of 
Canada very soon after their first settlement on the St. 
Laurence, and through the ignorance of the Indians as to 
the value of the skins which they sold, and of the trinkets 
and other articles which they took in payment, the traders 
at first made very great profits. The animals soon became 
scarce in the neighbourhood of the European settlements, 
and the Indians were obliged to extend the range of their 
hunting expeditions, in which they were frequently accom- 
panied by one or other of the French dealers, whose object 
it was to encourage a greater number ^ Indians to engage 
in the pursuit and to bring their peltries, as the unprepared 
skins are called, to the European settlements. When the 
hunting season was over the Indians came down the Ottawa 
in their canoes with the produce of the chase, and encamped 
outside the town of Montreal, where a kind of fair was held 
until the fiirs were all exchanged Ibr trinkets, knives, 
hatchets, kettles, blankets, coarse cloths, and other articles 
suited to their wants, including arms and ammunition. A 
large part of the value was usually paid to tlie Indians in 
the form of ardent spirits, and scenes of riot and confusion 
were consequently of freauent occurrence. 

The next stage of the Canadian fur trade was when some 
of the European settlers, under the name of Coureufs des 
Bois, or wood-rangers, set out at the proper season from 
Montreal in canoes loaded with various articles considered 
desirable by the Indians, and proceeded up the river to the 
hunting-grounds. Here they remained for an indefinite 
time, sometimes longer than a year, carrying on their traffic 
with the Indian hunters, and when their outward invest- 
ments were exhausted, they returned, their canoes in 
general loaded with packs of beaver-skins and other valu- 
able peltries. While engaged in these expeditions some of 
them adopted the habits of the trQ)e with whom they were 
usoeiated, and formed connexions with the Indian women. 



Tl^t tride Watf Ibf some time extramely profitable; the 
men by whom it was oonducted, the Coureurs de^ Bois, 
wore usually %itho«l capital* and their roveatments of 
European goods were fhrnished by the storekeepers of 
Montreal, whe drew al least their full proportion of profit 
firom the adventnre. The return cargo was generally more 
valuable than the mvestments; in the pronortion of six to 
one. Thus where the investment amountea to one thousand 
dollars, and the peltries returned sold for six thousand, the 
storekeeper first repaid himself the original outlay, and 
usually secured for himself an equal amount for interest 
and commissions, after which the remaining 4000 dollars 
were divided between himself and the Coureur des Bois. 

The Hudson's Bay Company, established with the ex- 
press object of procuring furs, was chartered by Charles the 
Second in 1670, with the privilege of exclusively trading 
with the Indians in the vast and not well defined region 
lying to the north and west of the great inlet from which 
the Company takes its nameu This association founded 
several establishments, and has ever since prosecuted the 
trade under the direction of 'a governor, deputy- governor, 
and a committee of management chosen from among the 
proprietors of the joint-stock, and resident in London. The 
Company's charter never having been confirmed by Act of 
Parliament, it was considered that all British subjects were 
entitled to engage in the trade with those regions, and in 
confbrmity with this notion a partnership was formed in 
1783 under the name of the North-West Company, which 
proved a powerful competitor. This Company consisted of 
twenty-three shareholders, or partners, comprising some 
of the most wealthy and influential British settlers in 
Canada, and employed about 2000 persons as clerks, 

guides, interpreters, and boatmen, or voyageurs, who were 
istributed over the feee of the country. Such of the 
shareholders as took an active part were called agents , 
some of them resided at the different ports established by 
the Company in the Indian territory, and others at Quebec 
and Montreal, where each attended to the affairs of the 
association. These active partners met once in every year 
at Fort William, one of their stations near the Grand Port- 
age on Lake Superior, in order to discuss the affairs of the 
(>»npany, and agree upon plans for the fiiture. The young 
men who were employed as clerks were, for the most part, 
the younger members of respectable families in Scotland, 
who were willing to undergo the hardships and privations 
accompanying a residence for some years in these countries, 
that they mi^t secure the advantage of succeeding in turn 
to a share of the profits of the undertaking, the partners, as 
others died or retired, being taken from among those who, 
as clerks, had acquired the experience necessary for the 
management of the business. This Company had a settle- 
ment called Fort Chippewyan, on the Lake of the Hills, in 
110^26'W. long., and some of the Indians who traded 
with the persops stationed at this fort came from beyond 
the Rocky Moimtains. 

A great degree of jealousy and hostility arose between 
the respective agents of the Hudson*s Bay and North-West 
Companies, which more or less impeded the opemtions of 
boUi parties for several years, until in 1821 a junction of the 
two was effected, and the trade has since been prosecuted 
peacefully and successfully ; but their presumed exclusive 
right of trading throughout the vast region which they 
have made the scene of their operations, is still guarded 
with extreme jealousy. All the furs collected by the 
Hudson's Bay Company are shipped to London, some ftom 
their factories of York Fort, and on Moose River, in Hudson's 
Bay; other portions from Montreal, and the remainder 
from the Columbia River. 

The fur-trade is prosecuted in the north-western terri- 
tories of the United States by an association called the 
North American Fur Company, the principal managers of 
which reside in New York. ,The chief station of this 
company is Michilimackinac, to which are brought all the 
peltries oollected at the other ports on the Mississippi, 
Missouri, and Yellowstone rivers, and through the great 
range of country extending thence to the Rocky Mountains. 
This Company employs steam-boats for ascendinff the rivers, 
which penetmte with ease to regions which could formerly 
be explored only through the most painful exertions in 
keel-boats and barges, or by small parties on horseback or 
on foot 

The ermine, called by way of pre-eminence * the precious 
ermine/ is found almost exclusively ia the cold regions oa 



PUR 



24 



PUR 



Europe and Asia. Tlie stoat (which in fhct is identical with 
the ermine), but the fiir of which is greatly inferior to that of 
the European and Asiatic animal, is found in North America. 
The fiur of the ermine is of a pure whiteness throughout, with 
the exception of the tip of tne tail, which is black ; and the 
spotted appearance of ermine skins, by which they are pe- 
culiarly known, is produced by fastening these black tips 
at intervals on the skins. The animal is from \A to 16 
inches long from the nose to the tip of the tail, the body 
being from 10 to 12 inches long. The best fur is yielded 
by the oldest animals. They are taken by snares and in 
traps, and are sometimes shot, while running, wiUi blunt 
arrows. The sable is a native of Northern Europe and 
Siberia. The skins of best quality are procured by the 
Sumuieds, and in Yakutsk, Kamtchatka, and Russian Lap- 
land : those of the darkeiit colour are the most esteemed, 
llie length of the sable is from 18 to 20 inches. It has been 
runsidured by pomo naturalists a variety of the pine-marten. 
Martens arc found in North America as well as in Northern 
Abia and the mountains of Kamtchatka : the American 
skins arc generallv the least valued, but many among them 
are rich and of a beautiful dark-brown olive colour. The 
fiery fox, so called from its brilliant red colour, is taken 
near the north-eastem coast of Asia, and its fur is much 
valued, both for its colour and fineness, in that quarter of 
the world. Nutria skins are obtained from South America, 
and the greater part of the importations in this country come 
from the states of the Rio de la Plata. [Coypou.] These skins 
are of recent introduction, having first become an article of 
commerce in 1810: the fur is chieliy used by hat-manu- 
facturers, as a substitute for beaver. Sea-Otter skins were 
first sought for their fur in the early part of the eighteenth 
century, when they were brought to Western Europe from 
the Aleutian and Kurile Islands, where, as well as in 
Behriug*s Island, Kamtchatka, and the neighbouring Ame- 
rican shores, sea-otters are found in great numbers. The 
fur of the young animal is of a beautiful brown colour, but 
when older the colour becomes jet-black. The fur is ex- 
ccedini(Iy fine, soft, and close, and bears a silky gloss. 
Towards the close of the eighteenth century furs had become 
exceedingly scarce in Siberia, and it became necessary to 
look to fresh sources for the supply of China and other 
Asiatic countries. It was about the year 1780 that sea- 
otter skins were first carried to China, where they realised 
such hi^h prices as greatly to stimulate the search for them. 
Af^'ith this view several expeditions were made from the 
United States and from Eiigland to the northern islands of 
the Pacific and to Nootka sound, as well as to the north- 
west coast of America. The Russians then held and still 
hold the tract of country most favourable for this purpose. 



to procure these skins from the Indians. Fur-aeah are 
found in great numbers in the colder latitudes of the 
southern hemisphere. South Georgia, in 55^ 8. iat., 
was explored by Captain Cook in 1771, and immediately 
thereiiter was resorted to by the colonists of British America, 
who eonyeyed great numbers of seal skins thence to China, 
where very high prices were obtained. The South Shet- 
land Isknds, in 63*^ S. lat, were greatly resorted to by 
seals, and soon after the disoovery of these islands in 1818, 
great numbers were taken: in 1821 and 1822 the number 
of sed skins taken on these islands alone amounted to 
320,000. Owing to the system of extermination pursued 
by the hunters, these animals are now almost extinct in all 
these islands, and the trade for a time at least has ceased. 
The seal-fishery, or hunting, in the Lobos Islands, is placed 
under restrictive regulations by the government of Monte- 
video, and by this means the supply of animals upon them 
is kept pretty regular. 

Bears of various kinds and colours, many varieties of 
foxes, beavers, racoons, badgers, minks, lynxes, musk-rats, 
rabbits, hares, and squirrels, are procured in North Ame- 
rica. Of all the American varieties, the fur of the black 
fox, sometimes called the silver fox, is the most valuable ; 
next to that in value is the fur of the red fox, which is ex- 
ported to China, where it is used for trimmings, linings^ 
and robes, which are ornamented in spots or waves with the 
black fur of the paws of the same animal. The fur of the 
silver-fox is also highly esteemed. This is a scarce animal, 
inhabiting the woody country below the falls of the Co- 
lumbia river. It has long thick fur of a deep lead colour, 
intermingled with long hairs white at the top, forming a 
lustrous silver-gray, whence the animal derives its name. 
The hides of bisons (improperly called bufifaloes), of the 
sheep of the Rocky Mountains, and of various kinds of deer, 
form part of the fur-trade of North America ; and some- 
times the skin of the white Arctic fox and of the Polar bear 
are found in the packs brought to the European traders by 
the most northern tribes of Indians. 

There is but one species of fur which is peculiar to Eng- 
land, the silver-tipped rabbit of Lincolnshire. The ouluur 
of the fur is grey of different shades, mixed with longer 
hairs tipped with white. This fiur is but Uttle used in Eng- 
land, but meets a ready sale in Russia and China; the 
dark -colon red ^kins are preferred in the former country, 
and the lighter-coloured in China. 

The fur-sales of the Hudson's Bay Company are held 
every year in the month of March, and being of great mag- 
nitude, they attract many foreign merchants to Londuii. 
The purchases of these foreigners are chiefly sent to the 
great fair in Leipzig, whence the furs are distributed to all 



but tlie trading ships which frequent the coast are enabled | parts of the continent of Europe. 

Number qf Skins qf FUr-beanng AnimaU imported into the United Kingdom in the year 1835, distinguishing the 

Countries whence they were imported. 



. I 



COrNTUlKS WHBNCK 
IMPORTED. 

Germany . '. 

Russia 

Prussia 

Holland • 

Belgium . 

France 

British North Ame- 
rican colonies . 

United States of Ame- 
rica 

British West Indies 

E. I. Compy. Territo- 
ries 

ChiU 

Peru 

Guernsey. Jersey, &c. 

Cape of Good Hope . 

New South Wales 

Mauritius . . ' 



Benr. 



1 

4,829 

10,184 
1 



9 
2 

14 



I _ 



States of Rio de la 
PUU . 

The Whale Fisheries . 



15,041 



BetYer. 


Fitch. 


67 


37,799 


_ 


39 


— 


8,836 


— 


42 


— 


818 


85,933 


12 


2,316 


40 


... 


— M 


1 


— 



Marian. 



28,280 



2,741 

6 

10,488 

71,068 

47,253 



Mink. 



7,237 



83 



68,400 I 47,686 



MnM{aath. Nutria. 



25,297 
82,950 



1,147,725 
23,232 



Otter. 



Seals. 



98 



117 16 






2 



700 



159,954 J115,50I 



1,171,659 



5 

284 

557,360 



17 989 
143 

1 



120 
20 



870 
1,030 



822,186 
3,081 



557.600 I 18,374 



2,813 

2,222 

4,455 
1,442 



• 43 

2,536 



339,683 



P u » 



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iits *^i..c to.'U^. 'VA « A'k «.'.£. b«ft o.jrf#«ftr» ^'7 ;a the 

i. ^ '. • **-!• » \ Li* *:*.♦.: *•■*'», i-» ';rk».'^ wt &>t to cctTMt 

f • 'i*- '. . ^« .:>>: ::«•? la.\-*j^ m^* <.Ar«e ca'«::.*.a:«^s^ of aa arti- 

-"•-^^ fx'i« ',,' uk. '^e. T;.* pr ^f/f-i^.^.^ axe lr€^^.«ei:iUj 

• V- >•' ».'»/•,♦;./•• ar/i -•.y.AU:<i a^.i r^-t* of crjsi^o^: 
; J ' .;'<: I* vx£^K..'is*T% tt»y.'^ ii*4ki i* ei.'.xa>AiCaul a..<I 
!6'. *!. .'aj aa t. • c ^^r«. Iij» C/«r«r« fe«rt a'l^j^t tDe coio- 

: «» a. b %.^\^tti^*'^ t:*^t^'j, II ft * UaUi^k breakii.g I 

:«; ' i^iy CfUViTUefi atittu'to, asd be (^Afiu aa tbotif^h be { 
» .<! 1 rj jr»t h»4 '^'itii^* ».:ii c<ju'>ui»(%e f:kw\m IB all fiia , 
r; -^v !«;« lb iUi iMU*lraUori to Cow (ler'v P^>tf|]lJ^a K^btieiLAQ \ 
.• A/ra (^l at a Uuo«t) t>r«aata.%t t^b*^ «itbv»i.t a uai»lraal and I 
-« 'It h.» hal on; hu le.'», vL^b are curiou9ly crossed, j 
'<«'/! fjane^l Uil tbeftl;^bi border of tbe trouner U perceived. | 
(ill Hits oiiuar band, thera la alvavt life and action in bia '• 
fj/uret, »orae event guin^ (/nvard in tbe de^iioi* Hift ' 
(.«ro|iie M;i'fii in earnest, in dreamy or terrible subjects be I 
u often grand and impre«»ive. His * Ni^btmare' is ima- 
'^iria ive and full of feeling. His* Sin pursued by Death* 
M truly a fine picture. Ueath is fitly hideous, and the 
ft- male is a flbaatl^ muture of spectral paleness and volup- 
tuou*neiia. r useU loved bis art with a genuine affect ioo, 
and tbe bold and original thoughts of bis vigorous if not 
exalted mind were impreMel upon the canvass without 
roi^t^ivin^. He only wanted a better training of bis hand, 
and a more temperate habit of thinking, to bare made a 
gri*at painter. As it is. he has helped to vindicate the su- 
pifMna^'y of design (including invention) and expreaaion over 
I lie iiifurior parta of the art, and has done mucn to advance 
a bolter ta«te in this country. (Knowlea.) 

FUSION. Tlie different temperatures al which certain 
s<»hds are rendered fluid have been already mentioned. 
[FuKKZiNO Points.] In addition it may be merely le- 
marked that fusion is some timet uaod with the prefix of 
watrry^ and at other times if^neouM. Watery fusion is that 
wlach occurs when a salt, such as solpbate of soda for ex- 
ample, containing much water of crystalliiation fuses or 
melts in its water by exposure to a moderate heat ; it mav 
afterwards undergo igneous fusion by ezpoauie to a much 
higher temperature. 

JKU8T, or FAU8T« JOHN, an opulent citizen of May. 
•nee, a goldsmith by trade, whose name appears aa one of 
tbe inventors of the art of printing, in the manner in which 
that art ia eflectod bv movable metal t)7ws. Gutenberg 
nnd Schoefl^er were the two others. Schoeffer, by invent- 
ing the puncheon, ia supposed to have given completion to 
Um discoterx. It t« nol howeTer quite eertain that Fust | 




t. The Pnl'O' of 1459: with snae Taiarii fiaai the pre- 
aed.^«. V«t2athe«MWBzea»dknB. X IW*RalioBale 
d.-r^:,r.A Ofooffwm ' U Duiaad. 14^i. U. ma^\ the ftnt 
S9er.=>ea of tb« ur^Wrr tvpe of Fwel aaA SdMdfar. 4. 
T^ie Caez^tzAisx G:{i«:.t^t.j=^ I4€i'. fo;. H9. &. Jeannis 
&k:V. de Ja;:=a Cau..l^->^a. U€v% isA, md. €. TVe Latin 



Vt^te B.~:.>. i vo^ U^A f.-^ cau Copeiof thisBibie 
are of.cr«er ifMxA pnaied t;p'>a Te.i ja than on M[ar, but 
b.tb are rare. 7. T:«e Ger^aan Bu>je, is»L mai. ^nown 
to have been prnted ia 1 462, or thewhom.l Kefhnted m 
14^ >. ^. ' BuIU Pap« Pj U.' Germ. 14«3. foL ^. 9. 
' L: j«r lextui Decre'.^.^m Boc Ucu. Vlll. Post. Max/ 
14^5, UL maj. : a fiecxfDd, or at least a vmrying tMpressiua 
of this work appeared m tbe saoe year. To. Geero's Offi- 
ces ar.d ' Par^'juu* 1463. hxn. f ^ : the fint edition cf 
CVen> With a dale. 11. Oceru's Otteei and Buadoxa, 
14^6. sra. ttV Copies of th^ edjt:on aiw mere eammoa 
niypik vel«um than 00 paper: that of 146d is very tare upon 
veuum. ii. *Grammaiiea rhitmica,' I4ii» §oL min. It 
c<HUi»u of ekveo leaves in lira miiaUfwt iMini of type of 
tbcaM printen, and is of extreme mrity ; two or thme copies 
ocilv are knoan. 

m 

The following works without date, from the doee feeem- 
bianco of tbeir t^p^jgraphy. are awignrd without acniplo 
by our beat btbHo^rapbers to tbe press of Fuat and 
Schoeffer. 1. * Bulhi Cniciata sanctiasiai Donuoi iM»tri 
Papa) contra Tureus,* luL ia six printed leaves. It has no 
place or name. Tbe type ia like the Dunnd. 2. * Laua 
Virgin is,' folio, nine leaves. The devioe of the shields in 
red, at the end, sees in so many of theee piinteia* works, 
decidedly justifies ito being placed as the produelian of Fust 
and Sohoe tier's press. 3. ' 8. Aurelii Augustini de Arte 
pnedicondi Traetatua,' foLo : suppoaed to have been printed 
a>K>ut 1466. It consists of twenty-two leavee. 4. 'ifiUus 
Donatus de Octo partibna Oraftionia,' 4lo. ; the type of the 
smaller sise, resembling, the Latin BiUe of 1462 and the 
Cicero of 1465. 

With an exception cr two, the whole of Fnst and 
Schoeffer's produotiona are in the collection at the British 
Museum. 

Fust, whose name appean with Schoeffer's for the last 
time in 1466, is supposed to have died in th^ or at latest 
in the next year, of the phigue» al Paris. Schoeflbr eonti* 
nned to print in his own name for a long time. 

(Panzer, ^flot Typo^r., vol. ii., p. UM17; B Mini 
SpencerianOt [>assim ; Biogr. Umi>erteUe, torn. xvi. p. 2v^ ; 
Psignot, FdrietSs, Noticett et RmrttCM BAlu^^rtfikifmeM^ 
8vo. Par. 1822, p. 78.) 

FUSTIAN, a descriptkin of cotton fiihriea aimilar in the 
mode of tbeir manufacture to velvet, having in addition lo 
the warp and weft common to all woven good^ a pUt coo* 
sisting of other threacb doubled under the wefk» and ' thiown 
in' at intervals so close together that when the goeda are 
finished the interlacing of the warp and weft are concealed 
by them. [Vblvbt.] While in the loom the pile forms a 
scries of lo6ps« which are aflerwarda cut and absared. The 
cutting is performed by running a knife through each aertiea 
of loops as they occur in the weft; this givea an unevwn 
and hairy appearance to the doth, whiah it alterwda re- 
medied first bv the shearing proceed and afbnmtda bf 
singeing and liruihmg» which lattar ey witi OBi «• tm^ 



PUS 



27 



P YZ 



1>emt6d until thd Ibstiail has acquired a smooth and po* 
ished appearance. The shearing of Aistians is a separate 
art ; and several hundred persons are engaged in it in the 
town of Manchester alone. Until lately the operations 
were conducted by hand, but the aid of machinery has now 
been obtained, and instead of the tedious operation of cut- 
ting open only one set of loops at once, a series of knives 
are brought to act together and continuously, until the 
whole piece is finished, by which means the work is not 
only done more quickly, but is also better performed than 
when its excellence depended upon the uniform precision 
of the human hand. 

Various kinds of fiistians are made, and are known by dif- 
ferent names, according to their form and fineness. The best 
kinds are known as cotton yelvet and velveteen; besides 
these there are beaverteens, moleskin, corduroy, and cords. 
Different patterns are ijroduoed by different dispositions of 
the pile tnreads. Fustians are woven both in the hand- 
loom and with the power-loom ; they are made of different 
widths, some pieces being 18 and others 27 inches wide : a 
piece of velveteen of medium quality, 90 yards long and 18 
inches wide, weighs about 24 or 25 lbs. The yam for the warp 
is made of New Orleans cotton, or of Upland Georgia and 
Brazil cotton mixed, of the fineness of 32 hanks to the 
pound ; the weft and pile are usually spun from Upland 
mixed with East India cotton, and the yarn is commonly 
of the fineness of 24 hanks to the pound. [Cotton Spin- 
ning.] 

FUSTIC. This name appears to be derived fmm fttsteif 
the French name of a yellow dye-wood, the produce of 
Venetian sumach. A wood similar in colour and uses, but 
larger in size, having been subsequently imported from the 
New World, had the same name applied to it with the 
addition of^ld, while the other, being smaller, is called 
young JUsticj but these, so fiir from being the produce of 
the same tree at different ages, do not even belong to the 
same genus. 

Yovng fkittic, or, as it is sometimes called, Zante Fkutie, 
is the produce of Rhus Cotinus (tribe Anaccardiaceee\ a native 
of Italy, the south of France, and of Greece ; much of it is 
exported from Patras in the Morea ; and it also extends 
into Asia. It is supposed to be the Cotinus of Pliny, being 
still called Seotino near Valcimara, in the Apennines, where 
it is cultivated on account of its uses in tanning. The root 
and the wood of this shrub are both imported, deprived of 
their bark, and employed for dyeing a yellow colour ap- 
proaching to orange, upon wool or cottons, pr'epared either 
witli alum or the nitio-muriate of tin with the addition of 
tartar. The colour is a beautiful bright yellow, and per- 
manent when proper mordaunts are employed. Only small 
quantities of tnis kind of fustic are imported; 

Dr. Sibthoip was of opinion that Rhammu ii\fectoria or 
oleoides, of whieh the berries are called French and Per- 
sian berries, yielded the Jktstic of commerce, and informs 
us that its yellow wood is called by the Greeks ehry- 
soxylon. He tJso thought that it was the Lycium of 
Dioscorides, but this has been shown by Dr. Royle to be 
a species of Berberis, of which genus all the species have 
yellow wood. 

Old Fustic, the ' bois jaune* of the French, is on the con- 
trary the produce of a large tree, Morus tinctoria, dyer*s 
mulberry, of the natural ftimily of Urticess, a native of 
Tropical America and the West India Islands. The tree 
attains a height of 60 feet ; the wood is yellow coloured, 
hard, and strong, but easily splintered, and is imported in 
the form of large logs or blocks. The yellow colour which it 
affords with an aluminous base, though durable, is not 
very bright M. Chaptal discovered that glue, by precipi- 
tating its tannin, enabled its decoctions to dye yellow almost 
as bright as those of weld and quercitron bark. Tne fustic 
from Cuba is preferred, and fetches the highest price, vary- 
ing from 10/. to 12/^ while that from Jamaica or Columbia 
varies from 6/. to 9/. a ton. The tree is figured by Sloane, 
and notioed by Marcgrave and Piso. Browne describes it 
as a native of Jamaica, aftd deserving the attention of 
planters, as it is only propagated by bir£i^ who are fond of 
its sweet roundish fruit. 

Fustic is admitted into England at the nominal duty of 
three shillings per ton from British Possessions, and four 
slnllings andsix-pence from oth^r countries. The annual im- 
port for each of the ten years, ending with 1836, was — 1827, 
4U1 tona; 1828, 7597; 1829, 7364; 1830, 5111; 1831, 



6334; 1832,4350; 1883,9851; 1834,14.047; 1835,9930 
1836, 4917. 

The several countries fh>m which fristic was imported, 
and the respective quantities received from ea^h, were, in 
1836— 

Tons. 

Ital^ and the Italian Islands • 4 

Ionian Islands . • • 72 

Morea and Greek Islands . . 18 

British North American colonies 103 

British West Indies . . « 2053 

United States of America • 226 

Mexico , • • .172 

Columbia . • • . 1913 

Brasil • • « • 356 



Total 



4917 



FUSU S. [SlPHONOSTOMATA.1 

FUTTEHGHUR. a town in the district of Furruckabad 
distant 3 miles from the city of Furruckabad, on the 
western bank of the Ganges, in 27** 21' N. lat. and 79' 30' 
E. long. Futtehghur was formerly an important military 
station of the British government ; but since the district 
has become more subject to the dominion of the law than 
it was when under the government of the nabob of Fur- 
ruckabad, the number of the soldiers has been diminished, 
and is now quite inconsiderable. This town is the residence 
of the civil ofllcers entrusted with the management of the 
conquered and ceded provinces, and several European mer- 
chants reside and carry on their business within its walls. 
During the dry season the Ganges is here reduced to two 
or three narrow channels winding slowly through a bed of 
sand, and at this time the town is hardly habitable because of 
the clouds of dust which are continually fiying. The town 
contains an arsenal which is protected by a strong mud fort. 
The chief industry carried on within the town is the manu- 
facture of tents, which are made of good materials and ex- 
cellent workmanship. Futtehghur is distant 90 miles 
nort h-wes t from Lucknow, travelling distance. 

FUTTIPORE, a town situated 19 miles south-west from 
the city of Agra, and within the province of that name, in 
26'' 6' N. lat. and 77'' 34' E. long. The walls by which it 
is surrounded are of great extent. The inclosed space ap- 
pears for the most part to have been always unprovided 
with buildings. The stone of which the walls are formed 
is Airnished oy quarries in the neighbourhood, which have 
also supplied the materials for building the houses, which 
are not numerous. The town was inclosed and fortified by 
the Emperor Akbar, whose favourite residence it was. It 
contains an extensive tomb, also built by Akbar, in which 
several members of the imperial family were buried : the 
palace which he inhabited has long been in ruins, while a 
small house, which is said to have been the residence of his 
fovourite minister, is still in good preservation. 

FUTURE. [TiMB.] 

FUZE, a short tube, made of well-seasoned beech, and 
fixed in the bore of a shell. It is filled with a composition, 
which, being fired by means of a small piece of quick-match 
inserted for the purpose, the shell is made to explode in 
consequence of tne fire communicating with the powder 
with which it is charged. The length of a fuze is regulated 
by the intended range of the shell or by the intended time 
of its flight. 

For the ingredients which enter into the oomposition, 
and for the manner of ' driving* the fuze, see Spearman's 
British Qunner. 

FYZABAD, a town in the kingdom of Oude, situated 
on the south side of the €U)ggra river, in 26^ 47' N. lat. 
and 82° 3' E. long., 2 miles west from Oude, the antiont 
capital In the reign of Shuja ud Dowlah, Fyzabad was 
made the capital, but the s^at of government was trans- 
ferred to Lucknow, in 1775, by his son and successor Azoph 
ud Dowlah. Shoja*s palace is already in ruins. At the 
time just mentioned, the bankers and superior merchants 
accompanied the court to Lucknow, but the population is 
still numerous. The widow of Shuja ud Dowlah, known 
in history as the Bhow Be^um, continued to reside in 
Fyzabad to the time of her death. She was possessed of 
great wealth, the amount of which, as is usual in the East, 
was much exaggerated. She wished to bequeath the whole 
of her property to the English government, but the offer 
was declined: and after providing fn her other relatioiis 



28 



INDEX. 



and dependants, the bulk of her fortune detoended to her 
grandson Ohazi ud Deen, king of Oude. It required a 
bum equal to about 680,000iL to provide for the pajrment of 
the various le^peies and pensions bequeathed oy the Be- 
gum's will, alter which the king of Oude succeeded to 



landed property (jaghuvs) yielding 80,000A per annum and 
money to tne amount of 270,000/., besides )tfWels, shawls, 
and cattle, the value of which was very great, but wa» ngt 
ascertained. Fyxabad is 78 miles east from Lucknow, tra- 
velling distance. 



INDEX TO THE LETTER P. 



VOLUME X. 



F, pags 151 

F, m music, 151 

Fab4ce« [Legumtii^sa] 

Fibiut Maumui, 161 

FibtuH Pictor, 152 

Fable, 152 

F^bratti, 152 

Fabri&ao [H«ceiita] 

Fabrlcius, Caiui, 153 

Fabrfcius, J. A., 153 

Fabridusi, J. C, 153 

Fabrfao, Gcrdnimo, 151 

Fabyan, 154 

Facade, 154 

Facciol4ii, 154 

Ficia[CiTil Architect uie; Co- 

lomnl 
Factor (in algebra), 155 
Factor (in coninierce), 155 
Factory, Factory Sysrem, 156 
FacuUien [Uniwrsity] 
Fs'cula rStarch] 
Fa^nsa, 158 
FagiM, 158 
FaKlore, 158 
Fahlunite, 158 
Fahrenheit [Thermometvr] 
FAintiug [Syncope] 
F^ioum, 158 
Fttir, 159 

Fairfax, Edward, 160 
Fiurfjx. Sir lliomas, 160 
Faiiies, 161 
Faith, 161 

Fakeuham [Norfolk) 
Fakir, 16i 
Falii^'c, 162 

Falajaa f Abytsinia, p. 58] 
Falcu [Falconula*] 
Falcon [Fuleonida] 
Falconer, William, 162 
Falcon«:t, 162 
Fdlcouids. 162 
Falconry, 188 
Falcunculuii [Lauiadas] 
Falkirk, 18S , 
Falkland, Ueury Cur}-, V'Ucouut, 

lb9 
Falkland Iftlaads. IS'J 
FaII of Bo<iie«, 190 
Fallacy, 190 
Falltug Start [Aerolites] 
FaiIo]itan Tidxrs, 190 
F .il6ppio, 191 
Fallow, 191 
Falmouth, 192 
Falae F««tition, 193 
FalM-tto, 193 
FaUter, 193 
Falun, 194 
Fam ^lisXvL fCyprus] 
Fun Ptilm [Cham»rope] 
Finnnoteii, 194 
Fanc>, 195 
Fandan)^!. 195 
Fano [Urbino e Peaaro] 
Fanoe [ Denmark, teL viii., p. 

39i] ^ 

Fanahawe, J 95 
F.incers, 195 

Farce fKagliah Diama, toL Ix. 

p. 417. 

Faria e Souaa, 195 
P.ifoafStaich] 
Farm, 196 



Fanner, Dr. Richard, 200 

Farmen-Genend, 200 

Famaby, 201 

Famete, 201 

Famham, 202 

Fani^202 

Faroe Islands, 202 

Farquhar, 203 

Farrant, 203 

Farringdon, 203 

Fars, or Farsistan [Persia] 

Farthing [Money] 

Farthingale, 204 

Fasces [Consul ; Dictator] 

Favcicle, 204 

Faicicul4ria [BiadrephyUioa] 

Fascines, 204 

Fasciolaria [Siphonostomata] 

Fast. 204 

Fasti, 204 

Fastiiijr [Abitinencel 

Fat, 204 

Fata Morg/'»na, 205 

Fatalism, 205 

Father [Piirent and Child] 

Fathen of the Church, 206 

Fathom [Mvasures] 

Fatimides, 207 

Fault [Mining] 

Fawn, 208 

Fausse-Braye, 208 

Faust, Tit.^ 208 

FAUstiua, Annia, 209 

FAustiua, the younger, 209 

Fauvirtte [Svlviada] 

Favastraaa [Madastrsea] 

Faversham [Kent] 

Fuvdnia [Medusa] 

Fuvorhnts [ PhavorinuN] 

Favosites [ Milli>])oridK] 

F.iwkeh, Guy, 209 

Fawn I Deer, vol. viii., n. 3581 

Fayal. 21 1 

Fayette, CcnmtcsJi de la, 211 

F«iyi'tte, Marquis du In, 211 

Fayette* ilk' [Carolina, North] 

Fayoum I Kaiouiii] 

Ft-alty [Distress, p. 29; feudal 

Syatem] 
Fear, 212 

Fear, Ca]>e [Carolins, North] 
Fear, Cape, River [Carolina, 

North] 
Feast, or Festival, 213 
February, 213 
F^amp, 213 
Fecialis,2]3 

F^cula, or Fv cula [Starch] 
Fecundation of Plants [Imprvg- 

nit ion ol Plants] 
Federation, 214 
Fedor, Ivanovich, 215 
Fedor, Alexeyewich, 215 
Fee Simple (£state] 
Fee Tail [Estate] 
Feeling [Touch] 
Fees, 216 

Fehme, or Fehmgericfat| 216 
Feleg)haa, 217 
Felipe, San, 217 
Felis.F61id»,217 
Felix I., II., III., 224 
FeUx V. [Amadeus VHI.] 
Fvtiowihij (in arithmetic), 224 
FellowBhip QoL a college), 224 | 



Feltham, 224 

Felo-deSc, 224 

Filony, 225 

Fe1so-Ban\a [Ssathmarj 

Felspar, 225 

Felt, Felting [Hat] 

Ftolton [Buckmgham, Duke of] 

Feltre [BelluooJ 

Felucca, 225 

Feme-sole [Wife] 

Femern [Schleswig] 

Feminine [ Gender] 

Fences, 225 

Fenelon, 226 

Fennee [Fox] 

Fennel [Faniculum] 

FentoD, 227 

Fenugreek [Tri^onella] 

Feod [Feudal Syktem] 

Feod6sia [Kafia] 

Feoffment, 227 

Fers, 228 

Ferdinand I., II., III., of Aus- 
tria 22 S 

Ferdiiiud I.. 11., Ill , IV., of 
Naples. 229 

Ferdinand I., II., III., IV., V., 
VI., VII., of Spain, 231 

Ferdbsi [FirduaiJ 

Ferguson, James, 233 

Ferguson, Adam, 234 

Ferguson, Robert, 234 

Fergusonite, 235 

Feri»hta, 235 

Fermanagh, 235 

Fermat. 236 

Fenrieutation, 237 

Fermo ed .\scoli, 238 

Fermoy, 238 

Fernandez, Jonn, 238 

Fernandez, Deips, 238 

Ft^rnaiidez, Navarretc, 238 

Fernandez, FraDcixco, 239 

Fernandez, Antonio, 239 

Fernandez, Antonio [Telles] 

Fernandez, Juan, 23'J 

FeniRiido Po. 239 

Fernev , Ain] 

Ferns 2 19 

Ferns [Filicra] 

Fvrrtfra, Legazione di, 239 

Ferrara (town), 240 

Ferrei and Ferrari, 240 

Ferreira, Antonio, 240 

Ferr^ras, 241 

Ferret [Maatelida] 

Feno, or HicRo, 241 

Ferrocyanic Acid, 241 

FerhSJ, 241 

Ferry, 241 

Firula,^41 

Ferussfna, 242 

Fescennine Vertet, 242 

Fescue [Festuca] 

Festfica, 242 

Festuff, Sextus Pompeioi, 242 

Feud [Feudal Syitetn] 

Feudal System, 243 

Ffeuerbach, 248 

Fever, Continued, 249 

Fevenham, or Faverdiam 

[Kent] 
Fivre, Le [Dacier] 
T^% [Marocco] 
Feiian, 263 



Fil)er (^Beaver, voL iv., p. 121 ; 

Munda] 
Fibre and Fibrous tissue, 2^3 
Fibre, Vegetable, 254 
Fibrin, 254 

Fibula (in anatomy), 255 
Ff bula, 255 
Fibuliria [Echinida^ vol. ix.. 

pp. 260,261] 
Fic6dula [Beccafico, vol. tr., p. 

125; Sylviada] 
Fichte, 256 
Fichtelgebiige, 257 
Ficfno, 257 

Ficofdev [Mesembryaces J 
Fiction [Novel ; Romance j 
Fictions (in law), 257 
Ficus, 258 
Fiddle [Violin] 
Ftdei Commiss, 259 
Fideicommiasum, 259 
Fief [Feudal System] 
Field of View rreletcoiic t 
Fieldfare IMemlidsl 
Field-Marshal, 259 
Fielding, Henry, 260 
Fieri F&ciaa. 261 
Fieschi [Docia] 
Fi^hs [Etruria ; Florence] 
Fife, 261 
Fifeshire, 261 
Fifteenth (in muucV 2.* 7 
FiOh (in music), 267 
Fifth Monarchy Men. 267 
Fig, 267 
Fi^eoc [Lot] 

FiguerHsf Catalonia, p. 3C2j 
Ftgiihis [Cre«i»er, vol. vin , i>. 

148] 
Figtirate Numben [NumUr^ 

rigurate and Polyg4»naI ] 
Figure (in geometry), 2Crt 
Figure of the Karth [Ge««dc«\ \ 
Fi^ired Base, 268 
Filament [Anther | 
Filaugi^ri, 20^ 
Ft ' u I ia f Kii^ozoa] 
Fdbert,2C8 

Fdicea [GleicheniaceaeJ 
Fillet (in architixltiiv), 269 
Filter, 269 

Fimbria (zoology) [VeiH-r.d*] 
Fin I Fish] 
Fin4le, 270 
Finch [BoUfioch; Chaffinch: 

Fringillidsi] 
Finch rNottingham, Lord] 
Fine of Lands, 270 
Fingal [Ossian] 
Finger [Hand] 
Finger-Board, 271 
Fingering, 271 
Finutire, 271 
Finite, 273 
Finland, 273 

FinUnd, Gulf of [Battle Sea] 
Finmark [Norway] 
Fma. 275 
Fir [Abiflii 
FirdCisi 
Fire [Heatl 

Fire-Arms [Anna s Aitilltr)'] 
Fii«-Eugine, 277 
Fire-BscaM, 279 
Fiit-Fly f Slatarid* ; Lampfria] 



I 



30 



INDEX. 




Fret, 472 

Frtybuig _ 

Freyburg, cantoOi 472 

FreyburfF, towOt 473 

Frian, 473 

Friction, 474 

Friction Wheels [Wheels] 

F'idav [W«ek] 

FriedUnd [Bonaparte] 

Frivndly or Tonga Islandsy 476 

Frimdly Societies, 476 

Friends [Quakers] 

Friesland, 480 

Frieslood, Sast [Aurieh] 



VOL. X, 
Friese [Civil Arehiteciure ; Co- 
lumn! 
FriKateTShip] 

Frigate (soolo^y) [Peleeanidtt] 
Frigid&hiini [Bath] 
Fringe 7^-0,481 
FringfllidsB. 481 
Frisches Haff, 484 
Fnachlin, 484 
FriHiann, 484 
Frit (Olassl 
Frith, or Firth, 484 
FriiUi, 484 
Frobeu^ or Frobiaiui, 485 



voux. 

Frobither, 485 

Frodkham [C:heshireJ 

Frog^, Frog Tribe, 486 

Frostbit, 496 

FroiM^arf, 496 

Frome, 497 

Fromet river [Somersetshiit] 

Frnnil, 497 

Frondf, 497 

Frondteul&ria [Fonminifefa] 

Frond ipora [Milleporid*] 

Frontignan f Henult] 

FroDtfnus, 498 

Frontispiece, 498 



FroiiUH498 

Frosin6ne, 498 

Fr»st [Freesingl 

Froet^Bearer, 498 

Froxen Ocean, 499 

Fruit, 499 

Fniitii, Preservation of, 501 

Fram^ntius ( Abrssimai 

tians; AxumJ 
Frustum, 502 
Fiicinus [Crlanol 
FucoMea [Pacudotoefia] 
Fucus rSea Weed] 
Fiiego L^<>xunbiqut] 



VOLUlif E XI. 



Fuego, Tiena del, page 1 

Furl. 2 

Fueiite Rabia, or Foniarabfa 

[Giiipuxcoa] 
Fuerta Ventuia [Canaries] 
Fuggar, 2 
Fu,;ue« 2 
Fulcrum [Lever] 
Fulda, river [Wiser] 
Fulda, province, 3 
Fulda, town, 4 
Fulgentius, Fabtus Claudins 

Ciordianun, 4 
Fu1g£ntiu« Ferrandus, 4 
Fulg^ntia<(, Fabius Planciades, 4 
FulgiiritcH. 4 
Fulham [Middlesex] 
F61ica f lUlUds] 
Fuligulfn«j 5 



Fuller, Thomas, 12 

Fullers Earth, 13 

Fulling [Woullcn Manufac- 
tures] 

Fulminating Powders [Detona- 
tion] 

Fulroinic Acid, 13 

Fulton, Robert, 13 

Fumari4c«ra, 14 

Fumigatiun, 14 

Funchal [Madeira] 

Functions Calculus of, 15 

Functions, Theory of, 15 

Fundamental Base, 16 

Funds and Funding System 
[National Debt] 

Fundy, Bay of, 16 

FUnen, province, 16 

Fttnen, island, 16 



Funeral, 17 

Funeral Orations, 18 

Funeral Showi or Gamesy 18 

Fdnfkirchen, 18 

Fungi, 13 

Fungia [ MadrephyllicBa] 

Fuugic Acid, 21 

Fungin, 21 

Funicular Curve [Catenary] 

Funnel, 21 

Furies [Kumenides] 

Furlong [Measures] 

Furnace, 21 

Furnarius [Creeper, vol. viii., 

p. 148] 
Furneanx's Islands [Bass*s 

Straits] 
Fumei, 22 
Fumes CaiaI, 23 



Fumess Abbey [ Lancashire | 

Furruckabad, district, 22 

Furnickabad, town, 23 

Furs and Fur Trade, 23 

Furstenberg, 25 

Ftirth, 25 

FuNcin, 25 

Fusee [ Horology | 

F6seli, 35 

Fusion, 26 

Fust, or Faust, 26 

Fustian, 26 

Fustij, 27 

Fusus [Siphonoetomata] 

Futtehghiir, 27 

Futtijiorw, 27 

Future [Time J 

Fuse, 27 

F) sabad, 27 



G. 



G. This letter is derived from the Latin alphabet>iii which 
it first appears. In the Greek alphabet its place is sup- 
plied hy zet(U If» as seems probable, the sound of this 
Greek letter was the same as the consonantal sound at the 
beginning of the word judge (see Z), it may perhaps be 
inferred that the hissing sound now given to the letter g 
existed already in some dialect of antient Italy. The sound 
at any rate is fhmiliar to the modern Italian. The sonndof 
the letter g in theSnglish language is two-fold. Before a, o, 
and f«, and occasionally before t and e, it is the medial letter 
of the guttural order. The other sound, which it possesses 
only beiure t and e, is one of the medials of the sibilant 
series, and is also represented by the letter j as pronounced 
by the £nglish. [Alphabbt, p. 379.] The sibilant sound 
is written in Italian by two letters, gi, asGiaoomo» Jacob, or 
by gg, as oggi, to-day. The two-fold nature of the sound 
corresponds to the double sound of the letter e, which is 
sometimes a A, sometimes an t. [See C.] 

The guttural^ is liable to many changes in different dia* 
lects or languages. 

1. g and A areoonTertibie. Thus the Greek and Latin 
forms genu, ymm; gen, ytv, as seen in genius, yiv^oc, 
gi|g(6)n/>, yt|7(i)V|eiiaA; gno, yvw, as seen in gno^oo, 
yt^yvw^wM ; severally correspona to the German and Eng- 
lish kmcknee; kind, kim kenn^M, know. 

2. g and an aspirated guttural: as, Greek, xnv; German, 
gam ; English, j^oof« and gander. Perhaps x^*'*^ may be 
related to the German gaffen and Englisn gape, Tiiere 
can be no doubt as to the connexion between the Greek 
X^cc. the Latin he9-ternus, and the German ges-tem. The 
close connexion of the two sounds may also be seen in the 
pronunciation of .the final g in high German like cA, as 
Ludmg, &c. 

3. g and A. As the letter A, when pronounced at all, is 
only a weak aspirate, this interchange strictly belongs to 
the last head. As an additional example, we may refer to 
the Latin word galltu, which has all the appearance of 
being a diminutive, like b^liua, tslitsi, dieilus, from benus, 
until, asinui. If this be admitted, the primitive was pro- 
oably ganu$; and we see its corresponding form in the Ger- 
man AoAn, a cock. 

4. g often disappears : First, at the beginning of a word, 
as in the Latin anter, a goose, oompar^ with the forms 
given above, and in the English enrmgh compared with the 
German genug. A large number of examples of this may 
be seen in the poetical participles of the English lan|;uage, 
commencing with a y, as ffclepit ychtd, &c. ; also m ago 
for agone; in all of which the fuller ibrm began with ge, 
as is siill seen in German. The loss of ^ is particularly 
common before / and n, as Eng. Hke^ Germ, gleich; Lst 
noico, noMcoTt from gnoteo, gncuear. Secondly, in the 
middle of words between vowels. This may be seen in 
French words derived fh>m the Latin, as: iegere, /trtf, 
read; magister, maiitre, master; Ligerts, Loire, &c.; 
also in English words connected with German; as, nagel, 
nail; teg^ eail; regen^ rain^ &c. In such cases the 
vowel is generally lengthened. Lastly, at the end of words, 
as, tof^ent eay; mag, may; tag, day: here ag^in the syl- 
lable is strengthened. 

6. g and y are convertible : as, yeiter-day, compared with 
the Germ, geeiem ; yawn with g^hnm ; yeUow inihgelb. 
In our own language we find related Wids showing this 
difference: yonl and garden ; tfate, a dialectic variety of 
gate ; yave for gave (Percy's fleliques, i, p. 294, note) ; 
and yode\ a perfect of to go (Glossary of same). 

6. g with gu and tr. In the Latin language there co-ex* 
ut the forms tinguo, ttngo ; unguo, ungo ; urgueo, urgeo, 
&c. In the French language gu is presentea to the eve, 
but ^ to the ear, in the following : guerre, gv^pe, guaraer, 
&c. ; while in English we have war, waep, ward or guard. 
Under this head it may be observed, first, that a final w in 
the English language often corresponds to a guttural in 
other Teutoato dialects, as eaw, raw, crow, row, maw, &c. ; 
secondly, that we often have two letters, ow, where the Ger- 
man has a guttural g, as friUow, eorrow, morrow, JUrrow, 
gaiiowe, marrow, borrow, barrow, 

7. g and A. This is generally confined to those casea at 



the beginning of words, when an r or / follows, as in the 
^olio forms, yXtfapov, yXnx**^^ yaXayoc, in place of 
pXtfapov, pXfixf^p, paKavoe, Hence the Latin gldhe. So 
the Turks have given to Prussia the name of Gharandaberk, 
L e. Brandenburg, 

8. g and d:BB in-utirnp for yit-Mifnjp. Examples of this 
interchange may be neard from tne mouth of nearly every 
child in its first attempts to speak, as Dy Plot fat Ouy 
Fawkee, doodboy, do away, &c. This change, as in the last 
case, is common before /; hence the Latm duicie by the 
side of the Greek yXvcvc. 

9. The guttural a and the sibilant g. It was stated in C 
that the hard souna of that letter in the Western languages 
of Europe often corresponded to a hissing sound in the 
Eastern. So too the hard g belongs to Europe, the^ sound 
to Asia. Thus reg, a king, is in the East rc^ak. 

10. Hie sibilant jF and di or bi before a vowel. For ex- 
amples see D and S. 

11.^ appears to attach itself to the letter r at the end of 
roots : aa, mergfi, spargfi, compared respectively with the 
Latin mare and the Greek omtp^. This outgrowth corre- 
sponds to the addition of d at the end of roots ending in n. 
[See D.] The two liquids take as an addition the medial 
consonants of their own order, the dental n preferring the 
dental d, while r takes to it the guttural g. 

G (in music), the fifth note or degree of the diatonic 
scale, answering to the eol of the Italians and French. It 
is also a name of the treble clef. [Clxf.] 

GABION, a hollow cylinder of wicker-work, resembling 
a basket, but having no bottom. It is formed by planting 
slender stakes vertically in the ground, at intervals from 
each other on the circumference of a ci^e, and interweav- 
ing with them osiers or other flexible twigs. 

The most usual kind of gabion is about 20 inches in 
diameter, and 2 feet 9 inches in height, but the stakes, 
whose extremities are pointed, project beyond the basket- 
work about 3 or 4 inches at eacn end. The lower ends of 
the stakes, by entering the ground, serve to keep the gabion 
in its place when set up ; and as it is usual to increase the 
height of a row of gabions by placing along their tops a 
triple line of fascines, the upper ends of the stakes retain 
the fascines in their places bv entering between the rods. 

Such gabions are used during a siege in executing 
trenches oy the process of sapping; for this purpose they 
are placed on end, with their sides inclining a little out- 
war^ on that side of the line of approach which is nearest 
to the fortress ; and, being filled with earth obtained by the 
excavation of the trench, they form a protection against the 
fire of the enemy. After the gabions are filled, the required 
thickness is given to the parapet of the trench by throwing 
the earth beyond the line. 

Gabions of the same kind are sometimes used to form a 
revetment for the interior of the epaulement of a battery ; 
being then placed on end in two or more horizontal rows, 
one above the other, and leaning against the mass of earth. 
Four or five gabions line each side or cheek of the embra- 
sure at the neck or interior extremity of the latter. 

What is called a sap-roller consists of a gabion placed 
within a larger one, so that their a&es are coincident ; each 
is about 8 feet long, but the diameter of the exterior gabion 
is 4 feet, and that of the other 2 feet 9 inches, and the 
interval between the two is filled with brushwood or any 
light material by which the whole may be rendered mus- 
ket-proof. This is used to cover the sappers in Aront, while 
employed in excavating the approaches near the fortress, 
being rolled forward as the work advances. 

It lias been recommended to place a row of small gabions^ 
in the form of frustums of cones, along the crest of a para- 
pet, Jn order to cover the heads of the defenders : bags of 
earth are usually employed for this purpose ; but if gabions 
should be preferred, their large ends must be placed up- 
wards, so as to leave between every two at bottom a loop- 
hole for musketry 

A gabionnade is any lodgment oonsistmg of a parapet 
hastify formed by placing' on the ground a row of gabions, 

I and nlUng them with earth obtained by digging a trench 
parallel to the tine, in their rear. • 



6 A E 



32 



O A E 



OABRES. rO0BBSK9.1 

GADEBUSCH, FREDERIC CX>NRAD, a learned 
Oerman* born in 1 7 1 9, in the island of Rugen. After having 
■tudied at different universities of Germanv, he went, in 
1750, to Livonia, where he remained till his death in 1788. 
He was a very laborious writer, and left several works in 
German, which throw considerable light on the history of 
the Baltic provinces of Russia. His principal works are: 
* Memoir on the Historians of Livonia,' Riga, 1772; 
'Ltvonian Bibliotheca,' Riga, 1779; 'Essays on the His- 
tory and Laws of Livonia,* Riga, 1777-1785; * Annals of 
Livonia, from 1030 to 1761,' 8 vols, in 8vo., Riga, 1780-1783. 

GADES. [Cadiz.] 

GADFLY. [CEsTRiD«.] 

GADID^, a family of fishes of which the common cod- 
fish may serve as the type. [Abdominalbs; Malacop- 

TERYOIl.] 

GAEU GAELIC. Although the language spoken by 
the Scottish Highlanders is famHiarly known among the 
Lowlanders by the name of the Erae^ or, according to the 
more usual pronunciation, the Ersh, that is, plainly, the 
Birish or Irish, the people themselves are never called by 
that name. Among the Hic^hlanders the name Erso is un- 
known, either as that of the nation or of the language. 
They call themselves only the Gadhel^ also sometimes writ- 
ten and always pronounced GaeU and their lan&cuage the 
Oaedheilgt pronounced Gaeilfi^, or, nearly Gaelic. The name 
Gaelic is also in familiar use among the Lowlanders as that 
of the language. Further, the only name by which the 
Irish are known to the Scottish Highlanders is Gael; the 
latter call themselves Gael Albinnim, or the Gael of Albin, 
and the Irish Gael Erinnich, or the Gael of Krin. The Irish 
also call themselves the Gadhel, or Gael, and their language 
the Gaelic, Finally, the Welsh call the Irish Gtct/ddel, 
which is evidently the same word with Gadhel, or Gael. 

This is nearly all that can be stated as matter of fact in 
regard to the name Chel, The rest is all speculation and 
conjecture : of that, however, few words have given rise to 
so much. We shall not here attempt to do more than to 
indicate and arrange the various points as to which many 
volumes of philological and historical controversy have 
been written. 

1. It has been generally assumed and admitted that the 
modern Gael are a portion of the Gallic or Gauls, of anti- 
qmty, the people wno gave its former name to the country 
DOW called France, and who were principally, though by no 
means exclusively, known to the Greeks and Romans as 
the inhabitants of that region. Although however this 
opinion has been commonly adopted, the grounds upon 
which it has been taken up do not appear to be very 
oondusive. They are principally the similarity of the two 
names-^some historical and traditional testimony^ to the 
fiiot that South Britain was originallv peopled firom Gaul — 
some traces, rather faint and disputable, ox identity of insti- 
tutions and customs^and what would be the strongest ar- 
gument, if it were well made out, the evidences of identity 
of language conceived to be established by the comparison 
of the names of places in France, and a few other remains 
of the old language spoken there, with the modem Gaelic of 
Scotland and Ireland. But the supposition is not unattended 
with difficulties, and if adopted it does not clear up the ques- 
tion of how the Gauls got either to Scotland or to Ireland. 

9. Supposing the Gael to be the Galli of the Roman 
writers, and the Galatai {VaKarai) of the Greeks, a ques- 
tion arises as to whether these names are the same with 
the CeUm or Celtic or Keltai (KcXraOi sometimes spoken 
of by the antients as a general name for the Gauls, some- 
times as the name of only a certain portion of the Gauls. 
[CiLTJB.] And if the Gauls and the Celte were distinct 
names, it remains to be settled which was the general name 
of the nation, and which the name only of the division or 
tribe. Several antient writers have represented the Celts to 
be the most antient name of the nation, and the Gauls to 
be a name substituted at a comparatively late period ; but 
it has been contended in modern times on very plausible 
grounds that this notion is a mistake, and that the Celts 
were only a section of the Gauls, which was always the ge- 
neric name. 

3. Then there has been a world of controversy about the 

origin and meaning of both Gael and Celt (antiently, it is 

■^membered, pronounced Kelt) ; the confusion here 

being increased by the difference of opinion as to 

IT theae are different words or only different forms of 



the same word. Of Gaol, taken by itself and assumed (o lie 
different from Celt, it cannot be said that anything ha«b<ri) 
made; all the derivations suggested are puerile. On xUr 
assumption that it is the same with Celt, it lias In^en rouLti 
perhaps somewhat less intractable : but this cannot W r^- 
ceivea as a proof that that assumption is correct. The ni . - 1 
probable account of Celt is that which connects it wiih tiio 
Gaelic Caoill, a wood — ^perhaps the same with the Grci L 
Kalon (KoXoy) wood-~ whence Cadltich, a people inhabit 1 1 < 
a woody country. This is also the origin commonly a&Ki«^ni <l 
to the name Caledonii; which is supposed to be Cofiildantn' . 
literally ' wood-people,' or people or the woods. The inqu)i> 
into the meaning of the wora Gitel has been greatly imi; 
barrassed by its similarity to another word still used in ihc 
Gaelic both of Scotland and Ireland, and which curiou»ly 
enough seems to have the very opposite meaning to Ga**!. 
Thus, while the Scottish Highlanders call thraa«elve4» Gml, 
they call all the rest of the Scotch, who do not speak Gurlic, 
by the name of Gaoill, or in the singular Gaoll, which ih< > 
understand to mean strangers or foreigners. Thus GiUili- 
dock is tlie country of the scots who speak Englisli : Gad- 
doehtWie country of the Highlanders who speak Gaelic. In 
the same manner Gall is the Irish term for a stranger, or 
one speaking a different language ; but it is very remaik- 
able that this fact should have been advanced by Mr. Moon* 
in his late ' History of Ireland' (i. 3) as a proof that the Irish 
do not consider themselves as being of Graulish origin, wh le 
he must have known that they at tne same time eaX\ them* 
selves Gael — a fact however to which he has not, as far a« 
we can find, adverted in any part of his work. Then, after 
all, comes to be considered the possible connection between 
cither Grael or Gaoll and the fVealh of the Anglo-Saxons 
whence our modem Welsh and Wales, and which seetu< to 
be the same with the Walsh, applied generally to foreii;ncr» 
by the modern Germans. Were the Cymry called Wealh by 
the Saxons (whence the French have made Galles, as t»c 
have made JVeUh) because they were considered to be Gael or 
Gauls, or because they were held to be strangers, foreigners, 
aliens ? — or is it possible that the two words which appiMi 
in the modem Gaelic and Irish in the slightly distinguiNh- 
able forms of Gael and Gaoll or Gall, notwitlistanding their 
apparently opposite significations, may after all be only dii* 
ferent forms of the same word ? 

4. The last class of disputed points we shall mention 
are those arising out of the history of the various nations 
and languages which are either Gaelic, or have by sotuo 
been assutned to be Gaelic. What was the real amouui «it 
the connection or distinction between the antient Gauls and 
Germans? In what relation to either stood the Iberians' 
in what the Celtiberians ? in what the Aquitaniaus ? Were 
the Cimbri Gauls or Germans ? Were the Belgn GauU or 
Germans ? Whether or in what degree is the Gaelic tongue 
related to what have been called the Indo-Germanic lan- 
guages ? Is there any connection, and to what amount. 
between the Gaelic and the Semitic languages? Tbei<« 
are the principal questions that have been a?itat(\l 
with regard to tne Gael or supposed Gael of the antient 
world. Their modern history nas afforded fully as m:in> 
more. Was Britain originally peopled by a Gallic or Ger- 
manic race? Were tlie Picts Gauls or Germans ? Were the 
Caledonians GauLs or Germans? Were the more recetulv- 
settled colonists whomCoMar found in the South of Britain 
of Gallic or Germanic stock, and did they speak a Gaelic 
or Teutonic language ? What is the deeree of affinity between 
the Welsh tongue and that spoken by the native Irish an<l t le 
Highlanders of Scotland? Is it a dialect of the same tongue, 
or (as has lately been strenuously maintained) a language v\ 
altogether a distinct family? Is the Basque a Celtic dialei : .' 
Whence came the Irish, supposing them to be Gael - U\^n 
India? or Persia? or Phosnicia? or Spain? or Frauee" 
or England? or Scotland? Were the ScoUor Milebi:in«« .f 
Ireland a Gallic or Germanic people? What is tlieongtn ••!' 
the present Highlanders of Scotland? Are they the prop^nv 
of a comparatively recent Irish colonization, as has of late 
been generally agreed, and as their own traditions h^\K 
always asserted ? or are they the descendants of the auucnt 
Caledonians, assumed on that supposition to be GauK. an i 
to have been the original population of the whole islan*!. 
who were, probably a short time before the commencement 
of the Christian nra, driven from South to North Bniain 
before a new immigration from the continent? All or m«.»^t 
of these may be considered as questions stiU doubtful and 
disputed. 



OAF 



33^ 



G A I 



It woQ\ti occujfv much more space than we can afford to 
enumerate even the more important works in which these 
various controverted points have been discussed in our own 
and other languages. We shall only mention that the most 
rec^^nt publication which has appeared on the subject of 
the Gael in English is 'The Hignlanders of Scotland, their 
Origin, History, and Antiquities,' by W. F. Skene, 2 vols. 
8vo. London, 1837,bein^ an essay to which a prize had been 
awarded by the Highland Society of London. Mr. Skene's 
views and reasoning's are of very considerable inge- 
nuity as well as novelty ; but whatever may be thought of 
the part of it which relates to the origin of the Gael, the 
work is undoubtedly in other respects one of the most im- 
portant contributions to early Scottish history that modem 
research has furnished. 

GAE^IA, a strongly fortified town and a bishop's see in 
the province of Terra di Lavoro in the kingdom of Naples, 
is situated on a lofty promontory which projects into the 
Mediterranean, and forms one side of the gulf of the same 
nutne, the antient Sinus Formianus, which almost rivals in 
beauty of scener}' the neighbouring Bay of Naples. The 
islands of Ponza, Vandotena, and Ischia are seen at a dis- 
tance. Inland to the northwards, the Apennines rise above 
the wide unwholesome plains extending to the sea-coast : 
through these plains Hows the Garigliano, or Liris, near the 
mouth of which stood the antient Mintumo}, of which few 
traces remain except some arches of its aqueduct. In the 
immediate neighbourhood of Gaeta the Formian hills are 
covered with vineyards, olives, oranges, and other fruit- 
trees, and at the foot of them, in the innermost recess of the 
gulf, is Mola, near the site of the antient Formise, which 
was destroyed by the Saracens in the ninth century. Cicero's 
Formianum was in this neighbourhood, about half-way be- 
tween Mola and Gaeta, at a place called Castellone (' Anti- 
chita Ciceroniane ed Iscrizione esistenti nella villa Formiana 
in Castellone di Gaeta,' by the Prince of Caposele, Naples, 
1827, with plates). The monument near Mola, which is vul- 
garly called Torre di Cicerone, is not the tomb of the 
orator. 

Gaeta with its suburbs has a population of about 10,000 
inhabitants, exclusive of the garrison. It has svistained 
several sieges, the last of which was in 1806 against the 
French. It has a harbour, and carries on some trade by 
sea. Caieta, which appears to have been an old Greek 
colony, was not a place of great importance under the Ro- 
mans ' it has however some remains of antiquity, among 
others the circular monument called Torre di Orlando, 
which is the mausoleum of L. Munatius Plancus, a friend 
of Augustus ; and another tower, called Latratina, which 
was once part of a temple. In the cathedral is a baptismal 
vase of Parian marble with highly finished rilievos, be- 
sides other remains. Gaeta is the head town of a district 
which extends from the Garigliano to the frontier of Rome. 
[Terra di Lavoro.] 

GAFFURIUS. [Gaforius.] 

G AFOOIIUS. FRANCHl'NUS, or FRANCHINO GA- 
FORI, a very learned writer on music, was bom of humble 
parents, at Lodi, in 1451. In his boyhood he was devoted to 
the sei*vice of the church, and among other branches of 
knowledge to which he applied himself with marked dili- 
gence, he studied music under a Carmelite friar named 
Godcndach, of which science, both theoretically and prac- 
tically, he became a complete master. It does not seem 
certain that the sacerdotal dignity was ever conferred on 
iiim, though it has been confidently stated that he entered 
into holy orders. He first went to Verona, publicly taught 
music there dunng some few years, and also wcote 
his work. Muncee Institutiones Collocutiones. The repu- 
tation ho thereby acquired, procured him an invitation 
from the Doge to visit Genoa, which he accepted, but soon 
after proceeded to Naples, where he met Tinctor, Gamerius, 
Ilycart, and other celebrated musicians, and, according to 
the usage of the time, held public disputations with them. 
At Naples be also produced his Theoricum Opus Harmo- 
niea? Dtsciplin€&. But the Turks having brought war and 
the plague into tlie Neapolitan territory, he was driven from 
that part of Italy, and by the persuasion of Pallavicini, 
bishop of Monticello, returned to Lodi, gave lectures on 
music, and began his PracHca Mu*%C€e lUriusque Cantus, 
his greatest work, which was first printed at Milan in 1496. 
Of this. Sir J. Hawkins has given a copious abstract, an 
honour to which it was entitled, not only on account of it 
intrinsic merit, but because it is the first treatise on the ar 
P. C, No. 662. 



that ever appeared in print. It is full cf that kind of infor- 
mation which was called for, and proved eminently ui^efulat 
the period in which it was published, quickly spreading the 
author's fame throughout Europe. 6ut, touched by the 
pedantic spirit of the age, he invented terms that must have 
cost him infinite labour to compound, and which doubtless 
exacted no less from his readei-s before they could understand 
them. His work lying before us, we are tempted to give a 
specimen of the language of art adopted in the flfteemlih 
century, as it appears in the heading of one of his chapteis : 
De Proportione Sitbquadruplasupertripartientiquarta, 

Gaforius (erroneously called Grafi'urius by Hawkins, 
Burney, &c.) wrote other works, which were held in high 
estimation. It is supposed that he died in or about the 
year 1620. 

GAGE, any apparatus for measuring the state of a phe- 
nomenon. But the term is usually restricted to some par* 
ticular instruments, such as the gage of the air-pump, 
which points out the degree of exhaustion in the receiver, 
the wind-gage [Anemometer], the tide-gage, &c., &c., all 
of which are mentioned in connexion with their several 
subjects. 

GAHNITE, a mineral so called from the name of its 
discoverer, Grahn; it is sometimes also called automalite 
and zinciferous spinel. It occurs crystallized in regular 
octohedrons and varieties. Sp. gr. from 4*1 to 4*8. Hard- 
ness 8. It is of a dark bluish-green colour, nearly opaque ; 
may be cleaved parallel to all its planes. Before the blow- 
pipe it is unalterable alone, and nearly so with fluxes. 

It occurs at Fahlun, in Sweden, and Franklin, in Ame- 
rica ; both varieties have been analyzed by Abich, with 
the annexed results * — 





Sweden. 


America. 


Alumina . • 


. 55*14 


57-09 


Silica . • . 


. 3-84 


1-22 


Magnesia . . 


. 5-25 


2-22 


Oxide of Zinc . 


. 30-02 


34"80 


, , Iron . 


5-85 
inn 


4-55 

•1 _ ..0 



99*88 

GAIL, JEAN BAPTISTE, born at Paris in 1753, dis- 
tinguished himself in the study of Greek, and was made, in 
1 791, Professor of Greek Literature in the College de France. 
In 1 794 he married Mademoiselle Sophie Garre, who after- 
wards became celebrated as a musical composer. Her hus- 
band has written a number of works, chiefly translations 
from the Greek ; a Greek grammar, 1799, with a supple- 
ment, or ' Essai sur les Prepositions Grecques consid^rees 
sous le rapport G^o^aphique,' 1821 ; and ' Cours de Langue 
Grecque, ou Extraits de differens Auteurs,' in four parts, 
1797-99. He wrote also 'Observations sur les Idylles de 
Th^ocriteet les Eclogues de Virgile,' 1805; and lastly ho 
furnished the materials for the * Atlas eontenant par ordre 
de temps, les Cartes relatives k la Geographie d'Herodoto, 
Thucyaide, Xenophon, les plans de bataille,' &c., 4to. 
Paris; to which are added 'Observations Pr^liminaires,* 
and an Index, by Gail. Grail was made Knight of the Le- 
gion of Honour by Louis XVIIL, and Knight of St Wladi- 
mir by the Emperor Alexander. 

GAILLAC. [TarnJ 

GAILLARD. GABRIEL HENRI, a celebrated mo- 
dern French historian, was bom in 1 726. After receiving 
a good education, he was admitted advocate at an early age, 
but he soon left the bar in order to devote himself entirely 
to literature. In 1 745, when he was only 1 9 years old, he 
wrote a treatise on rhetoric for the use of young ladies. In 
1757 he published the History of Mary of Burgundy, 
daughter of Charles the Bold and wife of the Emperor 
Maximilian I. This work had great success. In 1766 was 
published his 'History of Francis I. of France.' It is the 
general opinion that he did full justice to this subject, 
though he presented it in a rather uninviting form for the 
generality of readers, having divided the history of that 
celebrated reign into separate parts, such as civil, poli- 
tical, military, ecclesiastical, and literary history, the private 
Ufe of the king, &c. The author adopted the same plan in 
his * History of Charlemagne,' 1 782, in 4 vols. 4to. Besides 
the objection to his mode of dividing the subject-matter, it 
was further objected to the ' History of Charlemagne' that 
he had sunk the biography of his hero between two long 
dissertations on the first and second races of the Frencli 
kings. Notwithstanding these defects, the work met with 
great success, and received tlte praises of Gibbon and of 

Vol. XI.-F 



G A I 



34 



G A I 



the oelebratad German lustomn Hegewiielu who 
wrote a history of Charlemagrie in German. The best 
vork of Gaillard is his * History of the Rivalry between 
France and England,* of which the first three volumes ap- 
peared in 1771, the four following in 1774, and the four 
concluding volumes in 1777. This work embraces not only 
the political and military relations between the two coun- 
tries, but also the internal history of both, so arranged as to 
S resent a constant parallelism. His * H istory of the Rivalry 
etween France and Spain,* 8 vols, in 12mOn a work highly 
appreciated in France, is written on the same plan. 
Gaillard was the author of the * Historical Dictionary' in 
the * Encyclopedic M6thodique,* 6 vols, in 4to., and many 
other minor works, the most valuable of which ai^ a ' Life 
of Malesherb^,* his personal friend, 1605, 1 vol. 8vo. ; and 
• Observations on the History of France,* by Velly, Villaret, 
and Gamier, 4vols. l2mo, 1606. Gaillard died in 1606, in 
consequence of his severe application. His moral character 
stood very high. 

GAINSBOROUGH, an antient market-town and parish 
situated on the eastern bank of the Trent, in the county of 
Lincoln, 149 miles N. by W. from London. Gainsborough 
is noted as being the place whera the Danes anchored at 
the period when the surrounding country was devastated by 
their sanguinary tyrant Swejrne, and where he was stabbed 
by an unknown hand when ou the point of re-embarking. 
It is also the birth-place of Simon Patrick, the learned and 
pious bishop of Ely, who died in 1707. The town is 
well paved and lighted, and consists principally of one street 
running paurallel to the river, which is here crossed by a 
fine stone bridge of three elliptical arches. The townhall, 
wherein the sessions were formerly held, is a substantial 
brick building, beneath which is the gaol. The living is a 
vicarage in the diocese of Lincoln, and in the patronage of 
the bishop of that see, with an annual net income of 529/. 
Gainsborough is advantageously situated both for foreign 
and inland trade. By means of the Trent, which fells into 
the H umber about 20 mQes below the town, vessels of 200 
tons are enabled to come up to the wharfs, and by the 
Readley, Chesterfield, and other canals a communication is 
kept up with the interior of the country. The market-day 
is Tuesday, and the fairs for cattle, &c. are held on Easter* 
Tuesday and the 20th of October. In 1831 the entire narish, 
including the hamlets of Morton, East Stockwith, and Wal- 
kerith, contained 7635 inhabitants. There is a charity 
school at which the children of the poor are taught reading, 
writinfr, and the elements of arithmetic 

GAINSBOROUGH, THOMAS, bom in 1727, at Sud- 
bury, in Suffolk, was one of the most eminent English 
landscape painters of the last century. His father bein? a 
person in narrow circumstances, the education wl\ich ^is 
son received was very scanty ; and it is probable enough 
that in his boyish days he passed much less time at school 
than in the woods of Suffolk, where he acquired that relish 
for the beauties of quiet nature and that intimate acquaint^ 
ance with them for which his early pictures are so peculiarly 
distinguished. Having almost from his childhood amused 
himself with sketching any object that struck his fancy, 
ail old tree, a group of cattle, a shepherd and his dog, &c., 
he ventured on colouring, and had painted several land- 
scapes before he was twelve years of age, when he was sent to 
I^ndon. There he was for some time with Mr. Gravelot, 
the engraver, and Hayman, the painter, with whom he did 
not remain long, but setting up as a portrait-painter, sup- 
]>orted himself, till, at the age of nineteen, he married a 
young lady who had a fortune of 200/. per annum. On his 
marrtage he went to Ipswich, where he resided till 1758, 
when he removed to Bath. Having practised portrait- 
painting with increasing success, he removed in 1774 to 
London ; and having painted portraits of some of the royal 
family, which were much admired, he soon acquired ex- 
tensive practice and proportionate emolument But though 
his )M>rtraits were much valued at the time as striking like- 
nesses, this was too frequently their only merit : they were 
oflen painted in a rough careless manner, in a style of 
hatching and scumbling entirely his own, producing in- 
deed an effect at a distance, but undetermined and indis- 
tinct when viewed near. At times he would take more 
pains, and show what he could do. But Gainsborough, in 
fact, considered this loose manner as peculiarly excellent, 
1 desirous that his pictures in the Exhibition might 
ing as to be within reach of close inspection. With 
hit feme rests on his landscapes, and what might 



be called feninr-pieees, mieh ta the celebrated 'Cotta^ 
Door,* now in the collection of the Marquis of Westminster. 
There is however a wonderftil difference between his early^ 
and his later performances. In the former every feature m 
copied flrom nature in its ipeatest detail, and Vet without 
stiffness ; so that thev look like nature itself reflected in a 
convex mirror. In his latter works striking effect, great 
breadth, and judicious distribution of light and shade, pnv 
duee a erand and even a solemn impression. Both have 
their admirers, as tastes differ ; but though he mav not 
deserve to be ranked as some would have him, with Van- 
dyck, Rubens, and Claude, in portrait and in landscape, all 
will assent to the opinion of Sir Joshua Reynolds — * that 
if ever this nation should produce genius sufficient to ac- 
quire to us the honourable niistinction of an English schcv^I, 
tne name of Gainsborough will be transmitted to posterity 
as one of the very first of that rising name.* 

Gainsborough died of a cancer in the neck, in August, 
1788, in the sixty-first year of his age. 

GAIUS, or CA1U8, one of the Roman classical jurists 
whose works entitle him to a place among the great writon 
on law, such aa Papinian, Paulus, and Ulpian. Nothin? ii 
known of the personal historv of Craius beyond the probaMe 
fact that he wrote under Antoninus Pius and AureiiiN. 
His works were largely used in the compilation of the * Di- 
gest,* or * Pandect,' which contains extracts from the writ]ni:H 
of Gains under the following titles : — * Res Ck)ttidian» sue 
Aureorum,' (Dig. xl. 9, 10, &c.) ; 'De Casibus,' (xii. 6, G.{, 
&c.); 'Ad Edictum^dilium Curuliura,'(xxi. 1, 18, &r.): 
• Liber ad Edictum Prwtoris Urbani,* xl. 12, 6, &c.) ; * Ad 
Edict um Provincial e,* (xiv. 4, 9, &c.), which consisted of 
thirty books at least ; * Fidei Commissorum,' (xxxii. 1, U, 
&c.) ; ' Formula Hypothecaria,' (xx. 1, 4, &c.); * Institti- 
tiones,* (i. 6, 1, &c.) ; ' De V erborum Obligationibus,* (xUi. 
1, 70). There are also extracts from several other works of 
Gains in the ' Pandect* 

The ' Institutions* of Gains were probably the earliest at- 
tempt to present a sketch of the Roman law in the form of 
an elementary text-book. This work continued in general 
use till the compilation of the 'Institutions' which bearthr 
name of Justinian, and which were not only mainly basd 
on the 'Institutions* of Gaius, but, like this earlier work,trcre 
divided into four books, with the same general distribution 
of the subject matter as that adopted by Gaius. 

The ' Institutions' of Gaius appear to have been neglected 
after the promulgation of Justinian's compilation, and wcrv 
finally lost. All that remained was the detached pieces 
collected in the * Digest,' and what could be gathered from 
the ' Breviarium Alaricianum,' as the code of the Visigoths 
is sometimes called. But in 1816, Niebuhr discovered a 
MS. in the library of the chapter of Verona, which he s^- 
certained to be a treatise on Roman law, and which Sa> igny, 
founding his opinion on the specimenpublisbed by Niebuhr, 
conjectured to be the ' Institutions' or Gains. 

This conjecture of Savigny was soon fUlly confirmed, 
though the MS. has no author's name on it Goescben, 
Bekker, and HoUweg undertook to examine and copy this 
MS., an edition of which appeared at Berlin in 1 820, editi'^l 
by Goeschen. To form some idea of the labour necessary 
to decipher this MS., and of the patient perseverance of tiic 
scholara who undertook this formidable task, the reader 
must refer to the report of Groeschen to the Academy of 
Berlin, November 6, 1817. The MS. consists of one hun- 
dred and twenty-seven sheets of parchment, the oricmal 
writing on which was the four books of the 'Institutions' «>f 
Gaius. This original writing had on some pages bi*en 
washed out, so far as was practicable, and on others 
scratched out ; and the whole, with the exception of two 
sheets, had been re- written with the epistles of St Jerome. 
The lines of the original and of the substituted writing run 
in the same direction, and often cover one another; a cir< 
cumstance which considerably increased the difficulty of deci- 
phering the text of Gaius. In addition to this, sixty -three 
pages had been written on three times : the first writing ^ a^ 
the text of Gains, which had been erased ; and the second, 
which was a theological work, had shared the same fate, 
to make room for the epistles of St. Jerome. 

A second examination of this MS. was made by Blubme 
(Preefatio Nova Bditi(mu\ and a new edition of the * In- 
stitutions' was published by Goeschen, at Berlin, in IS24. 
which presents us with an exact copy of the MS. with all 
its deficiencies, and contains a most copious list of the ab- 
breviations used by the oopyist of Gains. 



GAL 



96 



GAL 



The discovery of a work* tfae Ion of wluu^ had «a long 
been regretted, produced a most lively sensation among 
continental jurists, and called forth a great number of essays. 
In England it has yet attracted little attention beyond a su- 
perficial notice in the 'Edinburgh Review' (vol. xlviii., p. 
385), and an occasional allusion to it elsewhere, though it is 
undoubtedly one of the most valuable additions that have 
been made in modern times to our knowledge of Roman Law. 
The fourth book of the ' Institutions ' is particularly useful 
for the information which it contains on actions arid the 
forms of procedure. The style of Craiua, like that of 
all the classical Roman jurists, is perspicuous and yet 
concise. 

One of the most useful editions of Gkdus is that by Klenze 
and Bocking (Berlin, 1029), which contains the * Institutions' 
of Gains and Justinian, so arranged as to present a parallel- 
ism, and to furnish a proof, if any were yet wanting, that the 
MS. of Verona is the genuine work of 6aius. 

In addition to the references already made, the reader 
may consult an ingenious essay by Goeschen on the ' Res 
Quotidianse,' of Gaius {2^ischrift fur Geschichtliche 
JRechtswissenschqfty Berlin* 1815); Hugo, 'Lehrbuch der 
Geschichte des R^mischen Rechts ;' Dupont, ' Disquisit. in 
Commentarium iv. Instit. Graii,' &c., Lugd. Bat. 1822. 
GALACZ. [Moldavia-] 
GALA'GO. [LbmuridA.] 

GALANGA, or GALANGAL, is usually supposed to 
have been introduced by the Arabs, but it was previously 
mentioned by iStius. Ilie Arabs call it Kholingan, which 
appears to be derived from the Hindu Koolinjan, or San- 
scrit Koolimjtma, indicating the country whence they de- 
rived the root, as well as the people from whom they 
obtained their information respecting its uses. The plant 
which yielded this root was long unknown, and it was 
supposed to be that of a pepper, of an iris, of Acorus 
Calamus, or to be the Acorus of the antients. Ksempferia 
Galanga was so called from its aromatic roots being sup- 
posed to be the true Galangal. The tubers of Cyperus 
longta were sometimes substituted, and called English Go- 
l<mgai. Two kinds, the large and the small galan^l, are 
described ; these are usually considered to be derived from 
the same plant at different stages of its growth, but Dr. 
Ainslie, in his ' Materia Indica,' insists upon the greater 
value of the lesser, as this is warmer and more fragrant, 
and therefore highly prized in India. It is a native of 
China, and the plant producing it is unknown. Dr. Ainslie 
does not prove that it is the Galanga minor of Europe. 

The greater Gtdan^l has long been known to be the 
produce of a Scitammeous plant, the Galanga mijjor of 
Kumphius (Herb. Amb, 5. t. 63), which is the Alpittia Ga- 
langa of Wildenow, and a native of China and the Malayan 
Archipeli^o. It is fully described by Dr. Roxburgh, in 
his Flora Indica^ vol. L p. 28, ed. WalL The roots, peren- 
nial and tuberous, like those of the ginger, were ascer- 
tained by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Comb to be identical 
with the Galan^ major of the shops. This is cylindrical, 
often forked, thick as the thumb, reddish brown externally, 
marked with whitish circular rings, internally lighter co- 
loured, of an agreeable aromatic smell, and a hot spicy 
taste, like a mixture of pepper and ginger, with some bit- 
terness. The stem is perennial, or at least more durable 
than those of herbaceous plants ; when in flower, about six 
or seven feet in length; its lower half invested by leafless 
sheaths. Xlie leaves are two-ranked, laneeolar, from twelve 
to twenty-four inches long, and from four to six broad. 
Panicle terminal, crowned with numerous branches, each 
supporting from two to five pale greenish-white and some- 
what fragrant flowers in April and May in Calcutta, where 
the seeds ripen, though rarely, in November. 

Several species of this genus have roots with somewhat 
similar properties. Thus Alpinia alba and Chinensis are 
much used by the Malays and Chinese; the former has 
hence been called Galanga alba of Kcsnig ; and the latter 
has an aromatic root with an acrid burning flavour. The 
fragrant root tif A, nutans is sometimes brought to England, 
according to Dr. Roxburgh, for Gralanga major. Its leaves, 
when bruised, have a strong smell of cardamums, and the 
Cardamomum plant is frequently placed in this genus, but 
has been described under Elettaria. 

GALANTHUS, a genus of Amaryllidaceous plants con- 
sisting of the Snowdrop and another species. The former 
plant is a native of subalpine woods in various parts of Eu- 
rope ; the seoond, which is the G, plicatus of TOtanists, in- 



hatbits the Asiatio provmcea of the RuanaxL and Torkldi 
empires. 

GALAPAGOS are a group of islands in the Pacifiop 
about 700 miles from the continent of South America, near 
the equator. They lie between 1° N. lat. and 2** S. lat., 
and between 89^ and 92** W. long., and consist of six larger 
and seven smaller islands. The largest is Albemarle 
Island, which is 60 miles in length, and about 15 broad. 
The highest part is 4000 feet above the sea. Charles Island, 
now called La floriana, is 20 miles long from north to 
south, and about 15 miles wide. 

There are few islands in the world whose volcanic origin 
is more incontestable than that of the Galapagos. They 
consist of enormous masses of lava, rising abruptly from a 
iathomless sea. Along the shores nothing but black 
dismal-looking heaps of broken lava meet the eye ; but in 
the interior, valleys and plains of moderate extent occur, 
which are covered with shrubs and that kind of cactus which 
is called prickly pear. This cactus supplies with food the 
land tortoises, which are called the great elephant-tortoises, 
their feet being like those of a small elephant. These 
animals grow to an enormous size, and frequently weigh 
300 or 400 pounds. There are also iguanas and innumer- 
able crabs. Pigeons also abound. 

The climate is not so hot as would be expected from the 
geographical position of the islands, which is partly to be 
ascribed to the elevation of their suriface (the settlement on 
La Floriana being 1000 feet above the level of the sea), and 
partly to the cold current which sets along the south- 
south-western side of the group to the north-north-west. 
The dry season occurs in our summer, when most of the 
water-pools dry up ; but at the setting-in of the rains, in 
November, they are again filled. Between May and De- 
cember the thermometer ranges between 52^ and 74^ and 
flrom January to May between 74° and 84°. Captain Hall 
found that it rose to 93°, but this may have been the effect 
of local circumstances. 

These islands were long considered as sterile rocks, and 
were first visited towards the end of the last century by the 
whalers of the Pacific Ocean, especially for the elephant- 
tortoises, which were caught in great number, and served 
the crews for fresh provisions. In 1 832 a settlement was 
formed by one Bilamil, an inhabitant of Guayaquil, who 
obtained a grant of the island of La Floriana from the go- 
vernment of Ecuador. The inhabitants cultivate bananas, 
sugar-cane, sweet potatoes, and Indian corn in such quan- 
tities, that they can provide with these articles the whalers, 
who frequently resort to the island. (Captain Basil H all's 
Extracts from a Journal, &c. ; London Geographical Jour- 
nal, vol. vi. ; Reynolds's Voyage of the U. S, frigate Poto- 
mac, &c.) 

GALATHE'A (Zoology), GALATHEA-TRIBE, GALA- 
THEIDiS, a group of Crustaceans corresponding with the 
genus GakUhea of Fabricius, and establishing, in the opinion 
of M. Milne Edwards, a passage between tne Anomurous 
and Macrurous Crustaceans, being more particularly ap- 
proximated to the Porcellanee, [Porcell ANiDiB.] Dr. Leac;h 
divided the genus established by Fabricius into four : viz. 
the true GaTathece, Munidea, Grimothea, and JSglea. M. 
Milne Edwards thinks that three of these genera should be 
preserved, but agrees with M. Desmarest in coming to the 
conclusion that the genus Munidea has not sufiicient cha- 
racteristics to admit of its adontion in a natural classifica- 
tion. With regard to Mglea, M. Milne Edwards considers 
it as approximating more to the PorcellantB than to the Ga- 
lathe^e, and as occupying a place in the section of the Ano- 
mura. 

The Galatheidee, then, according to the revision of M. 
Milne Edwards, are thus distinguished. Carapace depressed 
and wide, but still longer than its width, terminating ante- 
riorly by a rostrum more or less projecting, which covers the 
place of the ocular peduncles, and presents on its upper 
surface many furrows or wrinkles, among which, one deeper 
than the rest defines the posterior part of the stomachic 
region. Antennis inserted on the same transversal line; 
internal antennse but Uttle elongated, placed under the 
ocular peduncles, and terminated by two small, multiarti- 
culate, very short filaments; external antennse with no 
trace of palpiform appendages at their base, but with a 
cylindrical peduncle and a long and slender terminal fila- 
ment. External Jaw-feet (pates-mdchoires) always pedi- 
form, but varying a little in their conformation. Sternal 
plate (plastron sternal) widening a good deal posteriorly, 

F2 



GAL a 

•nd tbe ImI tbormcK niis otinarily dirtinct Ajnterior 
S( large «nd tem.in»l«d by a well fonned ctaw ; th™» of 
Ibe Ihree (oUowing p»i« of limbs mlier .tout, and toraw- 
n.te<i bv » ooniwl t.r.us ; flft h pair very .lendar, »nd folded 
■bo%« tte others in ll* brancbi.1 cavity ; thew Iwt do not 
»s«>t the locomotion, and are terminated by a rudinjeotajT 
hMid. Abdomen neurlv as wide as Ihe thorax, and longer. 
VBUlied above and armed on each side wilh a row of four or 
five IwvB t«!th formed by tbe lateral angle of the superior 
arch of the different rings composins; it, and terra inBled." 
in the Brealer part of the Macrurous Crustacean*, «ilh a 
laiee fui-shaped lamelHform fin. The number of abdominal 
fitUefft varies ; in Iho ma]e there are five paini. the two 
firat of which arc slender and elonEttWd. and the three last 
arc temiinale.1 by an oval lamina ciliated on the edge; in 
Ihe femak'. the first abdominal ring is without appendages, 
but the four followini scgmenla have each a pair of taise 
feet composed of three iomts placed end to end and fringea 
wilh haim fur Ihe otiachroent of the eggs. 
Genera. Galalliea. 
Getierw CAiwocfm— The whole surface of the Carapaa 
covL-red with transverse furrows fringed wiih small brush^ 
like hairs. Hepatic rcgioin. in f^nerol, well distinguished 
from Ihe branohisl. ani occupying with tbe glomachic re- 
gion nearly half of the space of ihe Carapace. Eottrimi 
projectinz and spiny; •ryetXvf^ and directed downwards; 
no trace of an orbit. A spine above the insertion of tha 
external antcnnw, and two others on tlie anterior part of the 
BtomBPhic region. Bnsilary joint of the iniemat antenna 
cylindrical and aimeil at its anterior extremity with many 
sirong spines ; the two lollowin'^i joints slender and nearly 
as long an the ^rst. Pcdunt-le of ihe exUmnt antemti^ 
composed of three sranll cvlindricaljoints, ihelaat of which 
ia much smaller than the others. External JatD-feet mo- 
derate, the two last joints neither fuliaceou* nor even en- 
larged. Anterior feet long and depressed. (Milne Ed- 
wards.) 

Species whose estemal jaw-feet present a row of teeth 
on the internal edge of their aecond joint. 



Example. Galathea ttngota ; Galatkea ipinisfra. Leach 
Cancer ilrigoma, Linn. Description.— Roslr inn triangular 
and armed with seven strong projecting spimform teeth. 
Lateral edges of Ihe carapace with strong spinifona teeth. 



■^ 



GAL 

Three loiw spmet at the antenomtremity of (be llnl ioM 
of the external antennai ; a great spine under the aud^ilorf 
tubercle, two smaller ones on the first joint of the external 
antentUE, and one on their second joint. External jaw-feei 
short, harfly overpassing the rostrum when they arc et- 
tended, their third joint much shorter than the second, ana 
armed beneath with two strong spines. Anterior feet luiit?. 
depressed, and very spiny ; the hand very large, edged a ilh 
spines and ornamented above wilh small piha-rous furrows 
resembling imbricated acales. claws nhort. large and Willi a 
spoon.bhaped termination. Keel of the second and ihird 
pair of the same length. Abdomen furrowed trans vemcly. 
but without a spine ; the seventh sezment a liate widened 
and rather narrower behind than beifore. Colour rcd.liiJv 
wilh some blue line* on the carapace. Length about five 
inchea Loeaiity, the Mediterranean and the Ocean. 

Third joint of the external jaw-feet much longer 
than the second. 
Example. Galathea tquami/era lfl<*lity. the coasts uf 
Euglana and France. 

Species whose external jaw-feet have no deutilation on 

the internal edge of their second joint. 
Example, Galathea Manodon. Loeaiity, tbe ooasii of 
Quie. 

Grimolbea. 
Differing but little from GtUalhea, and hardly fufficicnllt 
distinct for separation. General form of both eascntnllt 
the same, but the basilary joint of their internal antennc 
is clayiform and hardly dentated at its extremity, and xhe 
external jaw-feet are very long and have Iheir three U-r 
joints enlarged and folinceous. {Milne Edwards.) 
Example. Grimothea gregaria. 

M. Milne Edwards observes that the Crustu^ean fii(ur»il 
by M. Gufirin under Ihe name alGrimothie tocialt C V.>i a^;.' 
of LaCoquille:' Crust, pi. 3. fig. 1) differs from G. i'rr 
garia in the form of the caudal fin, tbe middle lamiiin if 
which is less than the lateral ones. M. Edwards prnpi-- 
therefore to name it Grimolhea Duptrreii in honoto' of iho 
naviiratiir irhose voyage made the specie* known. 

N^B. The student should bear in mind that (he leno 
Galathea was employed by Bruguii-res (who died in l:9''i 
10 disUnguish a genus of Conchifen which M. Hang il.inls 
mikiht as well perhaps be united to Cyrnta. 

M. Desmarest is of opinion that M. Riwo's genus Ciilvj '■ . 
afterwards, according to M. Desmarest, named by M- R.-"-' 
Jiinira (a designation sllotted by Dr. I-each to a genii- '■: 
Ifrr-nda), approximates closelv to Galathea. 

CALA'TIA, a country of Asia Minor, which oriem>l> 
formed part of Phrjgia and Cappadocia. It is diHicull t.. d.- 
termiiieits exact boundaries, as they differed ai various iimf- 
It was bounded on the south by I'hr^gia and Cappadocia, oa 
the east by Pontus, on the north by l^pblagoina, and •"i 
the went by Bilhynia. It obtained the name of OmliM 
ft-om the settlement of a lai^ body of Gauls in this part f 
Asia. The first hoide that appeared in Asia (b,c. iV-'i 
formed part of the army with which Brennus invaded Grcefc. 
In consequence of some dissensions in the array of Breiuiuv 
a considerable number of his troope, under the comminJ ;! 
Loonoriosand Lutarius, left their counlrj men and mar^'-.fl 
into Thrace; thence they proceeded to Byianlium. *■'■'■ 
criis.<ed over inio Asia at tbe invitation of Nioomedet kiui: 
of Bilhynia, who was anxious to secure their assnl:i;u-- 
against bis brother Ziboetas. (Livy. xxxviiL 16.) With ih. ..- 
aid Nicomedes was successful ; but his allie* now b<caii;i- 
his maslcrs, and he, as well as the other monarchs of A>.i 
Minor to the west of Mount Taurus, wa* exposed for nii:i> 
years to tbe ravageaof these barbarians, and obliged to pur- 
chose safely by the pay-menl of tribute, Kncoutasi'd i ' 
the success of their countrymen, fresh horde* passed •■■■ r 
into Asia, and their numbers became so great that Ju^'... 
informs us (XXV, 2) "that all Asia swarmed with them ; J-ii 
that no Eastern monarchs carried on war without a mctn' 
nary army of Gauls." In on n form ily with this slalen:'-"!. 
we read of their assisting Ariobarianes and UilbirUt<'-. 
kings of Pnntua (about B.C. 166), against Piolem* kii-.: ■■! 
Kgvpt (Clinton's Ptuli Hrllenim. vol. iiu p. 43J i. and " 
their supporting Aniiochns Hiemx in his Bmb^timl^ »*> 
against hi* brother Seleucus CBlliniciis(S*leociis i\-i-f I 
H. c. ■H6-i26). They arc also said in the second buoi ■' 
Maccabees (viii. 80) to have ai^vancedaefc* as Babyloo, »f i 



a A b a 

hema by calling to uoonnt thow fkVoniilM of Nan «bo 

lua enriched Ihanuelve* by proicriplioiu biicI oon&tcation*, 
and by ibo tciuclesi prudiguity of tbU princs ; but it vai 
Touad that most (if them bad alre&dy duiipMed their ill- 
SDllGD wealth. G!Llba,ar ralhcr his confidants who Eovemed 
Lim, tben proceeded agaimt the purcbuen of tAeir pro- 
perly, and confiscatians biKame a^n the older of the day. 
At the Mme time GaLba exerciited great panimony in the 
admin ist ml ion, and endeavoured to enforce a alrict disci- 
pline among the soldiera, who had been utted to the prodi- 
gality and licence of the previous reign. The emperor, 
vho was past suveuty years of age, soon became the object 
of popular diiJikc and ridicule, his favourites were hatod, and 
revolts against bim broke out in various quarters, several of 
wbit'h were put down and puniiibed severely. Galba 
thought of stren|i|;tbeuing himself by adopting Piso Licinia- 
nus, a yount; patrioian of I'onsidersble penmual merit, as 
Cssaraod his successor; upon whicbOtho. who had expected 
tu be the object of bis choice, formed a conspiracy among the 
guards, who proclaimed bim emperor. Galba, unable to 
walk, caused himscLf to be curried in a littir, hoping to sup- 
Dress the mutiny ; but at the appearance of Ol bo's armed par- 
tisans bis foUowurs left bitn, and even I be litter-bearers threw 
the old man down, and ran away. Some of the legionaries 
came up and put Galba lo itealh, after a reign of only seven 
months, counting from the time of Nero's death, a.d. 6(1. 
Galba was seveniy-two yeurd of ugo at the lime of liis death. 
He WHS succeeded by Olho, but only for a abort time, as 
VitcUiut Huporscdcd him, and Vespa:ilanus soon afler super- 
seded VitelliuB. (Tacitus, Histor. i.— iv.) 




GA'LBANUM. Though this drug is one of those which 
have been the longest known, Ihe plant which yields it still 
remains undeicrmined, though it ia slated by old writers to 
be a native of Syria. Tlie Greek name chdlbane <xa>^a>'T)) 
u evidi-nily the same as the Hebrew chelbenak, by which 
the same substance is supposed to be alluded tn in Ifae Book 
of Exodus. Arabian authors describe it under the name 
biinad. The Persians call it bir^ud, and give birceja as its 
llindii ^yiionyme. That the same substance is inlendcd, 
is evident from Madyaa and metonyon, as slated by Dr. 
Rujlu miuMtr. Himid. But. p. 2i), being i;iven as its Greek 
Kyiioiiymcs. whirh arc evident corruptions of chalbane and 
mel'i] I'm. the names of iliis substance in Dioscoridcs. The 
plant yielding this substance is called kinnek and nafeel by 
Arabian and PcrHian authors, by whom it is described as 
being jointed, iliorny, and fnu^ranL Under the first name 
it IS noticed in ihe original of Aviccnna, but omitted in Ihe 
Latin Iranslaliuu. D'Hcrbclot (Bibt. Orienf.) buwever 
stales, that the plant yielding galbanum is called gliiarltust 
in Persia. Tnese names are interesting only as showing 
that Uilh lite pbuit aitd gum -resin appear to have been (a- 
luiliarly knuwa to bolh Arabians and Persimis, and that 
'^re Iba former ia probably a native of these countries. 
uausUy lUud to bo only « native of Syria. But if 



i OA L 

MS it Mold hirily bare escaped the notioa of th* nunerom 
tiavellers who have Tisited tnat oonntnr. 

The pUnt usually described as yieloing this long-known 
a|um'resin is Bubon Galbanum, a native of the Cape of 
Ouod Hope, which Hermann described as yielding spon- 
taneously, by incision, a gummy, resinous juice, similar to 
Galbanum ; but Mr. I>)n bas otMer^ed that this plant pni- 
■esse* neither Ihe smell nor the taste of Galbanuoi, but in 
these particulars agrees better with fennel: and its A-uit 
has no resemblance whatever to that found in the gum. 
The fruit, commonly called seed, was early ascertained by 
Lobel te be that of an umbelliferous plant, broad and fulia- 
ceous, which he picked out of Galbanum, and, having sowed, 
obtained a plant, whi<^ he has figured under t^ namo 
of Ferula galbant/era. This has been lost or become con- 
founded with other species; but it is probable that it vn 
the plant yielding Galbanum, as Mr. Don has recently nli- 
lained fruit in like manner, and something similar, wh^h 
be has determined to be allied to the genus Siler ; but dif- 
fering in the absence of dorsal re»iniferous canals, and the 
commissure being furnished with only two. The corji^U 
are about nine bnes in length and four btoad, flat iuliT- 
nally and somewhat converse externally. As the plaut u 
sidl unknown, it is well worthy the investigation of tra- 
vellers in the East, who might otherwise suppose, from iIil' 
name, assigned from the seed, having been adopted in il,i: 
' London Phartnocopteia,* that the plant was as well known 
as its product 

Three torts of Galbanitu are distinguished: l,galbsniini 
in grains or tears ; 2, galbanum in mosses ; and 3, Persiun 
galbanum. The two former come from Africa, espcciiUj 
from Ethiopia; tlie third sort from Persia. Galbaumn 
in tears is most likely the spontaneous exudation from i],t 
plant ; and that in masses, obtained by incisions. Tlic first ><rrt 
occurs in irregular, generally oblong grains, mostly disliiu-i, 
but sometimes agglutinated together, about the siieofa 
lentil or small pea, of a colour verging from whitish iniu 
yellowish brown, more or less diaphanous, opakc, or ehiuin,; 
with a resinous lustre. The odour is strongly balsamic, diiJ 
disagreeable. The taste is resinous, sharp, bitter, and dis- 
agreeable. Specific gravity r212. 

It is partiallv soluble in alcohol, and the solution, as veil 
as [he strong white smoke which is evolved when galbanum ii 
melted in a platinum spoon, reddens litmus paper. It conalsU 
chieflyof resin, gum, volatile oil, and a trace of malic acid. 

Galbanum in masses consists of irregular pieces of a 
yellowish or dark brown colour ; Ihe odour is stronger than 
that of the preceding kind, which, in ils general charactiirv, 
it much resembles, except that it can be powdered only dur- 
ing the low temperature of winter. Gciger ^ays that whoa 
this variety is pure, it is not to be reckoned inferior lo iliv 
former. Persian galbanum, being very soft and tenacious, 
is sent in skins or chests. It often contains many firagmtuti 
of plants. 

Galbanum, like otner umbelliferous gum-resins, is anii- 
sposmoilic, expectorant, and externally rubefacient. It ii 
inferior in power to assaftBtida, but usually associatt;d with 
it in pills and plaslers. 

GA'LBULA (Zoology). [Halcyonidjb; Jacamab.] 

GA'LEA (Zoology). [Echinid«, vol. ix., p. 239.1 

GALENA. [Lkad.] 

GALE'NA. [Illinois.] 

GALE'NUS, CL'AU'DfUS, one of the most colebwed 
and valuable of Ihe anlient medical writen, was bom at 
Pergamum, a.d. 131. The exact lime of his death is nit 
known, but as he speaks of Perlinax and Sevcrus as em- 
perors, we may conclude that Soidas (v. TaXiii^) is not fir 
from the truth in stating that he lived to the ageof sei-enii. 
He was early instructed in the doctrines of the Aristotelian 
and Platonic philosophy, and appears also to have dovoiwi 
some time to the study of the peculiar tenets of Ihe i-lhiT 
sects; for while yet very young, he wrote commentaries ob 
tlia Dialectics of the Stoic Chrysippus. 

His anatomical and medical studies were commeocol 
under Satynis. a celebrated anatomist ; Slnionicns, a di. 
ciple of Iho Hippocralic school ; and ^sthrion, a follower 
of the Empirics. Afler the death of his father, be travcllcl 
to Alexandria, at that time the most famous school if 
medicine in ibe world. His studies were so zealously anri 
successfully pursued, that he was publicly invited lo reluro 
to hid native country. At the age of 34, 'he settled him«-lf 
in Rome, when his celebrity became so great from ihe 
success of his practice, and more especially bom his gnat 



GAL 



39 



GAL 



knowledge of anatomy, that he quickly drew upon himself 
the jealousy of all the Roman physicians. At the solicita- 
tion of many philosophers and men of rank, he commenced 
a course of lectures on anatomy ; hut by the jealousy of his 
rivals he was quickly compelled to discontinue them, and 
eventually to leave Rome entirely. 

The instruction which Galen had received in the prin- 
ciples of the various sects of medical philosophy, had given 
him an acquaintance with the peculiar errors of each, and 
he speaks of them all at times in the language of no mea- 
sured contempt. The school which was founded by himself 
may justly merit the title of Eclectic, for its doctrines were 
a mixture of the philosophy of Plato, of the physics and 
logic of Aristotle, and of the practical knowledge of Hippo- 
crates. On many occasions he expresses himself strongly 
on the superiority of theory to mere empiricism ; but upon 
those matters which do not admit of being objects of ex- 
perience, such as the nature of the soul, he confesses his 
ignorance and inability to give any plausible explanation. 

But in order to form a correct estimate of the merits of 
this physician, it is necessary for us to mention particularly 
some of his contributions to medical science. Anatomy 
was at all times the fkvourite pursuit of Galen, but it does 
not appear that he had many opportunities of dissecting the 
human subject This we may infer with certainty from the 
gratification he expresses at having discovered a human 
skeleton at Alexandria, and having been enabled tamake 
observations on the body of a criminal which had remained 
without burial. His dissections were principally confined 
to the apes and lower animals ; and it is to this circum- 
stance that many of the errors in his description are refer- 
rible ; for from the examination of these animals he at- 
tempted to infer analogically the structure of the human 
body. He describes the sternum as consisting of seven 
pieces instead of eight He supposes the sacrum to consist of 
three pieces instead of five, and looks upon the coccyx as a 
fourth, whereas it is a distinct bone in men till twenty or 
twenty-five, and in women as late as forty-five. 

His descriptions of the muscles appear to be more gene- 
rally correct. He described for the first time two of the 
muscles of the jaws, and two which move the shoulder. In 
addition to these he discovered the popliteal museles and 
the platysma myoides. He denied the muscular texture of 
the heart on account of the complicated nature of its func- 
tions, but he gave a good description of its transverse 
fibres and its gener^il structure. The knowledge of the 
vascular system which Galen possessed does not appear to 
have been greater or more accurate than that of his prede- 
cessors. He supposed the veins to originate in the liver, 
and the arteries to take their rise from the heart. He like- 
wise showed by experiment, in opposition to Erasistratus, 
that the arteries contained blood, and not merely the ani- 
mal spirits, as that physician maintained. He had observed 
the structure and use of the valves of the heart, and, arguing 
^rom their evident intention, concluded that a portion of 
the blood passed with the animal spirits from the pulmonary 
artery into the pulmonary vein, and so to the left side of 
the heart He was also aware of the connection between 
the veins and arteries by means of the capillary vessels. 
The existence of the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale 
during the stage of foetal life was not unknown to him, 
and he had sUso noticed the changes which they undergo 
after birth. 

Galen understood generally the distinction between nerves 
of sensation and nerves of motion, but his knowledge upen 
this noiat does not appear to have been great ; for lie sup- 
poseu that the former proceeded only from the brain, and 
that the latter had their origin exclusively in the spinal 
marrow. This opinion is the more remarkable, as he him- 
self describes the third pair of cerebral nerves, or principal 
motor nerve of the eye. In his description of the cerebral 
nerves, he notices the olfactory, though somewhat indis- 
tinctly, the optic, the third pair, two branches of the fifth, 
the two divisions of the seventh pair, and some branches of 
the par vagum and hypoglossal nerves, but he appears to 
have confounded these together very much in his descrip- 
tion. He detected the mistake of those anatomists who 
thought there was an entire crossing of the optic nerves, 
but fell himself into the error of supposing that no deeussa- 
tion at all takes place. 

In order to form correct physiological views, it is neces- 
sary to employ many and varied experiments, and to mo- 
dify them m different ways, that we may be able to satisfy 



the nnmeroue conditions whieh every problem in physiology 
presents. To this mode of inquiry Galen sometimes had 
recourse, and it were to be wished that he had more fre- 
quently made use of it To prove the dependence of mus- 
cular motion upon nervous influence, he divided the nerves 
which supply the muscles of the shoulder, and found that 
after the division all power of motion ceased. But he does 
not seem to have noticed that the nervous influence is only 
one of the many stimuli which call the muscles into action. 
As he considered the heart to be devoid of nerves, be might 
have avoided tliis error, had he not fortified himself against 
the truth, by assuming that its structure is not muscular. 
He also deprived animals of their voice by dividing the 
intercostal muscles, by tying the recurrent nerve, or by 
injuring the spinal cord. In theoretical physiology his ar 
rangement of the vital phenomena deserves to be particu • 
larly recorded, as it forms the groundwork of all the clas 
sifications which have since been proposed. It is founded 
upon the essential differences observed in the functions 
tnemselves. Observing that some of them cannot be in- 
terrupted without the destruction of life, and for the most 
part are unconsciously performed, whilst another class may 
be suspended without injury, are accompanied by sensation, 
and subject to the power of the will, he divided the func- 
tiona into three great classes. The vital functions are those 
whose continuance is essential to life ; the animal are those 
which are perceived, and for the most part are subject to 
the will ; whilst the natural are performea without conscious- 
ness or control. He then assumed certain abstract princi- 
ples upon which these functions were supposed to depend. 
He 'conceived the first to have their seat in the heart, the 
second in the brain, and the third in the liver. Thus the 
pulsations of the heart are produced by the vital forces, and 
these are communicated to the arteries by the intervention 
of the pn&tima— this is the more subtle part of the air, 
which is taken in by respiration, and conveyed from the 
lungs to the left side of the heart, and from thence to the 
different parts of the body. In the brain the pneuma forms 
the medium by which impressions from external objects are 
conveyed to the common sensorium. The same principle is 
applied to the explanation of the natural functions also. 
Observing that these forces are not sufficient for the expla- 
nation of the different vital phenomena, Galen had recourse 
to the doctrine of elements, of which, after the example of 
Aristotle, and before him Plato in the ' Tiraesus,' he admits 
four, and from the mixture of these deduces the secondary 

Sualities. It may be worth while to observe how he employs 
lis hypothesis in his treatise ' De tuend^ Valetudine' (£d. 
Johan. Caii, Basil, ap. Froben. 1549), in the explanation of the 
phenomena of health and disease. The injurious influences 
to which animal booies are liable are of two kinds : innate 
or necessary, and arquired. The former depend upon their 
original constitution. They are formed of two substances : 
the blood, which is the material (SiXij) ; and the semen, the 
formative principle. These are composed of the same ge- 
neral elements, ' hot cold, moist &nd dry, four champions 
fierce,' or, to express them in their essences instead of their 
qualities, fire, air, water, and earth. Their differences de- 
pend upon the proportions in which these elements enter 
into their composition. Thus in the semen the fiery and 
aeriform essences predominate ; in the blood, the watery and 
earthy ; and in the blood the hot is superior to the cold, 
and the moist to dry. The semen again is drier than the 
blood, but yet upon the whole is of a moist nature ; so that 
in the original formation of the body there is a predominance 
of the moist principle. After birth therefore there is a ne- 
cessity for an increase of the dry principle. This is obtained 
not from the earth itself, but through the medium of fire. 
From the increasing influence of this principle, the changes 
which take place in the body during life are to be explained : 
as for instance, the softness and flexibitity of the limbs in 
childhood compared with their rigidity in old-age. By eat- 
ing and drinking we obtain a fresh supply of the dry and 
moist principles. By respiration and the pulsations of the 
heart a due supply of the cold and hot principles is kept 
up. But as they cannot be obtained in a fit state for the 
different uses of the animal economy, organs are necessary 
to digest separate, and remove the unsuitable portions. 

Health consists in the perfect and harmonious admixture 
of these various elements. But we must assume, in addi- 
tion, that the body is free from pain, and that there is no 
obstacle to the due performance of the functions. From 
this idea of heydth ve OAy easily form the conception of 



GAL 



40 



O A L 



disease. It is that state of body in which the functions are 
in any woy intorruptcd. It depends upon some dispropor- 
tion in the constituent elements, or some unnatural con- 
dition of the organs. The causes of disease are divided by 
Galen into occasional and predisposing. The latter are 
supposed to depend upon some degeneration of the hu- 
mours. This degeneration was callra by him a putrefac- 
tion. Thus the quotidian fever is referred to putrefiic- 
tion of the mucus ; tertian, to that of the yellow bile : and 
quartan, to that of the black bile — this last humour being 
slow of motion, and requiring a greater time for the com- 
pletion of the paroxysm. It was upon this theory of the 
putrefaction of the numours that the practice of phy- 
sicians was founded for centuries after the death of Galen, 
and their remedies were directed to the expulsion of the 
supposed offending matter. Inflammation depends, ac- 
cording to Galen, upon the passage of the blood into those 
part« which, in their normal condition, do not contain it. 
If the bloud be accompanied by the spirits, the inflamma- 
tion is spirituous; if the blood penetrates alone, it is phleg- 
monous. Krj'sipelatous inflammation is caused by the 
admixture ofbilo; oDdematous, by that of mucus; andschir- 
rous, by the addition of black bile. The same divisions of 
intlammatiou are still retained by systematic writers, but 
we are content to abstain from referring them to these 
asMimed causes. 

The reputation of Galen was established upon the ge- 
neral reception which his theories met with ; and his pas- 
sion for theorizing was so great that he has left us but few 
l^)o<l descriptions of disease. In these his principal object 
hrenu to have been to display his own talent for prognosis. 
From a character like this we are not to expect much in- 
formation in the application of particular remedies, but the 
general principles which he lays down in respect to indica- 
tions of treatment are worthy of notice. He directs us to 
draw our indications especially from the nature of the dis- 
ease ; but if this be unaiscovered, from the influence of the 
i»ea»ons and the state of the atmosphere, from the constitu- 
tion of the patient, his manner of living, or his strength, and 
in some few instances, from the accession of the disease. 
Ho is said to have occasionally performed surgical operations, 
but during his stav in Rome he commonly refused to do so, 
in compliance with the custom of the Uoman *|>hysicians. 

llio unbounded influence which the authority of this 
great and lenrned physician exercise<l over the minds of his 
NiictuMHort, unquestionably contributed to retard the nro- 
grcks iif medicine. For while physiciaus were occu)uea in 
tlic Mudy of his Works, and in vain attempts to reconcile the 
>hnnonicua of nature with the dicta of their master, they 
;iiul little time and Icntt inclination to interrogate Nature 
nerself, and pursue the study of medicine in those fields in 
which alone it can be followed with succo.4!^. 

Oalpti wan a most voluminous writer. Though many of 
ni« Wfirks are said to have been burnt in his house at Rome, 
ond others in the nourse of time have been lost, there are 
ftttll i««tAnt one hundred and thirty -seven treatises and 
frffffmciits of treatises, of which eighty-two are considered 
mid'MiblcdIy genuine. From thirty to flf^v treatises are still 
in MN. ; and one hundred and si'xty-eiglit arc mentioned 
n« thi* QMcertainod number of those that are lost. The 
wriiiit((ft of Gnhm are valuable, not only for the history of 
M»««liiuiii« but the K>^*^^ variety of mi!>cellaneous matter 
whuh ih4iy conlatn. 

Numerous e<titions of his works have been published, 
and M*vrrul f«atin translations since the di>cover>' of print- 
in ('. Ktve l^tin editions of the collected works of Galen 
nfifo ptililtftlied before the Greek text: the first Latin 
inIiiioii is that by Bonardus, Venice, 1490, 2 vols., foL 
Jlis ' llistnria Philohophica* was printed by Aldus in 
Nil 7, loKctlier iiome treatise's of Aristotle and Theophras- 
tus: and in 15'JA the same printer published the first 
r<im|plfi4) edition of the Greek text at Venice, in 5 vols, 
foi., which wan edited by And. and Fr. Asulanus, 
mid »u« dedicated to Clement the Seventh. The text of 
tl)i« e()iiii>ii was by no means corre<*t; but the impressions 
on lar((e i>a|>er are scarce and ^-uluahle. An edition was 
iiubliilifd at Haitle, Mfti'i, in A vols, folio, with nrolegomena, 
b% thi« naliirah»t Oesner. II m treatiftCM, * l)e Methodo Me- 
dendi,' * De Nalurali Facilitate.' * IX* Sanitate Tuendi,* 
were translated h\ our rountrymun Linacre, and an edition 
u( his treuiue, ' i>e Hanitale Tuendd,* and of some ether 
was puhliihed by Catus. More r<K*ently an c<lition 
\ and Latin has been ptiblislio<l by C. G. Kiihn (19 



vobi. 8vo., Lipiiir, 1821-1830). Most of the writings of 

Galen exist also in Arabic, and some in Hebrew translaUon>. 

The reputation of this great writer was for a long time a<» 

unbounded and his authority as absolute among the 

Arabs as among the physicians of Europe. 
(Harvey, Exercit, Anatom. ; Spreneers HUt» of Mtdt 

cine; Clark's Report on Animal Physiology, /roni tf*e 

Trans, of Brit. Assoc., 1834.) 
GALE'OLA. [EcRiNiD^B, vol. ix^ p. 239.] 
GALEOLA'RIA. [Diphydes, vol. ix., p. 10; SEan- 

GALEOPITHE'CUS (Zoology). [Plkuroptbra.] 

GALEOT'ES. [louANiDA.] 

GALERl'TES. [Echinida, vol. ix., pp. 2j9. 261.] 

GALERIUS. [Maximianus.] 

GA'LG U LITS (Zoology). [Rollers.] 

GALIA'CEifi, a natural order of Exogenous plants calh <X 
Stellatai by Linnsus, and merged in Cinchonacca* by the 
school of Jussieu. It consists of herbaceous, usually siiuaic- 
stemmed plants, with a scabrous surface, verticillate luave-^ 
and monopetalous flowers with an inferior didymous fruit 
enclosing a couple of seeds containing an embryo lying in il 
great quantity of horny albumen. Some yield a dyeing sub- 
stance in their roots, as the various species of Madder, biit 
the greater part are useless weeds. One of our common 
British species of Galium, viz., G. verum, is astringent, an.l 
was foftnerly used by farmers to curdle milk. 




1. Sberardi* arrpnuif : 9. a fH^rfc^t fl.>«>*r. maffiitScs] : 3. a Tfrtiral teriutn 
of lb« mnr, without tbecorvlia ; 4. a UjtDs%«nc McUuaof a rip* fruit. 

GALIA'Nl. FERDINANDO, was born at Chicli. m 
the Abruzzo, in 17*28, and studied at Naples, when.- he 
first attracteil attention by some humorous composition* 
which he published under an assumed name, to ridicule 
certain pedantic academicians (* Componimenti varii {ler la 
morte di Domenico Jannaccone carneftce della Gran Corte 
della Viraria,' 1749). In the following year his important 
work, 'Delia Moneta,* on the 'coin,' or 'currency,' waaals.^ 
published under an assumed name. In this work he esta- 
blisbe<l tiiC principle, which ^ as then far from being ar- 
knouleiL'cd, that money is a merchandize, and that its value 
and intenrst ought to be left free like other goods. He con- 
tended also that abundance of money and consequent hiirh 
prices are not an evil, as vvas supposed by many, and ihai 
in countries where low prices prevail the people are geno - 
rally most miserable. This work produced a great sen- 
sation on the Continent, and especially at Naples, when, 
the government adopted its principles, and left il»o 
trade in bullion free. It is generally belie^-ed th.i: 
Bartolommeo Intieri and the Marquis Rinuccini, tuo 
Tuscan economisU of that time, furnished Galiani« who 
was then a young man scarcely twenty-one years of apv. 
with their ideas on the subject, which Galiani extend«.^«i 
and produced in a readable shape. He published a second 
edition of this work, 30 vears after, in 1 780, with additions. 
In the I St lx>ok he examines the intrinsic %*alue of the pre- 
cious metals, independent of their use as currency; in the 
second he treats of the use of a metallic cunrWicv a& a 



Q Ah 



41 



GAL 



medium of exchange ; and in the third he discusses the re-* 
lative value of the three metals used for coin, the conyen- 
tional value of the coined currency of a country in relation 
to the prices of goods, and the occasional expeoient adopted 
hy some governments to raise the value of the currency, as 
the Romans did after the first Punic war, and as Louis XIV. 
did in France. 

In 1759 Galiani was sent to Paris as secretary of lega- 
tion,'* and his vivacitv, wit and repartee rendered him 
a favourite among the fashionahle and literary coteries 
of that capital. He remained in Paris several years» 
visited England and Holland, and on his return to France 
wrote his * Dialogues sur le Commerce des Bl£s,' which was 
his second work on political economy. He did not publish 
this essay himself, but left the MS. in the hands of Uiderot, 
who had it printed in 1670. The French economists were 
then divided into two parties, one of which advocated a free | 
trade in corn, and the other was opposed to it. An edict, 
published ia 1 764, permitting the free exportation of corn, 
was followed by a rise of prices and a scarcity, which by 
some were considered as the effects of that measure, whilst 
others denied the inference. Galiani supported neither of 
the two systems absolutely : he contended that the laws 
concerning the corn-trade must vary according to the situa- 
tion of various states, the -nature and cultivation of the 
respective soils, the relative position of their com districts 
or provinces, and also the form of their governments. In 
a letter to Suard, dated 1770, he explains himself more 
clearly on this last topic, saying, * that under a despotic go- 
vernment a firee exportation of corn might prove dangerous, 
as it might be followed by a famine, which would rouse the 
people against its rulers; that in a democracy the same free- 
dom is a natural result of the political institutions ; whilst in 
mixed and temperate governments the freedom of the corn- 
trade must be modified by circumstances.' Galiani cen- 
sured the free-exportation edict of 1 764, and he proposed 
instead of it certain duties on the exportation of corn, and a 
lesser duty on the exportation of flour, and a duty likewise 
on the importation of foreign com. He notices in his work 
the small manufacturing states with little territory, like 
Geneva, and surrounded by powerful and occasionally hos- 
tile neighbours, in which bethinks well-stored . granaries 
are as necessary as in a garrison-town ; and the states 
with a territory unproductive in com, such as Genoa, in 
which he contends that the corn-trade ought to be perfectly 
free. 

On his return to Naples, Galiani was appointed by the 
king to the Board of Trade, and afterwards to the Board of 
Finances, and to the superintendence of the crown domains. 
His health, naturally weak, suffered from constant applica- 
tion, and he died in October, 1787, at the age of 59 years. 
He left in MS. a commentary or series of disquisitions on 
the life and character of Horace and the spirit of his poems, 
parts of which he showed to several of his friends, who 
spoke highly of the work, extracts of which are found in 
the Correspondence de Galiani avec Madame d^Epinay, 
Paris, 1818 ; in the notes to the TVaduzione d'Orazio cU 
T, Garfrall^}, Naples, 1820; in the Vita deW abate Ferdi- 
nando GcUtemi, scritta da Luigi DiodaH^ Naples, 1788 ; and 
in the MSlmnges de rabb6 Siiord^ tires de la Gazette lit- 
teraire cT Europe : see also Ugoni, della Letteratura Ita- 
lianay vol. ii, art • Galiani.* 

GALICIA, the Kingdom of, is the north-eastern province 
of the Austrian dominions, and lies between 47** lO^and 50** 
50' N. lat., and 18' 54' and 26** 37' E. long. It includes 
the country formerly called the Buckowine, and is bounded 
on the north by the republic of Cracow, Poland, and Rus- 
sia ; on the east by Russia ; on the south-east by Moldavia ; 
on the south and south-west by Transylvania and Hun- 
gary ; and on the west by Hungary, Austrian Silesia, and 
Prussian Silesia. Galicia derives its name from the former 
principality of Haliczia or Galiczia, which, together with a 
considerable portion of Red Russia, once formed part of 
Hungary, but was incorporated with Poland in the year 
1374. Its antient connexion with Hungary ser>'ed as a 

f>retext to the Empress Maria Theresa, m 1772, when Po- 
and was enfeebled by intestine divisions, to claim its restora- 
tion ; a claim which the Poles were forced to concede by 
the treaty of the 18th September, 1773, in conseauence of 
which that part of the republic, now termed Galicia, was 
surrendered to Austria, and annexed to its dominions under 
the name of the kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. Its 
area is variously computed ; but that of the Austrian quar- 1 
P. a. No. 663. " 



ter-master-general's department, which states it to be 32,50§ 
square miles, is considered the most accurate. Liesganig 
however, who completed his triangular survey in 1821, es- 
timates it at 32,949 square miles. The population rose from 
3,695,285 in 1816 to 4,293,488 in 1825; and from the last 
numbers to 4,548,334 in 1834 The present population is 
estimated at nearly 4,600,000. 

Gralicia spreads out, in its whole length on the northern 
side of the Carpathian mountains, into extensive plains: 
those mountains extend their arms deep into the kingdom, 
and on the west, the Beskide branch of them stretches as 
far as the banks of the Vistula, rising almost abmptly out 
of the lowlands into heights of 2000, and sometimes of 4600 
feet The most elevated summit in this quarter is the ** Ba- 
bia Gora," (Women's Mount), which Staszic estimates at 
5410, and Hacquet at 5850 feet above the level of the sea. 
In ^e south-west, the Patra or central range of the Carpa- 
thians, with their peaked summits and desolate naked as- 
pect, rise to still greater elevations ; the great Kry van to 
about 8300, and the Rohicz to 7230 feet. The branches of 
this range penetrate much deeper into the country than 
those of the Beskides. The Buckowine, now the circle o 
Czemovitz, is covered with offsets of the Carpathians, anc 
is altogether a mountain region. The mountains are ful . 
of small lakes, which are here called Sav, Plesse, or " Eyes 
of the Sea ;** the largest of them, which lies to the north of 
the Great Kryvan, is called the Fish Lake ; it is at an ele- 
vation of about 4550 feet above the level of the sea, but 
does not exceed 1600 paces in length, or 500 feet in breadth ; 
it has a depth of 192 feet, and forms an almost perfect 
oval. 

The northern part of Galicia is an extensive plain, in 
some parts intersected by low ranges of hills ; ana in the 
western part also a dead level be^;ins at Skavina on the 
right bank of the Vistula, and varymg in width, extends to 
the banks of the San. The soil of the plains consists almost 
universally of loam and sand; the most remarkable 
accumulation of the latter is in what is called the Sand 
Mountain (Sandberg) near Lemberg. 

The rivers of the western part of the kingdom of Galicia 
belong to the basin of the Vistula ; and those of the eastern, to 
the basins of the Danube and the Dniester. The Vistula forms 
the western boundary next to Poland for about 180 miles, 
flowing north-eastwards from the spot where Austrian and 
Prussian Silesia and Galicia converge to a point, and Quit- 
ting the kingdom at Popowicze, a village opposite Zavichost 
at its northern extremity ; this river increases in breadth 
along this frontier-line from about 120 to nearly 200 paces, 
and nas a rapid current until below Cracow, the difference 
in the elevation of its bed from the point just mentioned 
and that city being about 200 feet The tributaries of the 
Vistula, on the side of Galicia, are the Dunayeo or Da* 
nayez, which flows down from the Carpathians, is naviga 
ble in the low country, receives the Poprad, also a navigable 
stream, and other rivers in its course, chiefly northwards, 
through the circles of Sandecz, Bochnia, and Tarnof, and 
fsX\& into the Vistula near Novopole, opposite Opatoviec, 
after a course of about 1 05 miles. This river, like all those 
which flow from the Carpathians, overflows its banks in 
rainy seasons, does much damage and is dangerous to navi- 
gate. The Wysloka is formed at Yaalo out of the junction 
of the Dembowka, Ropa» and Yasielka, flows through the 
circles of Yaslo and Tarnof^ and after a northern course of 
about 70 miles, joins the Vistula near the village of Ostr6f, 
in the north of Galicia. The San or Saan, the most im- 
portant tributary of the Vistula in this quarter, rises in the 
south-western extremity of the circle of Sambor near Sianki, 
a village on one of the most northerly dechvities of the Car- 
pathians, takes a north-westerly .direction to Sanok and 
Bynof, whence it runs eastwards to the town of Przemysl, 
and thence flows north-westwards through a low country 
past Yaroslaf until it falls into the Vistula near Lapissof. 
Its whole length is about 180 miles, and its chief tributaries 
are the Wyslek and Tanc^. The Bug, which has its efflux 
in the Vistula also, does not become a considerable stream 
until it has quitted Gralicia ; it rises near Galigory to the 
east of Lemberg, flows westwards when above the latitude of 
that town, and before it reaches Busk turns northwards and 
afterwards north-westwards, and leaving GaUcia below Sokal, 
enters Poland. The Dniester, another of the cx>nsiderable 
rivers in this kingdom, through which it flows for a distance 
of about 310 miles, has its source in the Carpathians in 
the western part of the circle of Sambor, winds through 
^ Vol. XL-^^ 



O A L 



42 



OA L 



that mnle, Brseiaiiy, Stry, StaniBlatof; end Kolomea, and 
having formed the boundary-line between Galicia and 
Ruaaia from Ciortkof to Orkop beyond Ciemovitz» enters 
the Rusaian territory. Eastern Galicia has three other 
large rivers: the Pruth, which rises in the Carpathians 
within the circle of Stanislavof, flows through that circle 
as well as Kolomea and Czernovits in the Buckowine, 
and passes over into Moldavia below Pentuluy; the 
Sered, which has its source near Pursuka and leaves the 
Buckowine below Sereth; and the Moldava, which rises 
in the circle of Czernoviiz and soon afterwards quits the 
Buckowine. whence it enters Muldavia. The south-eastern 
distiicts of Galicia are also watered by the Golden Bistriza, 
a tributary of the Sereth. There are no canals. According 
to an enumeration made some years ago, the mineral springs 
consisted of 11 sulphuretted springs, 12 chalybeate, and 6 
acidulous. The most frequented are the chalybeate waters 
of Kiynieza, and the sulpnuretted springs of Sklo, Lubien, 
and Konopkof^ki. 

The climate of Galicia is colder than that of any other 
possession of Austria, in consequence of the proximity of 
the Carpathians. The summer in generally short, and the 
grape never ripens : the winter is very severe for six months 
at least, and it is not uncommon to see deep snow lying in 
the middle of April, or an oat-crop buried by the snow, in 
the vicinity of the Beskide and other Carpathian mountains. 
The moist and swampy plains in the northern part of the 
kingdom render that quarter also very chilly and raw. 

Ine soil is of a very varied character. In the neigh- 
bourhood of the Carpathians, where sterile rocks or cold 
clay abound, the husbandman has difficulty in raising even 
sufficient barley, oats, and potatoes, fifc his own consump- 
tion. But towards the plains, the soil becomes richer and 
more productive : the most fertile parts are those perhaps 
about Yaroslaf, such districts in the circle of Zloezof where 
limestone forms the substratum, the groater portion of the 
circles of Stanislavof and Kolomea, and the newly cleared 
lands in the Buckowine. In many parts the soil is so 
light, that the grass, underwood, and even trees, quickly 
wither under the heat of the sun. 

Galicia abounds in sandstone, granite, sand of a very 
superior grain, ouartz, slate, yellow and common clay, 
potter's earth, yellow ochre, marble, gypsum, &c. Moun- 
tain crystals, agates, jaspers, ordinary opal, alabaster, ^c, 
are found in several spots. The Carpathians are rich in 
metals, particularly iron, which is found along the whole 
line of the Carpathians, from the circle of Sandecz to the 
frontiers of the Buckowine; but the produce does not 
exceed more than fifteen or, at the utmost, eighteen pounds 
of metal in every hundred-weight of ore. Bog- iron likewise 
is met with in the circles of S try and Zolkief. Gold is 
obtained in small quantities in the circle of Sandec, and 
gold-dust in the vicinity of Kirlibaba. Veins of silver are 
niund in the lead of Mount Dudul, near that place, and it 
is also extracted from the calamine obtained near Truska- 
wicze. Poszorita, in the Buckowine, produces good copper 
ores in the proportion of three, and sometimes five pounds 
per hundred-weight of mica slate. Native sulphur occurs 
at Svoszovioe, in the circle of Bochnia, and Sklo, in that of 
Praemysl. Coal is found near Moszyn, Kuty, and Skwarczva. 
The northern side of the Carpathians contains enormous 
masses of rock-salt, and the country is full of salt-springs, 
especially the Buckowine. 

The population of Galicia are indolent and igno- 
rant, oppressed by the Frohndienste (ser\'ircs), which for 
Galicia alone amount to 31,246,464 days in the year, and 
the system of husbandry is lamentably defective and imper- 
fect. Independently of the Buckowine, the land available 
for nsefVil purposes is about 16.394,900 acres ; but including 
that province the quantity converted to use is not more than 
about 6,211,900 acres in arable land; garden ground, 
395,780; ftdlows, 97,970; converted into ponds, &c., 
131.650; meadow-land, 1,876,940; and employed for feed- 
ing sheep, cattle, &c., 1,682,360; amountin*; altogether to 
10,396,600 acres, to which must be added 4,998,870 of forest 
bnd woodland. The husbandry of Galicia is in a low state ; 
the farmer's waggons are made without iron, his horses are 
never or seldom used at the plough, and he can scarcely 
afford to lay manure on his ground. The principal grain 
produced is wheat, rye, oats, and barley, and the yearly 
's estimated at about 7,200,000 quarters of corn, of 
V)ut 1,560,000 quarters are of rye; 2,071,000 of 
t,900>000 of oats; 670,000 of wheat, and 22,220 of 



maiso. Tlie erop of hay is said to be about 979,000 tons. 
Rye, buckwheat, pease and beans, potatoes and other com- 
mon vegetables, succory, clover, flax and hemp, tobacco, 
aniseed, rape and otlier seed for making oil, a few hops. &:c. 
are also grown. The supply of fruit is very scanty. The 
forests consist priitcipally of pine-wood, and there are large 
tracts of underii'ood. The beech was fbrmeriy much more 
abundant on the Carpathians than at th^present day, other- 
wise the Buckowine, from ' buk,* which signifies the rt*d 
beech, would scarcely have been the patronymic of that 
province. In some parts the oak attains to a majestic 
growth. Tar and potashes are made in considerable 
quantities. 

The population has increased since the year 1776, when it 
amounted to 2,480,885, to its present amount of nearly 
4,600,000. The cholera alone m 1831 carried off 9C,(»*«l 
individuals, which is upwards of 2 in every 100 souls. In 
1823 the number of deaths was 106,929 ; in 1829, I48,24(i; 
and in 1830, 155,155. Among the latter were those of 37os 
persons between the ages of 80 and 100, and 220 above the 
age of 100. Of the inhabitants about 2,900,000 are of Po- 
lish descent, chiefly located in the Western provinces, and 
1,900,000 are Ruthenes or Russniaks, a rude, uncivil izi-d 
race of men, who have spread into the centre of Ru>sia, 
and are also numerous on the Hungarian side of the Carpa- 
thians : they inhabit the circles of Galicia east of the Sun. 
The remaining part of the population consists of abuut 
270,000 Moldavians in the Buckowine, 250,000 Jews, who 
are scattered throughout the kingdom, and a mixed race of 
Germans, Hungarians, &c 

The majority of the inhabitants ore Roman Catholics: 
there are besides about 1,800,000 who conform partiuMv 
to the rites of the Roman Catholic church, 270,000 Grwk 
non-conformists, 4000 Armenians, and 5000 Prote^tanih. 
The Roman Catholics are in ecclesiastical matten> m 
charge of the Archbishop of Lemberg and the bishops 
of rriemysl and Tarnof. Their dioceses contain 7 ; 4 
benefices, 38 monasteries, 13 nunneries, and a collc.'e 
of Jesuits. The Armenians, though so few in nuiiiU r, 
have an archbishop at Lemberg, and compose b curei 
of souls. The Gr»co- Catholics, mostly Russniaks, ha\i' 
also their own archbishop at Lemberg, and a bi^Ilop ui 
Przemysl, and their establishment consists of 148m bene- 
fices, 14 monasteries, and 3 nunneries. The Greek», 
wholly Moldavians, are under a Greek bishop at Czerno- 
vitz in the Buckowine, and compose 274 cures of s^ouU: 
they have 3 monasteries. The Protestants are under a 
su^rintendent at Lemberg. 

The number of benevolent institutions is considerable, 
and comprises eighteen Christian and three Jewish hos])itul) 
or asylums for the sick or diseased, a hospital of the Bene- 
volent Brothers, six hospitals conducted by the Benevolent 
Sisterhood, 312 infirmaries and refuges for the indigent, and 
twenty-seven poorhouses. 

The government of Galicia is on the same footing ns that 
of the other hereditary possessions of Austria. The highest 
authority in civil affairs is the Board of Provincial Admiuiv 
tration at Lemberg (dqfi Latides GuberrtiumJ, to which the 
whole nineteen circles of the kingdom are subordinate. 
The court of appeal and chief criminal court are in the 
same town, where also are the head-quarters of the com- 
mander-in-chief for Galicia. 

The scholastic establishments are very inadequate to pn>- 
vide for the general education of the people. The whole 
number scarcely amounts to 1400, among which are a uni- 
versity and an academy at Lemberg, three philosophical 
seminaries at Przemysl, Czernovitz, and Tarnopol, thirtivo 
gymnasia, attended by about 1400 pupils two schools fur 
merchants* sons, mechanics, &C., at Lemberg and B rex! v, 
a normal school at Lemberg, thirty-one head national scho. d-. 
1303 parochial and twenty- two girls* schools. It hai> be^ n 
calculated that not more than one in every eight children 
capable of receiving instruction attends any school. 

There are seventy-two public establishments for the pro- 
pagation of improved races of horses and militar>' hai.i- 
at Radantz in the Buckowine, andOlchowek in the circle ..t 
Sanok. The best native horses of the Polish breed arc brrd 
in the western circ Ics. The increase has been cunsidemblo 
throughout Gal:<ia. for in 1810, the stock was 214,9fi.i ; lu 
1823, 407,662: and in 1830, 497,808. Large droves ..f 
horned cattle aie fed, the finest being brought ftom M.d- 
davia: in 18^3, the stock was 499,226 oxen and bullae k.>, 
and 926,569 cows; and in ld30, 562,865 and 98^*3,5.!. 



O A L 



44 



GAL 



Is tbeir babiU thev reMnble their neighboam the Portu* 
inieee, rather than tne rest of the Spaniards. They speak a 
dialect which haa conbidcrablo reKcmblance to the rortu- 
guete liuiguage. Many of them visit Pottugal, and 
numbert may be seen in the streets of Lisbon and Porto 
employed as porters and water-carriers; and they have 
•n established reputation for honesty. The principal manu- 
fiicture of the country is linen, which is made in ^reat 
auantity and of very good quality, and chiefly in private 
nmilies; besides supplying their domestic wants, it is 
exported to other provinces. 

The population of Galicia is almost entirely agricultural ; 
landed property is much subdivided, and the great majority 
of the people do not live in towns and villages, as in most 
other provinces of Spain, but in detached dwellings on 
their lands and fields. The parishes contain each a certain 
number of lugares, and each lugar consists of a certain 
number of houses, not at a great distance from each other. 
There are but few towns or large villages ; the principal 
towns, which are at the same time heads of districts, are as 
follows: — I. La Coruna [Coruna], which is the residence 
of the captain-general ; 2. St. I ago de Compostela [Com- 
postbla], where is the high court of justice for the whole 
province ; 3. Betanxos, witn 5000 inhabitants, on the river 
of the same name, in a fine country and mild climate, has 
a few manufactories, and carries on some trade in wine and 
pickled sardines, which arc fished all along this coast; 4. 
Mondonodo, withGOOO inhabitants, and a bishop's see, has a 
royal coUefice, and a seminary for clerical students ; 5. Lugo, 
the antiont Lucus Augusti, a Roman colony, has now 
7200 inhabitants, irt a bishops see, has some fine old 
buildingn, and fcoroe remains of Roman walls. It lies on 
the left bank of the Mifio, nearly in the^centre of the 
province, and on the high road from Coruna to Madrid: 
Its climate is among the coldest in Galicia. 6. Orense, with 
4O0O inhabitants, a bishop's see, a fine bridge on the Miiio, 
and hot mineral waters, is situated in a district abounding 
with good wine. 7. Tuy, a firontier town on the side of 
Portugal, situated on the right bank of the Miiio, has 6000 
inhabitants, is a bishop's see, has a fine cathedral, and is in 
a fertile district The otlier principal towns are : 8. Viffo, 
ou the fine Bay of the same name, forming one of Uie 
largest and safest natural harbours in Spain. Vigo carries 
on a considerable trade with America, exporting wine, sar- 
dines, linen cloth and stockings, and other articles of native 
industry. It has 5700 inhabitants, and is defended by two 
castles. 9. Ferrol. 

Upon the whole Galicia is one of the most important 
uovuices of Spain, and not one of the least industrious ; its 
lartfe population, being chiefly of a rural character, is much 
under the influence of the parochial clergy. 

The antient name of the country was GallsDcia ; it was 
partly conquered by Decimus Junius Brutus (Livy's Efn- 
iome^ 56) and afterwards entirelv subjugated by Augustus, 
when it became a part of the Tarraoonensis province. It 
was afterwards conquered by the Visigoths ; at a later 
period the Moors invaded it, but it was soon reconouered 
oy the Christian princes of Asturias, to whose kingdom it 
was annexed. (Minano, Diocionario Geogrqfico de EspaHa.) 

GALICTIS. [GmsoN.] 

GALILEE. [Palkstinx.] 

GALILEL VINCENTIO. a noble Florentine, and father 
of the illustrious Galileo Galilei, was born in the early half 
of the sixteenth century, and studied music under Zarlino, 
though he did not hesitate to attack the opinions of his mas- 
ter, in a IMieorMo intomo alP Of^re del Zarlino^ and aifter- 
wards in his fljeat work, the Diaiogo delta Mutica antica e 
modema, a folio volume, printed at Florence in 1581. This 
work, which displays ^-a^t erudition and laborious research, 
hat afforded much assistance to the musical historians of 
later days : but the author occasionally betrays a hardiness 
in assertion, of which his more philosophic son was never 
guilty. He was an exquisite pertbrmer on the lute, an in- 
atrument, he tells us, that was better manufiictured in £ng> 
land than in any other part of Europe. He was a rigid 
Aiistoxenian, and his nrejudices in favour of the antients 
were strong; nevertheless his Diaiogo is well worth the 
notice of the curious inquirer into musical history. 

GALILEI, GALILk'O, who is most commonly known 
under the latter, which was his Christian name, was the son 
of Vineentio Galilei, lie was bom at Pisa, in Tuscanv, 
•njlie 15th of February, 1564. 

acquiredt during his boyhood* and under adverse 



circumstances, the rudiments of claasical and polite Utera> 
ture, he wss placed by his father at the University i>f Pus 
in his 19th year. Galilei was designed fur the medical pn>- 
fession, but that genius for experiment and deroonstratiua* 
of which he exhibited the symptoms in his earlier vouth. 
having found a more ample scope in the university under the 
kind auspices of Guide uboldi, with whom he had become ac- 
quainted through his first essay on the Hydrostatic Balann*, 
he determined to renounce the study of medicine and purj»uc 
geometry and experimental philosophy. This reftoluti«>n. 
to which his father reluctantly agreed, was highly approvc-l 
by those who had witnessed nis extraordinary talents, otkI 
was perseveringly followed up by him through the rest uf 
his life. 

His first important discovery was the isochroni^m of 
the vibrations of a simple pendulum sustained b v a fixol 
point This property is not rigorously true where the 
arcs of oscillation are considerable and unequal, nor d<x'> 
Galilei ever seem to have adopted any contrivance similar 
to a fly-wheel, by which these arcs may be rendered cH^ual. 
His knowledge too of the force of gravity, of the decomfM- 
sition of forces, and of atmospheric resistance, was too im- 
perfect to conduct him to any valuable improvement of ihv 
instrument, and hence the fair claims of his 8uccess<.)r. 
Huyghens, so well supported by his treatise ' De Horolo^.o 
QscilTatorio,' cannot with huy justice be transferred to 
Galilei, whose merits are sufficiently abundant and conspi- 
cuous to need no borrowed attributes. This equality or near 
equality of the time of vibrations Galilei recognised by 
counting the corresponding number of his own nulsati<mi. 
and having thus perceived that the pendulum oscillated more 
slowly or rapidly according to its less or greater Icngtli, bv 
immediately applied it to Uie medical purpose of disGoventt^ 
the state of the pulse ; and the practice was adopted by many 
Italian physicians for a considerable time. 

Through tlie good offices of Ubaldi, who admired his ta- 
lents and foresaw their future development, Galilei became 
introduced to the grand-duke Ferdinand I. de' Medici, uKo 
appointed him mathematical lecturer at Pisa (1589), tliuu:li 
at an inconsiderable salary. Here he commenced a <!tct .« • 
of experiments on motion, which however were not publi&hcii 
until long after, and then only a scanty portion. This cir- 
cumstance is probably not much to be regretted, sinci; Lis 
inferences on the relation of velocity to space were ineorrv: t 
at first; but he had learned enou^ from his experitnental 
course to perceive that most of the scholastic assumed la>) » 
of motion were untenable. 

The mind of Gralilei becoming thus unfettered from the 
chain of authoritv, he resolved to examine the rival systems 
of astronomy — the Ptolemaic, with its cumbrous ma- 
chinery of cycles and epicycles, eccentrics and primum 
mobile, ond the Copernican, which, from its simplicit) 
and gradually-discovered accordance with phenomena, vss 
silently gaining proselytes amongst the ablest observers 
and mathematicians. He soon discovered and prnxcd 
the futile nature of the objections then usually ma^lo 
against it, which were founded on a complete ignorance 
of the laws of mechanics, or on some misapplied qu.>- 
tations from Aristotle, the Bible, and the Fathers: aii<i 
having also observed, that many who had at first belieM*d 
the former system, had changed in fevour of the latter, \\ h\> 
none of those attached to the latter changed to the Ptulemait 
hypothesis — that the former required almost daily some ne« 
emendation, some additional crystalline sphere, to acconi- 
modate itself to the varying aspects of the celestial pha*no- 
mena — that the appearance and disaj)pearance of new stars 
oontradicted the pretended incorruptibilitv of the heavenly 
bodies, together with other reflections which he has coUeoieil 
in his dialogues,— he became a convert to the Copornican 
system, and, in his old age, its most conspicuous martyr. S'> 
strong however were the religious prejudices on the subjc't 
of the quiescence of the earth, that Galilei thought it pru- 
dent to continue to lecture on the hypothesis of Ptoleim , 
until time should afford a favourable opportunity to desiro> 
the visionarv fabric bv incontestable facts. 

One of the false doctrines which he first combated via» 
that bodies of unequal weights would fall through the samt* 
altitude in unequal times: thus, if one body were ten tiin«.^ 
as heavy as another, it should fall through 100 yardi> while 
the lighter had onW fallen tlirough ten. But though the 
experiment wns performed from the leaning tower at Pt»a^ 
and both bodies reached the ground at almost the same 
instant (the small difference, as Galilei rightly observed. 



\ 



GAL 



46 



GAL 



c)tang« of the position of the ring, which so much asto- 
nished Galilei, had not suggested to him the correct nature 
of the phfpnomenon : we must however rememher the great 
imperfections of the ftrst-constructed telescopes. 

His next discovery he also concealed in the same enig- 
matical manner; the transposed letters signify, in their 
proper order— 

* CyntiilB Sgnrai vmoUtor mater ainonun f 
(^VeoDt riralt Um mooD't phtaet ;} 



alluding to the crescent form of this planet when in or near 
conjunction. Hi» discovery of spots on the sun's disc, which 
were evidently attached to that luminary, was a severe blow 
to the imaginary perfection of the schoolmen. 

The Jesuits haa alwavs entertained a cordial hatred for 
Galilei, as he had joined the party by whom they had been 
expelled from Padua ; the progress of his discoveries was 
therefore reported to the Inquisition at Rome, as dangerous 
to religion, and he was openly denounced from the pulpit 
by Ciu:cini, a friar. In his own iustiflcation he wrote 
letters, one to his pupil Castelli, and another to the arch- 
duchess Christina, in which he repudiates any attack upon 
religion, and states that the object of the Scriptures was 
to teach men the way of sah*ation, and not to instruct them 
.*n astronomy, for the acquiring of which they were en- 
dowed with sufficient natural tacuUies. Nevertheless the 
Inquisition was implacable, and ordered Caccini to draw up 
depositions against Galilei ; but his appearance in person 
at Rome in 1615, and his able defence of his conduct, for a 
momimt silenced his persecutors. 

In March, 1616, the pope (Paul V.) granted Galilei an 
audience, and assured him of his personal safety, but posi- 
tively required him not to teach the Copemican doctrine of 
the motion of 'the earth: Galilei complied, and left Rome 
in disgust He had soon occasion to turn his attention 
ai^ain to Astronomy, for in 1618 there appeared no less 
than three comets, on which occurrence Galilei advised his 
friends not to conceive too hastily that comets are like pla- 
nets, moving through the immensity of space, but that tney 
may be atmospheric ; his reasons for this, though ingenious, 
are fallacious, as are those which he aftcr>»'ards gave for the 
causes which produce tides, which ho attributes to the un- 
equal velocities of different parts of the sea by reason of the 
combination of the rotatory and progressive motions of the 
earth, which at some points conspire together and at others 
are opposed. Wallis afterwards soems to have adopted the 
same opinion, which could never have been entertained had 
either of them reflected on the complete independence of 
the rotatory and progressive motions of bodies. The motion 
of the whole solar svstem too would, on their supposition, 
have affected the tides ; but Dynamics had as yet no ex- 
istence, and Galilei of\en frankly confes'^es that he is more 
a philosopher than a mathematician. He afterwards went 
to Rome, and was received with great kindness by the next 
pope (Urban VIII.) : his enemies wore silenced for awhile, 
and ho was sent home to Tuscany loaded with favours and 
presents; and though his patron, Cosmo II. de' Medici, 
was dead, his successor, Ferainand II., showed him strong 
marks of esteem and attachment 

In 1630 he finished, and in 1632 completed his celebrated 
work, * Dialogue on the Ptolemaic and Copemican Systems,' 
which he dedicated to Ferdinand U. By giving the work this 
form, his object seems to have been to evade his promise not 
to teach the Copemican doctrines. Three fictitious persons 
conduct the dialogue : Salviati, a Copemican ; Sagredo, a 
hantcrer on the same side ; and Simplicio, a Ptolemaist, who 
gct« much the worst both by jokes and argument. The pope, 
who had been personally friendly with Gkililei, fancied that 
he was the person held up to ridicule in the lost character, 
ns some arguments which he had used had been put into 
Simnlicio*s mouth ; he was therefore mortally offended, and 
the Inquisition resolved not to allow the attempted evasion 
of Oalilei*s solemn promise. Galilei was acconlingly sum- 
moned to Rome, though he was 70 years of age and over- 
w helmed with infirmities ; he had however all the protec- 
tion and comforts which the Grand Duke could confer on 
him, being kent at the Tuscan ambassador's house, and this 
spirited man (Nicoliiii) even wished to maintain him at his 
own expense when be perceived a penurious disposition in 
Ferdinand's minister. 

After some montlis' residence in Rome he was again sum- 
moned before the Inquisition, and on the 20th of June ap- 
peared before the assembled inquisitors in the Convent of 



Minerva. The whole of his sentence is too long to be tran- 
scribed here, but a portion of it is too curious to be omitted. 

' By the desire of his Holiness and of the most erainout 
Lords Oirdinals of this supreme and universal Inouisition, 
the two propositions, of the stability of the sun anu motmr. 
of the earth, were qualified by the Theological QualificTs a>» 
follows :— 

1st The proposition that the sun is the centre of the 
world and immoveable from its place, is absurd, philo«opl.i- 
cally false, and formally heretical ; because it is express y 
contrary to Holy Scripture. 

2ndly. The proposition that the earth is not the centre ('f 
the world, nor immoveable, but that it moves, and also wiih 
a diurnal motion, is absurd, philosophically false, and theo- 
logically considered at least erroneous in faith.' 

After a long and declamatory expos^, fVom one po.ssncri^ 
in which it has been suspected that Galilei was put tu the 
torture, it concludes thus— 

• We decree that the book of the Dialogues of Gohlro 
(Jalilei be prohibited by edict ; we condemn you to the pri- 
son of this oflice during pleasure ; we order you, for t ho 
next three weeks to recite once a week the seven peniten- 
tial psalms, &c. &c.' 

To obtain so mild a sentence Galilei was obliged to al>- 
jure, on the Gospels, his belief in the Copemican doctrine. 
We Quote a part of his abjuration: 

* With a smccre heart and unfeigned faith I abjure, cursr, 
and detest the said errors and heresies (viz. that the earth 
moves, &c.) ; I swear that I will never in future kuv i»r 
assert anything, verbally or in writing, which may givv n>e 
to a similar suspicion against me. . . . 

' I Galileo Galilei have abjured as above 
with my own hand.' 

Rising from his knees after this solemnity, he whispered 
to a friend, * E pur se muove :' ' It moves, for all that.' 

This sentence and abjuration having been generally pr>- 
mulgated, the disciples of Galilei found it necessary to act 
with prudence, but their esteem for their master was n*U 
diminished by this compulsory abjumtion. 

Afflictions followed quickly the old age of Galilei. In 
April, 1634, he lost a beloved daughter who was his oiilv 
stay. He was allowed to return to Arcetri, where ^\\v 
breathed her last, but he was still kept in strict confinement. 
After two years spent in this unhappy condition his confine- 
ment became more rigorous through some new suspicions 
entertained by the pope, so that afier havine been alhj^t d 
to remove to Florence fortlio benefit of his declining beaitij 
he was onlered to return to Arcetri. In 1636 he became 
totally blind, about which time he finished his ' I>iali>gtir> 
on Motion,' which were remarkable enough for the time ur 
for any other man, though not perhaps commensunto 
with the high ideas associated with the name of GahitM; 
and though he believed this work could not annoy the boh 
office, yet the terror was so great and universal that he 
could not get it published until some years after, when 
it was undertaken at Amsterdam. 

Amonst the most celebrated pupils of Galilei are Viviani 
and Torricelli, the former of whom in particular bore a 
strong attachment for his master. While Torricclli was 
arranging a continuation for the 'Dialogues on Motic.n/ 
Galilei was suddenly taken ill with a palpitation of the 
heart, and, having lingered two months, ne died on the Mh 
January, 1642. 

He appears to have been 'of a sprightly temperament, 
easily crossed and easily reconciled ; his kindness to h> 
relatives, which dis^tinguished him from his chddhorxl to 
old age, and which went frequently to such an extent a> tn 
embarrass himself, forms a noble trait in his domestic cIm- 
ractcr; he was somewhat attached to the bottle and mk 
considered a good judge of wine; he contrived to have ln-< 
son Vinoentio legitimized, but afterwards had the misfor> 
tune to find his hopes in this lad rather disappointed, (ts- 
lilei was also acknowledged to have an excellent taste lur 
music, painting, and poetry, and the style of his 'Dialogui'd' 
is still much praised by his countrymen. 

His works have been collected in 13 vols. 8vo., Milan, 
1811; there have been also several other collections of the 
same, and they have been published in separate tracts. 

Viviani, his disciple, wrote his life and left a legacy to 
raise a monument to his memory. Newton was bom one 
vear af^er Galilei's death. 

One of the best-written biographies of Galilei tliat has 
yet appeared is by Mr. Drinkwater. 



GA L 



GAL 



eiteot vlucfc it nfldto. la tike tMatliwi i r of iSbt UliDBi 
disjTlMBa, freqinent in dan^ agtuniTW in thk countyr, after 
prup«r evactiantfi, it is tif the most derided utilitT. Is 
invu Eii^b»ii ebui«r« Ukrmiiie. and aligfatfT eaM» of 
fikuWra. U i» the mud bexMsficuJ areut which can be 
v^iUsd Vjs li u b«9ftl ^'en id the fuzin ctf" inf unan, and mm 
either he adauDisUsred alone* ur vith the addniaa frf* ~ 



irift fiv and valcB'-'^iMPd. 
itt GuoaoiANirr : and mmh mot 
dtftncste. Maniifccnw 
■ feamAi of mdustrr. Evtsr atnoe the 'Ui 
town of Sl Gall waft knows f tor il» lautm 
niudi sow baape haes le pla o e d h« thwe f^* 

in ibii^ i^^Uli» 




an/1 

af miuUn«i 

tiitrie »cid and lii&etur«; tif upium. which last mar be di»- ' and o^Mr euCion ^utids were iiiainifafUr^ a the caatoo. 
t^Mitmuieid after a ie>w doMs^ (Ahancnanfaie, Om iH^mtet Tht wanwn are aku eBBpkin>«d n ma^ewAe^, §a€ karaing 
c/nAe St'/morJi, 6^ t J which there s a grainitous fRshuol for pMr ^.ffla. The tan- 

GALL, STATUE CANTON OF, cme of the canton of *Mrw6hifrf> fi^nen off tiflaie3«aca. the |m^tt»wpvc^ 
tl^ SwiM^Cuufederalion. Miuated at the northnnifn extremin ! to ex:pun raw hidea. About 3tH>l-hi^.«du' fades and 2Q0U 
"f S«itxerl&ud« i» hotmded on the north hy the canicm erf ^Datt^* tikin^ aie cxjioriad anncLlrT. neia^va of Sl Gall 
TiiurgcLu and the liJbe of Coostanoe : ead h\ the Anslrum ^ a jilaoe uf great ti^de. ec^ieciaL^ wch Gi i ■■■iij and Ital>, 
}ir'^\ui''e c«f the Vumrlber:^: buuth hj the cautimi- of Gn- j oiid cuntaxnt bome weahh} mercijan:^ aaaiAclwm» and 
ft-j'ift and Glun», aud west h^- timae uf Schwrz and Ziirich. j banken or bHi-hitikeia. 

iu area i» rotk'^ned at T»U aquare x&iiea. and its popuhiiiaik. The eantcm is dmded inia JkftaeB ^litiirtv Mcairiy : St. 
which has been rapidiy inrreabing fur the last tweut} TearK GalU Tahlat. tUaaAaek cm ^le ha:nks tf tkt bke of Con- 
amuuuTed is 1^3 J to J{ ;^w4(> mtOLbitauts, of whom tii^OO I ftasee, Unter RheinthaA, Obv Rnescr^BJ. Werdenberz, 
aere Prutestauu and the remainder weie Calhuhc^ &l | Ssxraas, Gatitei, See BcEirk on lint teaks «f the lake of 
Gtiil ifr a new eantcm, which wu formed at the be^innin^ uf I Zunrh. Oiter Tog^Dbnn^ UmerTeQpBnhvrCp Alt Toj:^en' 
the preitent centurr b}- the imi.»s of the temtunes of tbe hui^ Neu Tci^geDbaz:^ iHTrl. GoBsa. The fncst di9tncU 
Abbut of St. GkU wr 1j the free town '.€ St. Gsui. and berera. _ - _ 

di^lrir^s furmerjv subjwl to the old caiiiuniw nunehr, tne 
Kheinihal. Su*gau%. Werdenbeq:, Utrnach, Gas*.«ri anc 
Sax, and the to-sa of Ra;»perwLwyL By the a^iomeraijox. 
of bO maor ran-.'-Ji districts aLj'h hEppeiied to he smiated 
ail rjuMd the cid cai.i'.»!: of Appeniel:. that caDt'JD a now 
encl'j*ed on ererr Bide by the ternt.-ry of St. Gfcl (Ar- 
Tt,%zzLL.) The sp.kezi laL^-^-^iife cf Sl Gali ifc a dialeet of 
tht' German, resemtl Ji? the Swabian. 



are the BhHmhal, RorKhavdi. & GaL WyL the gnsater 
fort of the Ti«:erenbiiz;g. and the See Bcork ; theremaiaing 
or BOTxthem dioncts are moimtxmciua. 

St. GalL the capital «f the cantun. eoee a free hnperial 
citT, and aftervards an ally of the o^d Swis eamons. is »i> 
tnated in a |»leaaBi TaDer/is well ho^t. wcil f^pbed with 
water, and **int:aWic shore 4(»& hoaaea withm the walls, and 
^9i*i» iziiahiianta. of whom ]i:3* are CadK^liCih The prm- 
r2pal bcHdings are, the oid Abber Cbnrch, one of the finest 



Tixr canton of St. Gil*.} u in great part a moui.ta:n->xi£ ccun- in Switzerland, with handsoone pamunes ; the former ron- 
try. being intersected by Tarious offi^eis of the AipCL. the vent, now a grmnasium: the CaKSirvo or asMiably-nKmi, the 
hi'j:he«t of which are oontinuiLU'jn^ of the great cbsin vb:«^i. tDwn-h:n2se, sercral hof^nals and as^xmiw and the puMic 
bounds on the north the valley of the Upper RhizM; in tbe i granajie& The cCd Abbey Lbmy has above \$90 MSS., 
Ghsonb countiT, and wh.ch on eiiterms: the temtorr of St. | many of thesa Taluahle; scvtxal df the Hawin which wt^re 
GtiU at the summit caDed Scheibe <<<vh»0 feet | diTxles into ' ' '' * * ^ 

three branches, one nmning north alv*nz the frontiers of 
Glanis as far as the south bimk of the lake of WallenMadt. 
another eastwards between Sl Gall and the Gnsons, form- 
ing the summit called Galanda (%&00 feet his^b> and the 
third extending north-east into the canton of St. GalL, be- 
tween the rivers Tamina and Seex. North of the lake of 
Wallenstadt is another chain ruDiiin^ in a north-west direc- 
(ion, which divides the basin of the Linth from that of the 
Thur, and contains sereral hummits between 6<K*0 and 7(K»<i 
feet high. North of the Thur and between it and the lake 
of Conslanee is another extensive group of mountains, known 
by the name of Alpstein, abich rover nearly the whole of 
Appenzell, and extend al»o into the adjacent districts of Sl 
GalL The general ^Iutm? of iLe s^urface is towanU iLe norih 
and north-mest, the Ureariis running in those direciKinsw 
The I rinripil rivers are: I. the Rhir^, which cmiig from 
the G:*v>ns touches thecinton of St. Gail near Pfaffers, and 
11 iwr.^j ii^rihwanU fornix its eastern :»oandary for a lenzth 
ii ah Jt fifty inJes, ihiidjn? it first frc»m the Gfisons, and 
af erwards frjm the Vorar'.*»erp, unt:l it enters the lake of 
OKi'rfarj^-e Wl jwRheinek. It» principal affluent in the canton 
ol St. Gall i« the Tamina. a rap:d AJpine stream which rues 
in the Scbeibe, err^st^si the »o*::h part of the cant<m, pa&-es 
by Pfiflers, and eDlen the Rh.ne below Ragaz. 2. The 
S'-ez, »h:':h rises al*o in the south part of the canton, runs 
fir*t n^>nb-*SL%t and tb^-n north-west, and enters the lake 
of Wailen-^tadt. X The Thur, which rises in the central 
part of the car.toa n^-ar Wudhaus, Znin^U^s birth-f^ace, 
run* northward* thn>u-h part of the Aae dutrict of Toziren- 
burg. paAMS by Ucbterxsteg. receives the Neekeron its nght 
bank, and afier a cfjuxu: of aV'Ut forty mii& enters the cau- 
t/>n of TLu'^au near B^w-tr^fuelL 4l The Sitter, which 
r<,ai:r.g frr/ia X'Jt car.tvn '^ AppenxeU, passes near the town 



ccmsidemd as lost, were disnc^ered in the nuddle ages tn 
this l:t>ia3T by Posrio BracnoLni and other philologista. Sl 
Gall IS one of the mast oommerciia] towns of Switaeriuid ; but 
Its in habitants are hkewae food otf the a c i enf cs aDd lileratiue, 
as appears from the exis3cooe of ncmerous a o ciefies , privata 
Lbranes, ool^cticms of natxual hxstoxr, and other similar 
establishments wiihin the town. TVa cuiiiCMis are em- 
belli«-hed with nnmeroos oountry-hoBaea and prameoades, 
Sl Gail is fjrty mi)es east of ZurKh, and fof^-ive miles 
north of Cose m the Gnan& Rappertsnyl is prettily si- 
tuated oo a pTT*^^^^)» projectiqg into the lake of Zunch, 
with a brid^ Abvit leet ko^ arhich croaMi ofvr to the 
south bank of the lake; it has some maDnftdories and 
ab^ut 15C«0 inhabitanta. Alf<tiitVw in the upper Rfaemthal, 
in the midst of a fertile eoontiT, is a ^ee of tome trade, 
with about 60(^) inhabitants, inclnding ita commercial ter- 
ritory. Rheinek m the lower Rheinthal, on the left bank 
of the Rhine, which separates it from the Aostnan territory 
has about )4i'U inhabitants: the red wine mada in the net ^h- 
bourhood is am:*ng the best in Switserland. 

71m government of SL Gall is a democtacy. Tlie 
members of the Great CoudciI or Legislatme are chosen in 
their respective districts by all the citiaens above twent}- 
one years of age, except thoae who axe supported by the 
public dsarities, bankrupts, and thoae whose immoral 
conduct is atte^ed by legal prooC The members a.e 
elected for two years. The Gnat Couadl appoints from 
amone its body the membeis of the Little Council or Em.-- 
cuiive for f.>ur years. It aLo appoints thote of the Criminal 
Court and of tne Court of AppoL The citizens of each 
d^stnct appoint every year their own amman or prefect, 
and other local authohtieis. All the laws emanatiii|r fn>m 
the Great Council are subject to the anrtinii of the dectors 
of the various communes, xf thev choose to exercise theii 



</ St G*:: a*'.d eii'^ Tnur^faa, vhere it joms the Thur. | rurhl within forty-five days after the parsing of the law: 
y The G'y.daAa, '•.-..'•h ns^s a.AO :n Appenzell, and mns into : that period bem? expired without any objection maile 
tU Ujli? of 0>r.*ta-','e- Ti* north and north-west districts • by the majority of the communes, the law becomes in 
of the ca.',t'.n f/y«ark the h.rdtrrs of Thunran are mostJv : force. All absent electors are considered as voting in 



J^-.'-l as »ei, as th* bi.ia» of the Linth, between the lako 
U Wa. ^..♦/i'it a'.d Z/jry-h, where an extensive marsh has 
h^*. dfa.r.«.'i */y u«ean% of the faiAi «jf the Lmth 



favour of the law. The eonstitutioo of SL Gall is one oi 
the most democrUic among the representative cantons of 
Switzerland: it approaches nearly to that of the lantU 




we r.xx».,*rf»....^ f^e*u ui \i^ s. -.ir^erTi p»rt of the ruiMn, • citizens havine the right of voting being 32,980, it 
a^i mtt'*i w.jfA u exp^rUsd. Ti^ dome»tJc animaU are i negatived by 11,097, and approved of by 9,253, to which 
•heep^ g«ati» pi^ and horsca ; the nseo and kU^ J latter Daaher was added thai oil 2,630. who vera abaeot, and 



GAL 



49 



GAL 



'who were coiiBidered, accordinff to a claiue in the project of 
the conatitution itself, among the ayes. 

The revenues of the state derived from the income-tax, 
licenses for shops, puhlic-houses, and sporting, stamp- 
duties, tolls, monopoly of salt, post-office, and national 
domains, amounted in 1835 to 305,597 florins, and the ex- 
penditure of the same year was 274,054 florins. Each of 
the two reliffious communions in the canton administer 
their own affairs. The Catholics have a Board of Admi- 
nistration ; the property of their church is 1,627,776 florins, 
and they have four convents of monks and ten nunneries. 
They were formerly under the diocese of the bishop of 
Coire and St. Gall ; hut in 1833, on the death of the last 
bishop, the Catholics of St. Gall refused to acknowledge 
his successor, appointed by the pope ; the Orisons likewise 
demanded the separation of their diocese from that of 
St. Grail; and after much discussion, tbe pope, in 1836, 
decreed the dissolution of the double bishoprick, and ap- 
pointed an apostolic vicar to superintend the ecclesiastical 
affairs of St. Gall and AppenzelL The abbot of St. Gall 
has long since lost all his domains and revenues, and the 
convent has been suppressed. A pension was offered to 
the last abbot, Pancratiu9, in 1814, which he refused, and 
claimed the restoration of his former rights. Having endea- 
voured in vain to interest the Allied powers in his favour, 
he retired to the convent of Miiri, in the canton of Lucerne. 
(Leresche, Dictiomudre Gbographique Statistique de la 
Suisne; Walsh, Voyage en Suisse; Franscini ; Dandolo.) 

GALL, Dr. FRANZ JOSEPH, the founder of the sys- 
tem of phrenology, was born at Tiefenbrunn, in Suabia, on 
the 9th of March, 1757. He seems at a very early age to 
have evinced habits of accurate observation, for it is said that, 
when a boy at school, he often amused himself with re- 
mai'king the differences of character and talent among those 
educat^ alike, among his brothers and sisters, and his 
playmates and schoolfellows. He saw, too, that these cha- 
racters seldom changed— that education rarely altered the 
good or bad temper of a child, or gave the talent which he 
exhibited in one subject a direction towards another. He 
observed that the boys who were his most formidable com- 
petitors were all distinguishable by a peculiar expression of 
countenance, the result of unusual protrusion of the eye- 
ball, which seemed to him a certain sign of talent. On nis 
removal to another school he still found himself invariably 
beaten by his ' bull-eyed' companions* as he called them, 
and making the same observations as before, he found all 
his playmates still distinguished for some pecuhar talent or 
temper. He next went to the university of Vienna to pur- 
sue Lis studies for the medical profession, and at once began 
to search for prominent eyes among his fellow-students ; all 
that he met with were, as he found, well known for their 
attainments in classics, or languages generally, or for powers 
of recitation ; in short, for talent in language ; and hence 
the sign of a prominent eye, which he had first thought in- 
dicated talent generally, he became convinced marked a 
facility for acquiring a knowledge in words, which was the 
principal study in the schools of his boyhood. This coin- 
cidence of a peculiar talent with an external physiognomic 
sign, led him to suspect that there might be found some 
other mark for each talent, and remembering that at school 
there were a number of boys who had a singular facility in 
finding birds' nests, and recollecting where they had been 
placed, while others, and especially himself, would forget 
the spot in a dav or two, he began to search among his 
fellow-students for all who indicated a similar knowledge 
and memory of places, that he might see in what feature 
that would be indicated, and he soon thought he found them 
all marked by a peculiar form of the eye-brow. He now 
felt convinced that by accurate observation of the shape of 
the head in different persons, he should find a mark for 
eveiy kind of talent, and he lost no opportunity of exa- 
mining the forms of the head in poets, painters, mechanics, 
musicians, and all distinguishea in art or science. He 
found external signs in each class that separated them from 
the rest, and he thought he could now clearly discern the 
character of each by their cranial formation before he in- 
cvuired into their pursuits or reputation. He had observed 
that persons remarkable for determination of character had 
one part of their heads unusually large, and he was there- 
fore led to seek whether there were not signs of the moral 
affections similar to those which he believed he had dis- 
covered to indicate the intellectual powers. After some 
time he found that these affections also might be ascer- I 
P. C, No. 664, * 



tained by discerning how far one portion of the head sur- 
passed the others in size. His mind was so completely 
engrossed with the purs\iit of facts to support his belief 
that he should find a complete key to the human character, 
that his academic career was marked by no particular suc- 
cess, though his talents might certainly have secured it 

To further his pursuit, he now resorted to the works of 
the most esteemed metaphysicians of antient and modern 
days, but here he found little besides unsatisfactory theories, 
and conti-adictions of each other, and certainly nothing that 
at all favoured the view which he had been led to take of 
the human mind. Ho therefore gave them up, and resorted 
again to the observation of nature alone, and he now ex- 
tended his field. Being on terms of intimacy with Dr. Nord, 
physician to a lunatic asylum in Vienna, be carefully ex- 
amined all the insane there, observing the peculiar character 
of the insanity in each, and the corresponding forms of their 
heads : he freciuented prisons and courts of justice, and 
made notes of the crimes and appearance of all the prisoners. 
In short, wherever there was any person made remarkable 
by good or bad qualities, by ignorance, or by talent^ Dr. Gall 
lost no opportunity of making him a subject of his study. 
With the same views he was constant in his study of the 
heads and characters of both wild and domesticated animals. 
He had always felt sure, that the form of the skull in itself 
alone could stand in no relation to the intellect or disposition, 
but it was not till late in his pursuit that he resorted to 
anatomy to confirm his views. Having obtained his diploma, ' 
he made it his care, as far as possible, to ask for leave to 
examine the brains of all whose characters and heads he 
had studied during life, and soon found that, as. a general 
rule, the exterior of the skull corresponds in form with the 
brain contained within it. 

At length, after unremitting exertion, and constant study 
for upwards of twenty years, Dr. Gall delivered his first 
course of lectures, in 1796, at his house in Vienna. Sup- 
ported by a vast accumulation of facts, he endeavoured to 
prove thut the brain was the organ on which all external 
manifestations of the mind depended ; that different portions 
of the brain were devoted to particular intellectual faculties 
or moral affections ; that, ccBteris paribus^ these were deve- 
loped in a degree proportioned to the size of the part on 
which they depended ; and that, the external surface of the 
skull corresponding in form with the surface of the brain, 
the character of each individual was clearly discernible by 
an examination of his head. 

A doctrine so new, and so subversive of all that had been pre- 
viously taught in psychology, produced no little excitement. 
To some the number of simple facts, the apparently clear and 
necessary deductions from them, and the ease with which the 
new system seemed to lead to the knowledge of a science 
hitherto so obscure, were sufficient to secure at once their 
assent, while others said that Gall, be^nning with a theory, 
had found at will facts to support it ; that a plurality of 
powers in the same organ was too absurd to be imagined, 
and that tbe doctrine, leading on the one hand to fatalism, 
on the other to materialism, would, if received, be subversive 
of all the bonds of society, and opposed to the truths of reli- 

fion. It was argued with all the anlour with which new 
octrines are so generally assailed and defended, but Gall 
took little part in these disputes, and still continued to lec- 
ture and collect more facts. 

He gained disciples daily, and in 1800 Dr. Spurzheim be- 
came his pupil. In 1804 this gentleman was associated with 
him in the study of his science, and to this fortunate event 
phrenology probably owes much of its present clearness and 
popularity. Spurzheim possessed a mind peculiarly adapted 
for generalizing facts, of which the science at that time almost 
entirely consisted, and besides being most ardent and indus- 
trious in the pursuit of additional support for the doctrines, 
he had a suavity of manner and a brilliancy of conversation 
which prepossessed all in favour both of himself and his 
science. It is from him indeed that nearly all the knowledge 
of phrenology at present current in England has been derived ; 
for till his arrival here in 1814, arui the publication of his 
'Physiognomical System* in 1815, nothing was known of the 
science except from a smnll translation of a German treatise 
in 1807, and some very unfavourable notices of it in periodi- 
cals. Since that time too the smaller size and more popular 
style of his books have made them far more generally known 
than those of his preceptor, and a large majority of the phreno- 
logists of this country are entirely of the school of Spurzheim. 
Soon after their aasociatioD, Drs. Gall and Spurxheim 

Vol. XI.— H 



GAL 



50 



Q A L 



Gommenoed a tour through theprinciiMkl towns in Germany 
and Switzerland, diffusing their doctrines, and collecting 
everywhere with the most assiduous industry fresh evidence 
in their favour. In 1 80 7 they arrived at Pahs, which hecame 
at once the field of their principal labours, and of the most 
vehement discussion. Amongst many, it attracted the at- 
tention of Napoleon, probably from the extensive practical 
benefits which it was urged would flow from it At first he 
is said to have spoken in no measured terms of the savans of 
his country, for * suffering themselves to be taught chemistry 
by an Englishman (Sir H. Davy), and anatomy by a German.' 
He afterwards however expressed his disbelief in it, and hence 
the reason (say the most ardent supporters of the doctrine), 
why in 1809 the commission appointed by the Institute on 
the Memoir presented by Gall and Spurzheim, in March 1 808, 
returned a report highly unfavourable to the science and its 
author. Undaunted however by this severe check to their 
rising popularity, thev continued to study and to teach both 
by lectures and by voluminous publications till 1813, when a 
dispute arising, partly as to the degree of credit which each 
merited for the condition at which the science had then 
arrived, partly from private motives, they separated. Dr. Gall 
remained in Paris ; Dr. Spurzheim soon after proceeded to 
England, where he continued for several years lecturing in 
London and the principal towns of the kingdom, and whence 
he ultimately proceeded to America. 

Dr. Gall continued in Paris till his death, which occurred 
on the 22nd of August, 1828. — He had sufifered for nearly two 
years previously from enlargement of the heart, which pre- 
vented him, except at intervals, from pursuing his lectures, 
and at length produced a sUght attack of paralysis, from 
which he never recovered. At the post-mortem examination 
his skull was found to be of at least twice the usual thickness, 
and there was a small tumour in the cerebellum : a fact of 
some interest, from that being the portion of the brain in 
which he had placed the organ of amativeness, a propensity 
which had always been very strongly marked in him. 

Whatever may be the merits of the phrenological system, 
Dr, Gall must always be looked upon as one of the most re- 
markable men of his age. The leading features of his mind 
were originality and independence of thought ; a habit of close 
observation, and the most invincible perseverance and in- 
dustry. Nothing perhaps but a character hke this in its 
founder, and the very popular and fascinating manners of his 
chief supporter, could have upheld the doctrine against the 
strong tide of rational opposition and of ridicule with which.it 
was assailed. Whether the system be received or not, it will 
bo granted, that both in the collection of psychological facts 
which they had formed, and have published, and by the 
valuable contributions which they have made to the study 
of the structure of the brain, to which their later labours had 
been particularly directed, they have conferred very great 
benefits on medical science. The character of Dr. Gall's 
writings is singularly vivid and powerful ; his descriptions, 
though slight, are accurate and striking, but his works are 
too voluminous to be acceptable to the majority of readers, 
and have therefore, in this country, been almost entirely 
superseded by those of Dr. Spurzheim, to which however, 
in substantial value, they are far superior. They comprise 
' Philosophisch-Medicinische Untersuchungen iiber Natur 
und Kunst im Kranken, und Gesunden Zustande des 
Menschen,' Bvo. Leipzig, 1800; 'Anatomic et Physiologic 
du Systt^mo Nerveux en g6n6ral, et du Cerveau en particu- 
lior : M6moire present^ a Tlnstitut, Mars, 1808 ;' and under 
the same title his great work in 4 vols. 4to., and atlas foUo, 
published in Paris, from 1810 to 1819, of which the 1st and 
naif the 2nd volume were written in conjunction with Dr. 
Spurzheim ; and ' Sur TOrigine des qualitds morales et des 
Facull£s intellectuelles de THomme,' 6 vols. 8vo., Paris, 
1825. An English translation of them has lately been 
published in America by Nahum Capin, and another of the 
4to. work is said to be in progress in England. 

GALL. [BiLs.] 

GALL STONES. [Calculus.] 

GALLATES. [Gallic Acid.] 

GALLEON (gahion in French, galen in Spanish) was 
the name given to very large ships, with three or four decks, 
which the court of Spain used to send at fixed periods to 
the coasts of Mexico and Peru, to receive on boara the gold 
and silver bullion extracted firom the mines, and bring it to 
Spain* Commodore Anson intercepted, and captured after 
a abort engagement^ one of these galleoni on ita way from 
^Q^pnlootolfaiuUa. [AiraoK.] 



GALLERY, m ita most extended aenae, is used synony 
mously with corridor. [Corridor.] In England however 
it is understood to be either a long narrow passage-way, or 
an open space, generally longer than wide, raised above the 
floor of a building, and usually supported on column-*. 
Such salleries are met with (among other places) in Engli»^h 
churcnes, in some courts of justice, and In theatres. The 
long external wooden passage-ways, formed something like 
a balcony, such as are occasionally seen in old inns, arc 
called galleries. The antients also had their galleries m 
their basilicsa [Basilica] and in their agorss. [Forum.] 
The civpto-porticus was a gallery. The term gallery is also 
appliea to a Ion? room, or a series of rooms containing pic- 
tures, as the gauery of the Louvre at Paris. 

GALLERY, in militarv mining, is a subterranean trench, 
or passage, leading to tne place where the powder is de- 
posited for the purpose of producing an explosion. 

Of the galleries which appertain to a fortress, the principal 
one, denominated the magistral gallery, surrounds tne place 
under its covered- way; and the entrances to it are in the 
counterscarp of the ditch. A second gallery, designated 
the envelope, is formed under the foot of the glacis, so as 
either wholly or partially to circumscribe the works ; and 
galleries of commufiication under the glacis lead to it from 
the former gallery. Small galleries, sometimes called listen- 
ers, are also carried towards the country, from the envelope ; 
in order, as the name implies, that the defenders in them may 
discover, by the sound, where the enemy's miner is at work. 

The galleries of a fortress are at least six feet high and 
four feet wide, and are lined and vaulted with brick work : 
they are, or should be, so disposed as to ensure complete 
drainage ; and means must be provided to afford them pro- 
per ventilation. At the places where thev intersect one 
another are formed enlargements in which tools may be 
deposited, and the miners, with their baxrows, be enablefl to 
pass each other: vertide grooves are also cut down the 
sides of a gallery for the reception of the ends of timbers 
which may serve to barricade it ; and at the places when* 
the galleries of communication fall into the envelope are 
placed strong doors, with loop-holes through them, for mus- 
ketry, in order to arrest the progress of an enemy, should 
he force an entrance into the latter. 

The most proper place for the magistral gallery does not 
appear to be precisely determined. Some engineers form 
it close to the counterscarp, so that the wall of the latter 
serves for one side of the gallery; hy this disposition con- 
siderable expense is saved, and complete ventilation may be 
easily obtained by means of loopnoles opening into the 
ditch. But as, in this situation, the enemy, having pene- 
trated into the gallery, might direct a fire throush the liK>p- 
holes, and might easily form a passage into tne ditch by 
destroying the counterscarp wall, others prefer that it should 
be executed under the banquette of the covered-way. 

A continuous gallery surrounding the place under the 
foot of the glacis is objectionable on account of the certaint} 
that, in some part of its length, it will be met and destroyed 
by the working parties of the besiegers: it is therefore 
preferable that at the extremities of the galleries of com- 
munication before mentioned there should be executed 
short portions only of an envelope gallery; from which por- 
tions the listeners may be earned towards the front. The 
galleries leading from the magistral to the envelope are 
nearly parallel to, but they ought not to be immediately un- 
der, the ridges and gutters of the glacis, lest those lin<.» 
should serve the enemy as indications of the positions of the 
galleries, and enable him easily to find them; and as a 
man working under ground may be heard at a distance ut 
ninety feet from him, it follows that the listening galleries 
ought not to be more than twice that distance nom each 
other, lest the enemy's miner should pass between them 
unpcrceived. 

The roofs of galleries may be from fifteen to twenty feet 
below the level of the natural ground. 

The galleries executed by the besie^rs are usually car^ 
ried out from a shaft sunk vertically m the ground : an«l 
they are either parallel or inclined to the horixon, according 
to circumstances. When the soil is loose the sides and 
roof are lined with planks, which are retained in their places 
by rectangular frames of timber placed at intervals fh>m 
each other across the gallery ; and it is recommended that 
the frames should be perpendicular to the direction of the 
length of the gallery, even when the latter ia inclined to the 
horixon. 



GAL ! 

• Docinti shepherd originally, but a brave soldieri was pro- 
clBimed emperor bv the troops in lllyricum, ontoroil Italy, 

took possession of Milan, anil ere n marched against Rome 
vhile GaUiciius nas absent. Gallicnus returned quickly, 
repulsed Aureolus, and defeated him in a f^eat battle 
tlic Adda, after which the usurper shut himself up in M 
where he was besieged by Gallienus, but during the siege 
the etntioror was murdered by some conspirators, a-I 
368. He was succeeded by Claudius II, TrobelliuH Polli 
has written a history of the roit;n of Gallienui. [Aitoiist 
HiSToniA.] See also Zonaros, Aurelius Victor, and Bv 
Iropiuf. 




Coin ora>iiitii». 

ntiiiih Muienn. Actual liH. Cojiper eIIl Wfl«hl.!I3 paJi 

QAl.LlliJE, Gallinaceous Birds, the Qfth order of the 
I'law Atvt, nccotdinff to Linnsus, who thus characterizes 
JliU (a rca]iiiis sickle, Harpa colli "fni) convex ; the upper 
uiandible arched over the lower ; Nostrils overarched by 
eariilaginous membrane. Feet formed fur running, the ' 



crop Ungluvia). KesI arllcss and placed 

eggs numerous; food pointed out to 1hcyount> by ,._ 

rent. Polygnmous. Analogous to the order Pecora, in the 
class Maaanalia. [Rasores] 

GALLINSECTA <Latrcillo), Coccid.k (Leach), a family 
of insects placeil by LalrciUe and others at the end of the 
IlouiDptcra. Tbesi; insecis apparently have but one joint 
to the tarsi, and this is furnishL-d wilb a single cliiw. The 
males are dcslilule of rostrum, and liavo two wings, which 
when closed arc laid horizontally on the body : the apex of 
llie abdoroeji is furnished with two selto. The females are 
aplurous. and provided with n rostrum. The anlcnuie aru 
generally niiform or setaceous. 

The insects belontjing to this family live upon trees or 
planU of various kiiiils: they are of small eizo, and in the 
larva stale have the appearance of oval or roinid scales, 
which are closely atiaihed to thu plant or bark of the tree 
they mhabit, and exhibit no distinct cMernal oi^ans. At 
certain seasons when about to undcffO Ihoir Iransfurma- 
tion, tliev become flxcd to the plant, and asiiuine the puiia 
state within the skin of the larva. Tiic pupa of tlio males 
huve Ihoir two anterior le;f> directed forwards, and the ro- 
luainiiiK four backwards; whereas in the ilmales the whole 
*ix are directed backwuils. When the males have assumed 
the winged or imago stale, they are said to Lisuo from the 
posterior c.ilrcmity of their cocuon. 

In the spring time the body of the female becomes greatly 
enlai^ed. and approaches more or less to a spherical form. 
In some the skin is smooth, and in others transverse inci- 
sions or vesti^'cs of segments are visible. It is in tltis slate 
that the female iceeives ihe embraces of the male, after 
which sbe deposits her e^irs. which are extremely nume- 
rous. In sotne the egcs aro deposited by tile in-<eet beneath 
her own body, after which she dies, and thu body hardens 
and forms a scale-like eotcring, which senes to protect the 
eggs until the following season, wht-n they hatch. The fe- 
males of other species cover their eggs with a white cotton- 
Jike substance, which answers the tame end. 

Upward> of thirty species of the familv Cuccidio. or Gal- 
Lntecla. are enumerated in Mr. Stephen's UataluKUC of 
Mntiali Insi-cls; several oftlinso howuvur havo undoubtedly 
been introduced with the plants they inhabit, and to which 
they aro )>cen1iar. 

Many of tlic exotic Cocci Iiavo long been eclcbrated for 
the beautiful dyes they>iLia. The Coccus Cacti of Lin- 
ntpua may be m^'ntioned as an in-lance. llio female of this 
Mjiccies IS of n du-ep brown colour, covered wiib a wbiic 
Powd.-r. and evhil.iis tcansverse incisions on the aUlomen. 
l.'ie male is ola deep rod i'ulour, and has white wing.. 
This insect, which when properlv prepared yields the ilic 



> GAL 

called oocliineRl, is a native of Mexico, and feedi upon « 
particular kind of Indian flg, which is cultivated v» Um 
express purpose of rearing iL [Cochidsal.] 

Cocoa Jlieit, an Insect found abundantly upon a inull 
■pecin of evergreen oak (Quereiu coeeiferaX common in 
tue south of Franco, and many other parts, has been em- 
ployed to import a blood red or crimson dye to oloth from 
the earliest a^ei. (Introduction to Entomology, by Kirbj 
and Spence, vol. i., p. 319.) 

C'occut Polmtiea* is another speeJM which ii ttted in dye- 
ing, and imparts a red colotir. It is now chieflv employed 
by the Turks for dyeing wool, silk, and hair, ana tbr stain- 
ing the nail* of women s fingers. (Kirby and Spcooe, vol 
i.. p. .■120.) 

But we are not only indebted to the Coccus tribe fbr the 
dyes they yield ; the substance called iac is sUo procured 
fh>m one of these insects (the Coceiu Laeea). Thu ^lecii-^ 
inhabiu India, where it is found on various trees in Kr«at 
abundance. ' When the females of this Coccus have fixnl 
themselves to a part of the branch of the trees on which 
they feed (Fiau religiosa and Indica, Butea /hmdoia, »iid 
IihamniuJnJu6a),a pellucid and glutinous substance begia-^ 
to exude from the margins of the body, and in the end 
covers the wholo insect with a cell of this substance, whieli 
when hardened by exposure to the air becomes lac Su 
numerous are these insects, and so closely crowded together. 
that they often entirely cover a branch ; and the groups 
take difierent shapes, as squares, hexagons, be, accordinE 
to the apace lefl round the insect which first began to funn 
Its cell. Under these cells the females deposit tbetr c^-g\ 
which afler a certain period are hatched, and the young 
ones eat their way out.' (Kirby and Spence, vol. iv., t: 
142.) 




a.lhinidi. i,lb 

GALLI-NULA. [Rallid*.] 

GALLIOT, a alronij-built tbt-bottomed vessel of a 
peculiar construction, used as a. bomb-ship lo fire agam-t 
forts or batteries on the coast. The largest are of ilic 
burthen of 400 or 5D0 Ions, and above 100 feet In lenglh 
See account and plate of the same in the Diclionnairf d' 
Marine, in the Enq/clopcdie Mlthodique. an, ' Gatiollr ' 
Galliot is also a kind of small galley or large felucca, us.il 
■chiefly in the Mediterranean, especially by the Barban 
iorsaira. [Gallky.] The Dutch, Swedes, and uIIk'.- 
nortbern twtions have a sort of merchant-ship which ilui 
call Galliot, heav? and clumsily buill, but strong of timUr 
rounded both fore and aft, anil of the butthen of from d ■> 
to 300 tons. 

GALLITOLT, the antient Callipolis, in Ihe Chersoncv.., 
ot 1 hrace, a town of European Turkev, situated at lb- 
ciitranre of the Hellespont, now called the Straits . f 
Oalijpoli, on Ihe side of the Pwponiia. It lies m-iti. 
opposite to Lampsaki. the antient Lampsacus. on I' 
Asiatic side of the channel, which is hero abeut twj 



GAL 



54 



«A L 



Ibmd in 1762, and his fitme had flo for increased tiiat he 
received the appointment of Lecturer on Medicine at the 
Institute ofhis native town. In the * Memoirt' of this hody 
we find contrihutions on various medical subjects by Gal- 
He also published separately * Observations on the 



vam. 



Urinary Organs,' and ' On the Organs of Hearing in 
Birds ;' but an accidental circumsUnoe, of which he availed 
himself with acuteness and much judgment, introduced 
him to a novel subject, the announcement of which at that 
time excited deep attention throughout Europe, and gave 
birth to a new and fruitful branch of Physics, which yet 
retains in Sil countries the name of its first observer. 

During his temporary absence from his house, his wife, 
who was about to prepare some soup from frogs, having 
taken off their skin^ laid them on a table in the studio near 
the conductor of an electrical machine which had been 
recently charged. She was much surprised, upon touching 
them with the scalpel (which must have received > spark 
from the machine), to observe the muscles of the frogs 
strongly convulsed : she acquainted him with the fkcts upon 
his return ; Galvani repeated, the experiment, and found 
that it was necessary to pass a spark or communicate elec- 
tricity through the metallic substance with which the ftt)gs 
were touched. After having varied the experiment in seve- 
ral ways, he was led to conclude that there existed an Ani- 
mal Electricity both in nerves and muscles, and some future 
experiments appearing fiivourable to that erroneous infer- 
ence, he seems to have cluns to that opinion during the 
remainder of his life, notwithstanding the experiments of 
VolU and others, which showed at least that the moisture 
on the sur&ce of the frog acted as a conductor. 

The following circumstance was that on which Galvani 
most relied for the accuracy of his opinion. Having seen 
the effects of the direct electricity of the machine on the 
muscles of frogs, and that by exposing only the spine, legs, 
and connecting nerves to the electrical action a very small 
charge was sufficient to produce the convulsive motions ; he 
imagined that the atmospheric electricity, though of feeble 
tension, might be sufficient to produce like results. He 
therefore suspended some frogs thus prepared by metallic 
hooks to iron railings, when he observ^ that the convulsed 
motions depended on the position of the frog relative to the 
metals. The same phenomenon led Volta to an opposite 
conclusion, and a war of opinion for some time divided phi- 
losophers ; into this dispute it will not be necessary now to 
enter. Ultimately Volta triumphed over Galvani, but failed 
to convince him. 

The work in which Galvani developed his views relative 
to this new class of phenomena was published in 1 791, under 
the title * Aloysii Galvani de viribus Electricitatis in Motu 
Musculari Commentarius,' in which he infers that the 
bodies of animals possess a peculiar kind of electricity, by 
which motion is communicated by nerve to muscle, and in 
these experiments he regarded the metals acting only as 
conductors between these substances, which he thought ac- 
counted for the observed contractions of the muscle, in the 
same manner that the dissimilar electricities on the interior 
and exterior surfaces of a Leyden jar reunite with explosion 
through a metallic conductor. If the reader is desirous to 
make an experiment of this kind, let him separate the head 
and upper parts of the body of a frog, remove the skin fit)m 
the legs, clear out the abdomen, separate the spine below 
the origin of the sciatic nerves, that they alone may form 
the connection with the legs ; then envelop the spine and 
nerves with tinfoil, and placing the legs on silver, complete 
the circuit by making the two metals touch : the convulsive 
motions will be instantly produced. 

Philosophers in other countries hastened to repeat and 
vary these experiments. Fowler found that when the cir- 
cuit was completed by the eye, the contact of the metals 
produced the sensation of a flash of light ; and Robinson 
remarked the acid taste when tlie tongue was used between 
the metals, to which he also attributed the peculiar taste of 
porter when drank from a pewter vessel. It may be added 
that SuUer, as early as 1767, described the influence upon 
taste caused by the contact of different metals with each 
other and with the tongue ; results of this kind were pur- 
sued with more eagerness than nature seemed willing to 
gratify, and the influence of Galvanism on the senses of smel- 
ling and hearing, which Cavallo thought he had observed, 
have not been verified, or rather, have been disproved. 

The interesting researches of Galvani having aocjuired 
-"-h extensive notoriety (Sec Phil. Tram. 1793), intro- 



r 

duced him to the pleaaures and the troubles of ta exten* 
sive correspondenoe. In 1797 Galvani made a voyage 
alone the shores of the Adriatic for the purpose of eonflrm- 
ing nis notbns on animal electricity by experiments on 
the Gymnotus, from which he concluded that the brain con- 
tributed to produce the observed effects. His wifb, who 
had proved herself a sensible and an affectionate woman, 
died soon after his' return, a loss which be seems to have 
felt very severely. His afflictions were increased during the 
French occupation of Italy; he was expelled firom the 
ofllces which he held, because he refhsea the prescriberl 
oaths, when Bologna formed a part of the Cisalpine Republic. 
His pecuniary circumstances at this time, as well 9» his 
health, were in a very low state, and shortly after his re- 
storation to his former offices he died, in 1 798. 

In two years after the death of Galvani, his nephew Aldini 
produced convulsive motions of the kind above nottoed in 
the body of a convict who was hanged at Newgate. 

GALVANISM. This department of electricity Ukes 
its name from Galvani ; but its infknt progress was due in 
a much greater degree to his contemporary Volta, by whom 
piles were first constructed for increasing the intensitv of 
the electricity produced by a single pair of plates. Ylie 
production of electricity in this case arises from the action 
of the acid in the cell between two plates of dissimilar me- 
tals, that which is the more oxidable giving out positive 
electricity, as explained under Elbctro-Dtnamics. Tho 
forms in which the piles have been constructed are various 
and the number of plates is adapted either to the Quantity or 
intensity of electricity which ma^be desired. Wnen Quan- 
tity with a feeble tension is requisite, a single pairof plat<>s, 
such as zinc and copper, with extensive surfaces, separalt'd 
by verv dilute acid, will answer ; but with a system of 
pairs of plates, where the copper of the first pair conducU itn 
electricity to the sine of the second, and so on, the quantity 
and intensity are increased with the number of the plati*%. 
In some constructions, as Ritter*s dry piles, the plates are 
simply laid on each other, those of each pair being sepa- 
rated by moistened paper; in others the plates lie parallel 
in a trough of baked wood, by which means the cells an? 
easily filled and emptied. In the couronne des tasse* of 
Volta the plates are placed circularly or in a bowl shape ; 
while in Hare's Calonmotor there is merely one sine plate 
and one copper twisted into a great number of coils, which 
form increases the intensity, as may be seen fh)m the article 
Electro- Dynamics. This construction has been much 
employed by Pepys, Faraday, and others. 

The electricitv thus produced is of the same nature as 
that given by the common machine ; the only difTerenco 
bein^ that the mode of producing galvanism is continuous, 
that IS, when in an^ way discharged it is immediately re- 
product by the oxidation of the zinc ; and hence many 
galvanic phenomena have been sucoessf\illv imitated by a 
series of sparks of ordinary electricity. When the positive 
and negative wires are made strictly to communicate by 
metallic conductors, the combination of the opposite electn- 
cities causes all phenomena analogous to those produced by 
Mhe ordinary machine to cease, but gives birth to the elec- 
tro-dynamic and electro- magnetic phenomena. [Electriv 
Magnetism.] But when the wires from the opposite ])ole< 
of the battery are only brought sufficiently near that tiie 
current may pass through an interposed substance, or when 
the circuit is completed by imperfect conductors, the ph^i* 
cal changes which the interposed substances underg-u nm- 
stitute the phenomena of galvanism. It may be obM*r>iHl 
that the relative conductibility of substances for Voltaic 
electricity is nearlv the same as for common, but the wier- 
ations produced bv the former in the temperat*«te aivl 
internal nature of the substances through which the current 
is admitted interfere in some degree with that order of con* 
ductibility. 

The deflagration of metals is effected by beating them 
into thin leaves, which are then interposed between the c\ 
tremities of the positive and negative wires of the battery, 
brought within a quarter of an inch of each other : thr> 
will then burn with a beautiful light, but which is of differ- 
ent colours in different metals. Thus— sine gives a while 
light with a reddish border ; copper, a bluish m bite h^hu 
and throws out red sparks; lead, a purple light; g^ld leaf, 
a beautiful white light tinged with blue. 

But if the interposed substances, instead of being laminn, 
be of small irregular forms, or wire-shaped, their temperature 
rises rapidly as the electric current pomeates them. ^ Steel 



6 A t 



GAL 



burns, iron wire dissolves in globules, while charcoal pro- 
duces a light of Huch daxzUng brilliancy as to fatigue the 
eye, a property which has been happily seised by employing 
it in the solar microscope; yet this neat and light are inde- 
pendent of the ambient mediumi no oxygen is consumed, 
and the attenuation of the air rather a^ to than dimi- 
nishes the light. As for the apparent diminution of this 
intense liffht when the charcoal is immersed in water, it is 
attributable to the imperfect conductibility of the latter 
medium: a thermometer placed in water, in which the 
wires are immersed, will rise even to the boiling point 
Mr. Children has given a list of Uie order of facility in 
which substances thus acquire a red heat, and has suc- 
ceeded in l\ising the oxides of molvbdenum, tungsten, ura- 
nium. &0., but found ruby, sapphire, silex, quarts, &c., 
more intractable. It is obvious that, in the estimation of 
such an order, we must take an account of the mass heated, 
and of the extent of its surface which is liable to cool by 
contact, radiation, or both ; and lastly, of the loss of con- 
ductibility due to the increase of temperature of the sub- 
stance interposed, ^ther, alcohol, &c., may be inflamed, 
and gunpowder exploded, by making the discharge through 
charcoal points. 

Sir Humphry Davy avoided the increase of temperature 
in the wires through which the current was discharged by 
taking them of a length sufficient to discharge the number 
of pairs of plates employed in the pile, and £u8 found that 
the length of wire in this case is inversely pioportional to 
the number of double plates. The diminution of conducti- 
biUty due to increase of temperature he exhibited bv a pla- 
tinum wire made red-hot by the galvanio current ; for wnen 
he raised one part of it to a white heat by means of a blow- 

Sipe, the heat in the other parts of the wire became imme- 
iately reduced. The order of heating in metals, beginning 
from that most susceptible, which hehas given, is as follows : 
— ^iron, palladium, platinum, tin, zinc, gold, copper, silver. 

The decomposition of water by the battery is effected by 
bringing the points of the positive and negative wires very near 
each other under water, inverted glasses being placed over 
them to collect the gases which are evulved. If tne wires be 
not oxidable, then oxygen gas will be formed at the extremity 
of the positive wire, and hydrogen at the negative, in l^e 
same proportions in whieh they constitute that liquid ; but 
if oxidable, then the positive wire will be covered with an 
oxide, while the negative wire still produces hydrogen gas. 
In general oxyeen and chlorine are found at the positive 
pole, and the other gases at the negative ; but we are not to 
suppose that oxygen only is disengaged by one wire, and 
hydrogen only by the other ; for the particles of water in 
contact with the ends of either wire are strictly decomposed 
into their oonstituent gases, but the oxygen formed at the 
negative wire is transferred to the positive, and the hydro- 
gen at the positive is transferred to the negative. 

The chemical analysts were at first somewhat puzzled at 
finding foreign products, when producing decomposition by 
ealvanism ; soda, which was sometimes fi>und, was due to 
the decomposition of small portions of the glass in which 
the experiments were made, and muriatic gas to vegetable 
substances employed occasionally, as wet cotton-thread, 
when the liquid was contained in separate vessels having 
only this mutual communication. 

When neutral salts were held in solution and exposed in 
the same manner to the galvanic action, their alkaline 
bases were fi)und at the negative wire, and the acid at the 
positive : thus zeolite was decomposed into soda and lime ; 
common salt into solution of soda and sulphuric acid ; 
while the metallie solutions gave their crystaiis and oxides 
to the positive pole, and transferred the acids to the nega- 
tive. Davy made the remarkable discovery that this trans- 
fer, took plane without any combination beine effected with 
the parts of the medium traversed, even wnen the latter 
had a great affinity for the elements which passed through 
it. He arranged three cups, in the firat of which was a 
solution of Utmus (a well-known chemical test), in the 
second a similar solution, and in the third sulphate of soda. 
The positive wire was immersed in the firat cup, the ne^- 
tive in the third ; and the intermediate was connected with 
the two extreme cups by a moistened thread, so as to com- 
plete the circuit : tne resvdt was, that the solution of litmus 
in the positive cup became red, indicating the transfer of 
the acid from the third cup, while the similar solution in 
the intermediate oup underwent no change, dearly showing 
that the aeid in iti tians&r did notoommne with the solu- 



tion through which it passed. Similarly, upon reversing 
the ooles, a green was produced in the firat cup, while the 
midale still remained unaffected. But he soon recognised 
that there was an exception to this, namely, when the 
transmitted substance and the medium combine so as to 
form an insoluble compound ; for when it has thus acquired 
a greater specific gravity than the medium, it is necessarily 
drawn out of the Ime of transference ; and if by mechanical 
means it should be preserved in it, the transfer will go on as 
before. 

It may be observed generally, with respect to chemical 
decompositions effected by galvanism, that it is quantity 
rather than intensity which is requisite, and that the metals, 
alkalies, and earthy bases are transferred to the negative 
pole ; the acids, oxides, and chlorides to the positive. By the 
successive labours of Davy, Wollaston, Brande, Gay-Lussac, 
Berzelius, &c., different substances which had before been 
supposed simple, as soda, potash, lime, barytes, strontytes, 
magnesia, zircon, &c., were analyzed by this powerful in- 
strument ; and though silex, alumina, &c., offered great 
resistance to its application, and the metallic bases were 
with difficulty restrained from again combining with oxygen^ 
still in the maiority of cases the analysis has been successfuL 
The same method was applied by Brande to fluids containing 
albumen, when albumen and alkali were found at the ne- 
gative pole, albumen and acid at the positive ; he also found 
that though it remained fluid with a weak battery, when a 
stronger one was employed it was separated in a coagulated 
form. 

Experiments of the same nature have been recently made 
by Mr. Golding Bird, whose results do not agree with those 
obtained by Brande. He used for his battery the Voltaic 
form, a ' Couronne de Tasse,* of thirty small plates, excited 
only by a weak solution of salt, and first onerated on liquid 
albumen in a state of non-combination. Putting serum of 
blood into a glass vessel, and having introduced the wires 
of the battery, a cloudy deposition took place near the 
positive wire without adhering to it The experiment being 
next made with two vessels connected by moistened cotton, 
coagulation took place in the positive vessel, while none 
occurred in the negative ; after a time the contents of the 
former had an acid taste, and of the latter a caustic alkaline 
flavour: when all in the positive vessel was coagulated 
by the galvanic action, he found there hydrochloric acid 
mixed with chlorine, and the alkali in the negative vessel. 
He has given also an explanation of the causes of the 
difference in Brande*s results. 

An interesting ckss of exneriments are due to Mr. 
Crosse on the employment of electricitv, in a state of 
high tension, to form mineral and other suMtances. There 
is a cavern near Broomfield, of which the vault is covered 
with arragonite and carbonate of lime and fine crystals. 
The water which drips fh>m this vault holds in solution ten 
grains of carbonate of lime and a little sulphate of the same 
to each pint A glass filled with this water was submitted 
to the action of a battery consisting of 200 paira of plates, 
and at the expiration of ten days the negative pole was 
found to have formed rliomboidal crystals of carbonate of 
lime, accompanied by some gas-bubbles, and in less than a 
month after the wire was covered with reeular and irregular 
crystals, whence it follows that the bi-carbonate was decom- 
posed into carbonate and carbonic acid gas. He also let 
the water drop on a piece of brick subjected to a ciurrant 
from 100 five-inch plates, the brick being supported by a 
funnel which conducted the water into a vessel below : 
after four or five months the brick near the negative pole 
of the battery was covered with carbonate of lime, while 
near the positive pole were disposed prismatic crystals of 
arragonite ; and the same experiment being repeated with 
fluonlicic acid, regular hexahedral pyramids similar in all 
respects to quartz were obtained ; those which were left in 
a dry place acquired sufficient hardness to scratch glass ; 
the otnera had not that power, and gradually lost their 
transparency. In his varied experiments of this nature 
he has succeeded in forming, by means of the galvanio 
battery, the following minerals : — carbonate of lime ; arra- 
gonite ; Quartz ; protoxide of copper ; arseniate of copper, 
and its blue and green carbonates ; phosphate of copper ; 
carbonate of lead ; chalcedony, &c., upon which Becquerel 
remarks, in Uie last-published volume of his ' Experimental 
Electricity/ ' Nearly all these substances we have obtained 
these doien years with the nmple electro-chemical appa- 
ratus/ 



C A L 



56 



GAL 



ExperimcnU on tbe increase of tbe cbemical power of 
the (2:alvanic apparatus, compared with the increase of the 
number of nlates, have been made by Davy, Gay-Lussac, 
and Th6nara ; but they disagree. We shall therefore now 
pass on to a brief notice of the physiological effects produced 
by galvanism, from which we must exclude any account of 
tbe animalcuIsB observed by Mr. Crosse in the solutions 
employed in his recent experiments, pending tbe further 
protrress of those highly interesting researches, and in the 
absence of any similar result in the experiments which 
Mr. Faraday has made with the same object. 

In the life of Galvani there is an account of the convul- 
sive motions to which denuded frogs are subject when the 
nerve and muscle form part of the galvanic circuit. In 
order that an individual may receive a shock from a batterv, 
it is advisable to moisten the hand, because the dry cuticle 
is a bad conductor of electricity : then, on touching one of 
the wires of the battery with a metallic rod, the shock will 
be received and felt in the wrists, arms, or shoulders, ac- 
cording to the intensity of the current ; or a continued sen- 
sation, resembling the piercing of a very fine needle, will 
be perceived by dipping the finger in a dish containing a 
little water in which the wires of the battery are inserted in 
the same line with the finger. In both cases, if the nerves 
are denuded by a cut, the sensation is nainful, and the 
pain will remain some time before it subsiaes. In some ex- 
periments of this kind Humboldt broufrbt on an inflam- 
mation by applying tbe current to a cut Volta has asserted 
that the negative wire communicates the greater pain. 

A flash of light is perceived by covering tbe bulb of the 
eye with tinfoil ana forming a metallic communication 
thence with the mouth, for instance, with a silver spoon ; 
also Berzelius found an acid taste on dipping the tongue 
into a zinc vessel containing water, which was placed on a 
silver stand, by touching the silver with his hand so as to 
complete the circuit. When the negative current is com- 
municated to the taste, it is caustic and alkaline. 

When the battery is applied to a nerve of a person 
recently dead, and the circuit is completed, several violent 
motions ensue, dependent on the relative position of the 
nerve and muscle * thus, when the wire communicates with 
the phrenic nerve, the muscles of respiration are set in 
motion ; when from the ulnar nerve to the spinal marrrow 
is included in the circuit, tbe fingers are set in quick motion, 
and so on. Fishes are still more susceptible of this electric 
action than animals, and strong convulsive motions will be 
exhibited by a live flounder placed on a zino dish and 
having a piece of copper or silver on its back, as soon as 
the two metals come in contact : similar effects take place 
with leeches, worms, and amphibious animals. 

It was thought by Volta that the involuntary muscles, 
such as the heart, could not be thus excited, but experi- 
ment has decided against him. 

When the secretion was suspended by cutting the eighth 
pair of nerves. Dr. Philip ana several French anatomists 
iiavc restored it by establishing a galvanic current through 
the divided part of the nerves next the stomach. 

Intermittent currents have been employed in the experi- 
ments of Masson, Peltier, and Delarive. To effect this, 
M. Masson used a toothed wheel rotating by a cord round 
it ; its axis, supporter, and itself being all metallic : a com- 
munication is formed between this wheel and a battery in 
the form of a helix : the object of the teeth of the wheel is 
occasionally to suspend the action of the current by making 
the connecting roa of too great a length ; hence, when the 
wheel is maae to revolve, the ^Ivanic current acts and is 
suspended alternately. By a series of intermitted discharges 
produced in this manner, M. Masson had the cruel pleasure 
of killing a cat. 

P. Santi Linari drew the electric spark from the gym- 
notus in the following manner: — he took a ^lass tube of the 
sha|>e of a capital U, which he partly filled with mercury ; 
at each end was fixed an iron wire through a wooden 
button, antl which reached very near the mercury. The 
apparatus being fixed with mastic on varnished wood, the 
end of the wires were made to touch short platina wires 
terminated by laminto of the same metal, intended to make 
a good communication with the different parts of the elec- 
trical fish. When the circuit was formed, a spark \isible 
even in the daylight appeared at the place where the con- 
ductors were interrupted. This experiment he has re- 
peated in different forms. {Biblioth. Univ. de Geneve,) 
M. Dekrive has lately Dotioed a remarkable difference 



of effects in the action of Voltaic and of mtgneto-^leetrie 
currents. When the wires of the latter were used for decom- 
positions, but in the form of thin leaves or lamtnaa, then* 
was but little disengagement of gas, and the more the 
lamina was plunged, the less was the gas evolved, which niui 
not the case in the common form of tne wire : this does not 
occnr in Voltaic electricity ; the same experimentalist ha% 
sought the ({uantity of electricity necessary to decompose a 
given quantity of water, and his result is that the produ<-i 
of the time multiplied by the intensity of the current i» 
constant. 

(PAs7. Tram. 1815, 1834, &e.; Thomson's ilfiMolff, vi.; 
Wilkinson's Ga/ram>m; Nicholson's Jbtima/ ; Bdintur:::\ 
Med. Journal: Annates de Chimie ; Journal dePhynqu . 
64 ; Puffendorf, Annalen. ; Bccquerel, Traite Exftrrt- 
menial; Pouillet, Physique; Reports f^ the British A^h* 
dation^ &c.) 

GALVANISM, in its action on the human system, re- 
sembles electricity, yet it is distinguished by certain yv- 
culiarities. In its application it can be rendered more 
continuous and uniform, and may, like electricity, be admi- 
nistered either in shocks, or in a regular flow of galvanic 
influence through the body. It possesses more power over 
the chemical actions of the body than electricity, and pru- 
motes more completely those processes of decomposition 
and recomposition which take place in the living frame* &% 
well as the functions of organic life, than common elcctn 
city. But the chief distinction consists in the difference ot 
action of the two poles. Each pole excites peculiar phena 
mena in tbe orcrans to which it is applied, xhis difference 
is less perceptime when mere shocks are administered, than 
when a continuous stream of galvanic influence is trans- 
mitted from one point to another of the body. The po»iti\e 
pole more particularly influences the muscular and vascular 
system, while the negative pole more especially affects 
the nervous system. At the positive pole there is felt 
the shock, strong movements, a feeling of concentration 
and contraction, increased warmth and mobility of Uir 
part, with gradual diminution of the secretion and sen- 
sibility. At the negative pole the pain and sensibility arc 
stronger and more acute, tbe organ expands, is more 
irritable, while the muscular action and mobility are l€&* 
sened. The difference of their action on the secreting 
powers is best seen by applying tbe respective poles to a 
surface which has been recentlv deprived of its cuticle, such 
as where a blister has been. The positive pole change tbe 
serous secretion into that of lymph, which at last becomes 
thready ; the part dries and is inflamed. The negative pole 
causes an abundant secretion of a dark-coloui«d, highly 
acrid fluid, which excoriates the skin over which it flow^' 
the part also experiences an enduring irritation. Atonic 
sweliings are rendered harder, should they not become in- 
flamed by the positive pole, while frequently by the nega- 
tive pole they are dispersed and resolved. Notwithstanding 
the possession of such powerful properties, galvanism Iuia 
not produced so valuable results in medicine as misht haie 
been anticipated. This comparative failure is no aoubt lo 
be attributed to errors in the mode of applying it. As ih« 
diseases in which it has been recommended are those already 
enumerated under electricity [Electricity, Mbdical t-sss 
of], it is not necessar}* to repeat them here. It may be 
proper however to remark, that it was urgently recommended 
during the prevalence of the Asiatic cholera, but the results 
were not satisfactory. Like many other powerful agents, ii 
was not used till a very late stage in the complaint, when 
recovery was almost impossible. It is also to be doubtoi 
whether galvanism be at all applicable to cholera, since tt 
appears that the continued application of it causes deatli. 
by inducing inflammation of the lungs, in cases of animals 
where the eighth pair of nerves have been divided, mor« 
speedily than where the same nerves have been divideii in 
animals to which the galvanic power was not applied a« a 
substitute for the nervous. Inflammation is the invsriiibU 
consequence of the application of the positive pole ; whiW 
the negative pole would cause a flow of acrid secretion wbirh 
could not benefit the patient. The identity of electnctt>. 
whether common or galvanic, with the nervous power, is 
much to be questioned. (See controversy between Dr. W. 
Philip, Dr. Williams, and others, in Medical Gazette, vol. 
xvii.) 

GALVANOMETER, or MULTIPLIER, is an instni- 
roent constructed for the purpose of detecting the presence 
of feeble electro-chemical currents. The nerves and mutolcs 



GAL 



67 



GAL 



of newly killed frogs were at first used ; but the discovery of 
electro -magnetiBm has furnished a more delicate and mea- 
surable criterion : the instrument founded on this principle 
has been succefisively improved in the hands of Schweigger, 
Cumming, Nobili, and Melloni, to a most remarkable de- 
gree of delicacy. 

The principle of the construction depends on the property 
possessed by electrical currents of acting on magnetised 
needles ; for if the conducting wire be placed on tne mag- 
netic meridian above or below the needle, the latter wul 
suffer a deviation to the right or left according to the direc- 
tion of the current. 

Tho action of terrestrial magnetism tending to restore 
the needle, after its derangement by the current* to its ori- 
ginal position, is almost entirely corrected by employing two 
similar needles supported parallel to each other by a light 
piece of straw or other substance, and placed with the poles 
of one in an inverse position to those of the other. This appa- 
ratus being suspended by a fine silk thread, is placed in a 
wooden box of the form of a parallelepiped of small width, 
round which the conducting wire is passed in a great number 
of coils, which are kept from communicating by being doubly 
wrapped in silk or other non-conducting substance; the 
number of coils in some such instruments has been more 
than 500, by which the effect produced on the needle by a 
single current is multiplied twice as many times, since the 
opposite sides of each coil double the action of either side ; 
and the terrestrial polarity of the needle being counteracted 
in the manner above mentioned, this simple instrument 
BCQuires a very great sensibility. 

Modifications of the above construction have been made 
by Person, Peltier, and others, and a moveable index has 
been attached, particularly when weak thermo-electric cur- 
rents are to be examined. Four needles have been used by 
some instead of two, but the principle of the construction 
in all cases is the same as that which has been described. 

On the construction of electroscopes and galvanometers, 
the reader may consult Annalea de Physique, t. xvi., p. 91, 
by Bohnenberger ; t. xxii., p. 358, by Oersted ; t. xxxiii., 
p. 62, by Colladon; t xxxviii., p. 225, by Nobili; t. xlviii., 
p. 113, by Nobili and Melloni. Also Bibiioth. Univ., 
t. xxxviii.. p. 79, by Nobili; Phil. Trans, 1823, by Pepys; 
also Annals qf Philosophy, 1824, &c. 

GALWAY, a maritime county of the province of Con- 
naught, in Ireland ; bounded on the north by the county of 
Mayo ; on the north-east by the county of Roscommon, 
from which it is separated for the most part by the river 
Suck ; on the east by parts of the counties of Westmeath, 
Kind's County and Tipperary, from which it it separated 
by *he riv€r Shaimon; on the south by the county of 
ClaLo and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. It extends 
from 52° 57' to 53° 42' N. lat, and from 7° 53' to 10° 15' 
W. long., being about 164 English miles in length from 
east to west, and 52 in breadth fi?om north to south. The 
extent of coast, which is very irregular, has been estimated 
at 400 miles ; and the Shannon and Suck, both navigable 
rivers, nearly surround the rest of the county. The area, 
according to the Ordnance Survey, consists of— cultivated 
land, 955,7 13 acres ; unprofitable bog and mountain, 476,957 
acres; water, 77,922 acres; or 2360 statute square miles. 
The population, exclusively of the county of the town of 
Galway, w^as, in 1831, 381,564. 

Physical Character^ Rivers, Coast, <J«.— With the excep- 
tion of a spur of the Slievc Boughta mountains, running 
from the Clare boundary on the south-east towards Louglireo, 
and a similar extension of the Burriu range [Clajie] on the 
Muth-west of the same district, the whole of that part of 
Galway which lies east of Loch Corrib, being nearly of the 
same extent with the county of Tipperary, is comparatively 
fiat, and although to a great extent encumbered with bog, 
is pretty generally improved and productive. A low table- 
land runnmg nortn and south separates this part of Galway 
into two nearly equal districts, the waters of one of which 
run eastward into the Suck and Shannon, and those of the 
other westward into the head of Galway Bay and Loch 
Corrib. The district of the Suck is most encumbered with 
bogs; nevertheless it contains much well-improved land, 
particularlv in the neighbourhood of Ahascragh and Balli- 
naslue. The district bordering on the Shannon also con- 
tains a largo portion of bog on that side next the river, but 
has a good share of cultivation and improvement towards 
the interior. The district extending eastward from the 
head of Galway Bay is the richest part of the county. The ^ 
P. C, No. 665. 



country east of Loch Corrib is more diversified with hill and 
dale, and is generally in a ^ood state of improvement The 
' centre of this eastern district of Galway is a bare flat tract, 
not equal in fertility to any of the other portions. 

The whole district west of Lochs Corrib and Mask is 
known by the general name of Connamara, and has latterly 
attracted much attention by its capabilities of improvement, 
as well as by the uncommon wildness and beauty of its 
scenery. Tlie bay of Galway bounds it on the south, the 
Atlantic on the west, and a deep inlet of the sea, called the 
Killery harbour, separates it on the north from the moun- 
tainous district of Murrick, in Mayo. From the head of 
Loch Corrib on the east to Achris Head on the west, this 
district extends 40 English miles ; and from the head of 
Killery harbour on the north, to tho shore of the bay of 
Galway on the south, 30 miles. The most prominent object 
is a group of conical mountains called the Twelve Pins, 
(probably Bins, synonymous with the Scotch Ben), of Bun- 
nabola, rising abruptly from a table-land of moderate 
elevation which stretches south and west from their bases 
to the sea, and forms the chief habitable portion of the 
district. Hound their bases are numerous lakes, of which 
the chief are Loch Ina, under the eastern front of the group; 
the upper and lower lakes of Ballinahinch skirting them 
on the south, and Lochs Kylemore and Foe lying between 
their northern decUvities and the opposite range, which rises 
along the southern shore of the Killery. The average height of 
these mountains is about 2000 feet ; some rise to 2400 feet, 
and as the table-land from which they rise is only of mode- 
rate elevation, their appearance is very striking. North- 
ward and eastward from the Twelve Pins a range of equal 
altitude, but not of so picturesque a character, covers an 
area of about 200 square miles, between the head of Killery 
harbour and the western shore of Loch Mask. About mid- 
way between these waters lies the lake of Loughnascoy, 
north of which, to the boundary of Mayo, the country is 
entirely uninhabited. The chief elevations of this group, 
on the west, are Shanafola, at the fiead of Loch Corrib ; 
Ben Leva, the declivities of which form the isthmus between 
Lochs Corrib and Mask ; and the range of Maam Trasna 
overhanging the western shore of the latter lake. On the 
north the range of Furmnamore extends along the Mayo 
boundary, and on the west and south Maam Turk and 
Mameam rise over Loch Ina opposite to the eastern part of 
the group of Bennabola. Although this entire tract of 
country is generally known by the name of Connamara, it 
is properly divided into three districts: the portion last 
described, between the head of the Killery and Loch Corrib, 
being termed Joyce Country ; that lying south of the Pins 
and range of Shanafola and Mameam being lar-Connaught, 
or Western Connaught; and the remainder, extending 
westward from the Pins to tho Atlantic, constituting Con- 
namara Proper. The islands off the coast of Galway are 
very numerous; the chief are the three south islands of 
Arran, lying about midway between the coasts of lar-Con* 
naught and Clare, in the opening of the bay of Galway, and 
the islands of Innisturk, Innisbollin, and Innishark, ex- 
tending, in like manner, across the offing of Killery har- 
bour, between the coasts of Connamara and Murrisk. 

On the southern side of the bay of Galway the coast is 
not favourable for the construction of harbours. From 
Burrinquay, in the county of Clare, to Kinvarra, at the 
head of the bay, there is no place of shelter for crall except 
at Killancy in Arran, and Durus on the mainland, opposite 
the town of Galway. The creeks of Ballynacourty and 
Rhenville are good harbours for vessels of a small class 
at the head of the bay, and the harbour of Galway has 
lately been much improved. Westward however from 
Galway, and round tlio entire coast of lar-Connaughc 
and Connamara to the boundary of Mayo, there is a suc- 
cession of harbours for vessels of the largest class, un- 
equalled perhaps on any similar extent of coast in Europe. 
The first of these noble roadsteads next Galway is Costello 
bay, at the mouth of the celebrated fishing- stream the Cos- 
tello, where a small pier was erected in 1822 for the ac- 
commodation of fishing-boats and merchant vessels. This 
harbour admits large ships, and is defended by a martel]o 
tower. Casheen bay, Greatman's bay,* and Kilkerran bay 
occur immediately west from the Costello, being separated 
from one another by narrow peninsulas. The last-mentioned 
bay contains one hundred miles of shore, and is capable 
of receiving the largest vessels. A pier, five hundred feet 
in length* with a return of one hundred, was constructed 

Vol. XL-I 



GAL 



58 



GAL 



here in 1822 : but as there is no road of any kind to the 
shore, it has been of comparatively little service. An ex- 
tensive peninsula (ten miles by seven), interspersed with 
lakes, but destitute of roads of any kind, separates Kilkerran 
bay from the bay of Birterbuy, which runs inland about five 
miles, beinq only half a mile wide at the entrance, and from 
two to three miles wide within ; it has deep water and fine 
ground, and inii^ht be easily fortified, so as to form a most 
desirable station fur ships of war. On the western side of 
the entrance to Blrterbuy bay is the opening of Ronndstone 
harbour, a safe and capacious inlet, with clean good ground, 
anil two to five fathoms* water. Roundstone harbour has 
been much spoken of as the terminus of a western Irish 
railway. At the head of the haibour, whero the waters of 
the lakes of Ballinahinch and Loch Ina discharge them- 
selves* is an excellent snlmon fishery. A considerable vil- 
lage has sprung up within the last ten years at Roundstone, 
and as a road runs hither from the main hne of commu- 
nication between Galwav and Clifden, there is a prospect of 
it becoming a place of some trade, especially as it is the 
nearest point for the shipment of the fine green marble of 
Ballinahinch. From Birterbuy the coast stretches, with 
occasional anchoras^es, to Slyne Head, the most western 
point of Gal way; off Slyne l^ead lie a number of inlands 
with navigable sounds between them, which remained un- 
noticed in the maps till Mr. Nimmo's coast survey, made 
for the late Commissioners of Irish fisheries : had the ex- 
istence of these sounds been known, it is believed that 
many shipwrecks might have been prevented. Between 
Slyne Head and Acliris Head occiur the bays of Mannin and 
Ardbear, or Clifden ; the former possessing one good an- 
chorage, but exposed, and the latter nn excellent harbour 
with safe anchorage in six to eic:ht fathoms* water. At the 
head of this harbour a considerable town has grown up 
since 1822, at which time it consisted only of one slated 
house and a few thatched cabins. The commencement of 
a pier here by the proprietor, Mr. D'Arcy, assisted by 
Government in 1821, seems to have been the first step 
towards raising the place above the v ilds which still sur- 
round it. So successful have the efforts of the proprietor 
been, that Clifden, in 182(5, contained about one hundred 
good houses, roofed with Bangor slates, and abont thirty 
country ^hops, the sales of which were estimated to con- 
tribute upwards of 3000/. per annum in direct taxes to 
the Government ; and the consumption of taxable commo- 
dities is now stated to have increased to double the amount. 
In 1821 the population was 200; in 1S3! it was 1257. 

There is now a regular market in Clifden for com, where, 
ten years ago, all the corn required was brought in barrels 
from Galwav. A brewery, distillery, and milling concerns 
contribute principally to the demand ; but there is also a 
regular export of corn and butter to Liverpool. As early 
as 1825 there were seven cargoes imported direct into 
Clifdi^n for the use of the country; and there is now a 
rcMilar import from America. North of Clifden harbour 
i> Cleggan.an excellent roadstead, with a pier built in 1822, 
to wliich a branch of the new coast-road has been extended. 
Between Clepgan bay and the point of Renvyle, which 
forms the southern boundary of the entrance to the Kille- 
ries. is the harbour of Ballynakill, well sheltered by the 
iNland of Truchelaun, and capable of receiving vessels of 
the largest class. Rounding the point of Renvyle there is 
an open bay, from the head of which two inlets run east- 
word between steep mountains. These are the Great and 
Litile Killeries; the latter an arm of the sea, about twelve 
^1ile^ in length, by a quarter to three-quarters of a mile in 
width, having, for a great part of its length, ten to twelve 
fathoms of water and clean ground. An island at the 
mouth completely protects it from the sea, but from being 
overhung on each side by steep and lofly mountains it is 
exposed to squalls, and not safe for sailing boats. The 
scenery of the Great Killery is much ailmired, and con- 
sidered to a^'proach nearest to the Norwegian fiords of any 
in these islands. On the whole there is no part of this dis- 
trict more than four miles from existing means of naviga- 
tion. The harbours fit for vessels of any burthen are upwards 
of twenty in number; it contains twenty-five navigable lakes 
of a mile or more in length, and hundreds of smaller size. 
LorhCorrib and Loch Mask alone have upwards of seventy 
miles of navigable coast: and all these waters abound with 
fi&h. The sea-shore affords a constant supply of red and 
black seaweed, which can be used either as manure, or in 
the mantifacture of kelp, of which latter article upwards of 



fifteen thouaand pounds' worth baa been numiilketund in 
one season. Banks of ealcareous sand and beds of lime- 
stone ^are of frequent occurrence* and there is an inex- 
haustible supply of peat fuel and of water-power. Yet. 
notwithstanding these capabilities, if the neighbourhoods of 
Clifden and Roundstone be excepted, the populatkn still 
continues poor and thinly scattered along the coast, leaving 
the interior almost whoUv waste. The population of tbu 
district is at present under 65,000, and the entire rental 
about 50,000/. per annum ; although it is estimated to con- 
tain 350.000 Irish, or 615,000 English acres. 

The rivers of Galway, being either feeders of the Suck 
and Shannon, or descending by short courses from the 
western district to the sea, are in general small. The 
river of Clare-Gal way, which rises near Dunmore. in the 
north-east of the county, and passes near Tuam, has a 
course, from its source to its termination in Loch Comb, of 
about 50 English miles. South of Tuam it expands mto a 
periodical lake or turlogh : the waters generally rise in Sep- 
tember or October, and do not subside until May, aft«*r 
which a coarse grass springs up, which is generally grazed 
as a common by the tenants of the adjoining land. Similar 
turloghs mark the surfiice of the countrv throughout the 
entire district bordering on the county of Clare ; a pheno- 
menon which is probably owing to the porous nature of the 
limestone rock which forms the substratum, which, being 
saturated with the autumnal rains, ceases during the 
winter to absorb the surface waters. Here, as elsewhere, 
on the verge of the great limestone tract which extends 
throughout the central district of Ireland, it ia frequently 
perforated by subterranean cavities, which oocasion the Attr- 
appearance of numerous streams, and in some instanci*s 
absorb considerable rivers. Thus, the river of Shruel, on 
the northern border of this part of the county, dips .under- 
ground near Moycastle, and emerges before it terminates in 
Loch Corrib. Tlie entire waters of Loch Mask also pass more 
than two miles by subterraneous channels under the isthmu* 
of Cong into Loch Corrib. A considerable stream, which nses 
near Loughrea, after a south-western course of ten milcs^ 
during which it dips underground for half a mile,disappear» 
in a turlogh about five miles from Gort; and two other 
streams in the more immediate neighbourhood of Gort 
sink and emerge frequently, and finally disappear without 
any visible outlet. The lakes of Loughrea and Gort are 
fine sheets of water; the latter has well- wooded banks and 
a very picturesque vicinity. 

An extension of the Grand Canal connects Balltnasloe 
with the line to Dublin at Shannon Harbour. It has been 
proposed to carry on this line by Tuam to Galway, and to 
extend a branch from it to Loughrea. It has also lieen 
proposed to open a water communication northwards from 
Galway through the heart of Connaught by joining Loch« 
Corrib and Mask with the navigable lakes of Mayo. [Co>- 

NAUOHT.] 

Prior to 1813, the only roads west of Galway were a nar- 
row coast-road to Costello bay and a central road by 
Oughterard to Ballinahinch. These were led over rocks 
and bogs in so unskilful a maimer as to be scarcely passable 
for any sort of carriage, and the only other means of com- 
munication through the district were narrow bndle-road« 
scarcely passable for horsemen in summer, and auite im- 
practicable in winter. On the coast, in particular, there wa» 
nothing beyond the Costello better than a footpath. By 
the improvements begun in 1822 and still in progress under 
the Government, a complete line of carriage round the 
whole district has been effected. A coast*road has been 
formed which touches the heads of all the chief inlets from 
Costello bay to the Killery, where it joins an inland line 
leading through the heart of Jovce Country to the head of 
Loch Corrib, and thence across tfie central plain of lar Con- 
naught to the southern coast-road at Costello bay. Tbe^? 
works and the expenditure of public money on piers and 
fishing harbours on the coast, have considerably promoted 
the general prosperity of the country ; and the flivoiirablr 
statements of the various scientific men engaged in them 
have attracted so much attention to Connaroara that thcrv 
is a probability of its ultimately becoming the scene of ex- 
tended mercantile and agricultural speculations. 

Climate.— The climate is mild, and snow rarely lies m 
the western district. Cattle in this part of the county ar« 
never housed. The summers are wet, and the coast is ex- 
pose<l to very heavy storms from the Atlantic. According 
to the population returns for 1881, there were living to tbe 



GAL 



GO 



GAL 



The general condition of the people of Gftlway is tome- 
what letter than that of the inhabitants of most other 
parts of Connaught, which probably arises from the resi- 
aence of so many of the landed proprietors on their estates : 
6d to 8dL per day for 120 days in the year is the avenge 
rate of agrieultursl wages and employment The manners 
of the people west of lochs Corrib and Mask are very pri- 
mitive ; and some of the elans still inhabiting the moun- 
tainous tract north of Ou^hterard and the Twelve Pins 
aie remarkable for great stature and personal strength. The 
Irish language is very generally spoken. 

IhiiiiixU Divininu, — Galway is divided into seventeen 
baronies, of which three are situated west of lochs Corrib 
and Mask : viz^ Ross, nearly oo-extensive with the district 
of Joyce Country, which contains but two small villages ; 
Ballinahineh, nearly co-extensive with the district of Con- 
naraara, containing the town of Clifden (population, in 1 83 1 , 
1257), and MoycuUen, corresponding with the district of 
Iar-Connaught« which contains the village of Oughterard, 
with a population of 527. East of lochs Corrib and Mask 
the district bordering on Mayo is occupied by the baronies 
of Clare, containing the town of Headforth (population 
1441), and part of the town of Tuam (total population 6883) 
[Tuam] ; Dunmore, containing the town of Dunmore (popu* 



lation 847), and part of Tuam ; and lyaquin, eontaming no 
hamlet with more than 60 inhabitants: the district border- 
ing on Roscommon is occupied by the baronies of Ballymn« 
and Killian, containing only hamlets ; Kilconnell, containing 
the towns of Ahascragh (population 851) and Aughritn 
(population 587) ; and (Jlonmacnoon, containing part of the 
town of Ballinasloe, total population 4615: the district bor- 
dering on the Shannon has the baronies of Longford, con- 
taining the towns of Eyre Court (population 1789) an<t 
Portumna (population 1 122) ; and Leitrim, containing only 
the village of Leitrim, of 280 inhabitants : the district ex- 
tending Arom the centre of the county to the head of Gal- 
way bay and to the Clare boundary has the baronies of 
Athenry, containing the town of Athenry (copulation 1309) ; 
Loughrea, containing the town of Loughrea (population 
6289); DunkelUn, containing the town ofOranmore (p«>- 
pulation 673); and Kiltartan, containing the towns of 
Gort (population 3627) and Kinvarra (population 824 >; 
the islands of Arran constitute* a barony and pariah in 
themselves. 

Cialway county is represented in the Imperial Parliament 
by four members, viz. two for the county, and two for the 
county of the town of Galway. The county constituency in 
1836 was 3057. 





Table qf Population (exclusive of County qf the Town qf Galway). 






Date. 


Ho«r aieert-iined. 


o 

a 


i 

US 

1 


m d ^ 

Ill 


n 0.Q a 
*2g * 


^1- 


1 

m 


1 

1 


1 


1792 
1813 
1821 
1631 


Estimated by Dr. Beaufort 
Under Act of 1812 . . . 
Under Act 55 Geo. IIL c. 120 
Under Act 1 Wm. IV. c. 19 . 


28,212 
21,122 
54,180 
62,508 


• • 

57] 142 
65,986 


• • 

• • 

51,448 


■ a 
• • 

6 '.950 


a . 
a a 

7,588 


1 . m i^iii 

• • 

156!i57 
la9,204 


• • 

153,442 
192,360 


142.000 
140,99a 
309,599 
381,564 



Civil History.—The Anglo-Norman fisimily of De 
Burgho and their followers, in the beginning of the thir- 
teenth century, fixed themselves chiefly about Athenry 
and Galway, and maintained the administration of Eng- 
li»b law until the middle of the next century, when the 
assassination of William earl of Ulster [Belfast] led to 
a revolt of the entire Connaught branch of the De Burgho 
family. The De Burghos of Galway, having assumed the 
Irish name of Mac William Eighter, to distinguish them 
fram the Mac Williams Oughter, another branch of the 
same family, fbll into the lawless practices of the neigh- 
bouring clans, and remained in all respects like native Irish 
till the rei};n of Elizabeth. English law was again intro- 
duced by the reduction of this county to s hire-ground by 
Sir Henry Sidney in 1585 ; but the Irish mode of life con- 
tinued to prevail until after the rebellion of 1641, and the 
war of the revolution of 1688, both of which events affected 
the property and population of this county to a great extent 
The present proprietary are for the greater part of English 
descent; but the great mass of the population are the de- 
scendants of old Irish. The family of Joyce, which still 
forms the chief population of the barony of Ross, and are 

auite Irish both in languas^ and manners, are said to be 
escendanU of English adventurers, who settled here in 
the reign of Edward L 

Galway is very rich in antiquities. There are round 
towers at Ballvgaddy, Kllbannon, Kilmacduagh Meelick, 
Murrough, ana Ardrahan. Cromlechs and stone circles 
are of frequent occurrence. The antiquities of the epis- 
copal seaU of Tuam, Clonfert, and Kilmacduagh are con- 
tained within this county. Of the numerous remains of 
religious houses throughout Galway, the ruined abbey of 
Knockmoy is the most interesting. It was founded in the 
year 1189 bv Cathal O'Connor, sumamed Crove-dearg, or 
• of the red hand,' in consequence of a victory obtained by 
him over the English under Almeric St Laurence. Above 
the tomb of the founder are some fresco paintings of great 
interest, as exhibiting the costume of the antient Irish: the 
Phrygian cap represented as worn by some of the figures 
will attract the attention of the antiquary. Abbey Knock- 
moy is also interesting for iU architecture, which indicates 
a considerable advancement in the arts among its founders. 
The raths or earthem fbrtraiaea of the old Irish, and 



castles of the early Anglo- Norman lords, are also very 
numerous. 

For the present state of education in this district see 
Tuam. 

The county expenses are defrayed by grand juiy asse^<- 
ment The amount so IcTied in the year 1835 was 
43,936/. 8«. 7d, 

The constabulary force employed in Galway in the veax 
1835 consisted of 12 chief constables, 122 consUbles/540 
sub-constables, and 1 5 horse police, the total expen«e of 
which force was 23,553/. 19#. Bd, In 1835 the police force 
for this county consisted of one stipendiary magistrate, 1 3 
chief constables, 135 constables, 582 sub-constables, and 
19 horse ; the total expense of this establishment vas 
26,565/. 69, 9(/., of which 12,480/. 16f. 6</.was defrayed by 
the county. 

The district lunatic asylum for Galway and the oth(*r 
counties is at Ballinasloe : it was opened in 1 833, and ac- 
comodates 150 patients. (Statistical Survey of the Covnfy 
qf Galway, Dublin, 1824; Reports of Commissioners ff 
Irish Bogs : Reports qf Commissioners of Irish Pisheriet ; 
Inglis's Ireland; Letters from the Irish Highlands, &cO 

GALWAY, County of the Town of, was erected into a 
separate county by charter of 8th James I. With the ex- 
ception of the site of the county gaol and court-house, the 
county of the town embraces a tract of 23,000 acres, and 
includes the parish of St Nicholas, and parts of the parishes 
of Rahoon and Oranmore. This district is divioed into 
nearly equal parts by the river, which here discharges the 
waters of Loch Corrib into the sea. The town of Galwa} 
is built on both sides of, and on two islands in, this river ; 
the main town is situated wholly on the eastern side. Gal- 
wayis 102 Irish or 130 English miles ftom. Dublin. 

There does not appear to have been any trace of a town 
here till the year 1 124, when a fortress was erected on this 
site, probably by the O'Flaherties, dynasts of lar Cun- 
naught, which was destroyed by Conor, king of Muosler, in 
1132; and, having been rebuilt, was a second time demo- 
lished by Furlough O'Brien, his successor, tn 1149. Ot% 
the invasion of tlie English in 1 180, Galway was again put 
in a state of defence b^ the O' Flaherties, from whom Ri- 
chard De Burgho took it in 1232 ; and in 1270 the wallinir 
and fortification of the town were undertaken by the eon- 



GAL 



61 



GAL 



querors. About tlik time the ancestors of many of the 
present leading families of GralMray settled here, and from 
the entry of customs on the Pipe roll, it appears that the 
place at this time had already become a considerable depot 
of foreign merchandize. 

The power of the new settlers being confirmed by tlieir 
victory at Athenry over the Irish, who had risen in aid of 
Edward Bruce on his invasion in 1315, the town, notwith- 
standing some interruption caused by the defection of the 
De Burghos in 1333, continued to prosper; and various 
subsequent grants of murage attest the importance which 
was attached to its preservation by the English govern- 
ment. 

Although involved in Arequent disputes with Limerick, 
arising out of the rivalry of trade, Galway continued to 
increase in mercantile prosperity till the middle of the 
seventeenth century. On the breaking out of the rebellion 
in 1641, the Earl of Clanrioarde, after some opposition, 
occupied the town for the king. The concourse of persons 
taking refuge here from the troubles which succeeded 
produced a plague, which, between July and April, 1649, 
carried off 3700 of the inhabitants. On the final success of 
the Parliamentarians in 1652, Galway, after enduring a 
blockade of some months, submitted to Sir Charles Coote. 
On the breaking out of the war of the revolution in 1688, 
the inhabitants declared for James II., and continued 
attached to his cause until the defeat of the Irish at 
Aughrim enabled General Ginckle to come before the town 
with a force of 1400 men, to whom the place surrendered 
on honourable terms on 26th July, 1691. From this period 
down to the present time Galway has continued distin- 
g^uished ibr its attachment to the established government, 
which was markedly evinced by the loyal services of the 
inhabitants during the rebellion of 1798. 

The walls, which formerly contained an area of about 
twenty-two acres, have been almost entirely pulled down 
since 1779, and the town has now extended on all sides to 
a considerable distance beyond its former limits. Some of 
the antique residences still remain, which are generally 
square castellated buildings, with an interior court-yard 
and arched gateway opening on the street, in the Spanish 
taste. The whole of the ola part of Galway, indeed, par- 
takes of the appearance of a Spanish town, the result most 
probably of the extensive trade and intercourse maintained 
Dctween it and the coast of Spain. The house of James 
Lynch Fitzstephen, who was mayor in 1493, and whose 
determined execution of the law upon his own son has 
given much interest to his memory, still stands in Lom- 
bard-street, commonly called ' dead man's lane,' in allusion 
to the event above referred to. The west bridge, built 
about 1442, connects the town with Ballymana island and 
the opposite suburbs. 

The corporation of Galway consists of a mayor, two she- 
riffs, free burgesses unlimited, recorder, and town-derk. 
The corporate authorities have exclusive criminal jurisdic- 
tion within the town, and a civil jurisdiction to any amount 
for debts contracted within the same limits. The borough 
quarter-sessions are held four times a year, and petty ses- 
sions two days in each week. The earliest charter extant is 
of 19th Richard II. ; but this and other subsequent charters 
were refonned by the new rules of 25th Charles IL, and 
by the present governing charter of 29th of the same reign. 
[Corporations of Irbland, p. 49.] The revenue of the 
corporation arises wholly from the tolls of the town, which 
in the year 1836 were let for 1260/. per annum. 

This corporation has the patronage of a singular ecclesi- 
astical body called the Royal College of GalWay, which 
originated in a desire of the inhabitants to free themselves 
from the diocesan jurisdiction of the Irish archbishops of 
Tuam. This was carried into effect by a release executed 
in 1484 by Donat O'Murray, the then archbishop, which 
^^as subsequently eonftrmed by Pope Innocent VIII., and 
ratified by charter of 5th Edward I V. ; erecting the church 
of St. Nicholas into a collegiate body, consisting of a war- 
den and eight vicars choral, whose presentation and 
election lie wholly with the corporation. By the 1 5th sec- 
tion of 1 1 Geo. ly ., c. 7, this privilege is now confined to 
the Protestant members of that body. The wardenship of 
Galway extends over the parishes of St Nicholas, Rahoon, 
Oranroore, Clare-Galway, MoycuUen, Kilcommon, Bally na- 
courty, and Sbruel, and contains a total population of 
68,1 45. Galway is represented in the Imperial Parliament 
by two members* The constituency in 1836 was 2064« 



The port and harbour are under the control of oommis- 
sioners acting under 1 and 2 William IV., c. 54. The 
harbour dues are at present let for 1260/. per annum ; and 
on security of this revenue the commissioners have bor- 
rowed from the Board of Public Works a sum of 1 7,000/. 
for various improvements on the harbour now in progress. 
The mayor of Galway is ex officio admiral of the coasts of 
Galway bay as far as the isles of Arran. 

The borouffh gaol erected in 1810 is situated on the 
upper of the Uiree islands which the river here forms ; and 
adjoining it is the county gaol, connected by a bridge, built 
in 1831, with the cotmty court-house, a handsome cut stone 
building erected in 1815, with a portico of four Doric 
columns. The gaol is built on the semicircular model, and 
is kept in an excellent state of discipline. The borough 
court-house or Tholsel, erected during the civil wars of 
1641, is a respectable edifice: the under part forms an 
extensive piazza. 

Opposite the Tholsel, in the middle of the only plot of 
ground within the limits of the old walls, stands the colle- 
giate and parish church of St. Nicholas, founded in 1320, 
by much the most imposing building in this county, if the 
lately-erected Roman Catholic cathedral of Tuam be ex- 
cepted. It is of a cruciform shape, and extends in length 
152 feet by 126 feet in breadth, including the side aisles; 
the height to the vault-nave is 42 feet 10 inches. From the 
intersection of the circles rises the tower, to which the stee- 
ple was added in 1633. In the interior are various monu- 
ments of interest still retaining many traces of sumptuous 
embellishment. The style of the building is the pointed 
Grothic. A sum of 1 385/. has been recently granted b^ the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners for its repair. The disposition 
of the streets within the circuit of the antient walls is very 
irregular ; but in the newly-built portion of the town, par- 
ticularly in the direction of the county court-house, uni- 
formity and airiness have been more consulted. The 
custoin-house« built in 1807, is a plain building. There 
are two barracks with acoommoaation for about 500 
men. 

This portion of the town is built on a gently-rising emi- 
nence stretching down to the river on the west, and to the 
sea on the south: on the latter side a creek of the bay 
forms a natiural harbour, which is the site of the docks now 
in progress. These docks will occupy about nine acres, 
with water for vessels of 500 tons. The spit of land which 
separates this basin f^om the river is quayed for a distance 
of 1300 feet, and terminates in a return pier. There are 
also two small docks on the river side of the town, which 
constituted the quays for merchant vessels during the old 
period of its continental trade. A small open space adjoin- 
ing is still called Spanish Parade. 

On the western side of the river is the extensive suburb 
of Claddagh, which was a very filthy village until 1803, 
when Captain Hurdis, of the navy, at that time sta- 
tioned on the coast, persuaded the fishermen by whom it is 
exclusively occupied to set apart a portion of their earnings 
for the paving and cleansing of their streets ; and the Clad- 
dagh is now m this respect superior to many parts of the 
town itself. The inhabitants will not permit strangers to 
reside among them. The laws of their fishery and most 
of their internal regulations are under the control of a func- 
tionary whom they call their mayor, and elect annually. 
They all speak the Irish language, and the women still 
retain more of the Irish costume than is observed in any 
equally accessible district. In 1820 the number of their 
open sailing-boats was stated to be 250. In 1836 they 
are stated at 105, employing 500 men, with 80 row- 
boats employing 320 men. The entire population of this 
suburb, which is on the increase, is estimated at about 
6000. 

Although by the act of 2 Geo. ll., c. 13, s. 19, the cor 
poration are speciidly empowered to levy a tax for the light- 
mg of the town, as well as the inhabitants generally by 9 
Geo. IV., c 82, neither of these acts has yet been put in 
force. Gas-works are however at present in progress of 
erection. The paving of the streets has been greatly 
neglected ; and at night they have hitherto been left unpro- 
tected by any police. The ftiel chiefly used is turf, which 
is brought in large quantities from the neighbouring coasts 
of lar-Connaught and Connamara. The average price 
of coal is about 20«. per ton ; but this is an article, the price 
of which fluctuates with the weather^ and sometimes riseA 
to ft guinea and a hslf per ton« 



GAM 



62 



GAM 



The cbief manufhcture of Gdway is ftrnr, wbicb, owing 
to a fall of fourteen feet in the waters of Loch Corrib, be- 
tween that lake and the sea, has been carried to a very 
considerable extent. In 1820 there were twent)Mhree 
flour-milU, six oat-mills, two malt-mills, and three Ailling- 
mills, driven by this water-power. The (quantity of wheat 
ground and drevsed at this time was estimated at 1 2,000 
tons per annum, and the trade has since increased. There 
are a bleach mill and green on one of the islands, and an 
extensive paper-mill ana several breweries and distilleries in 
the town. 

The export of wheat, oats, and flour has, it is stated, tre- 
bled within the fifteen years preceding 1834. The exports 
from 1st September, 1833, to 5th July, 1834, consisted of 6018 
tons of wheat, chiefly to Liveipool; 7212 tons of oats, 
chiefly to London; 1554 tons of flour; 406 tons of barley; 
and 50 tons of oatmeal. Besides this there is an export of 
kelp, marble, wool, and provisions. The imports consist of 
timber, wine, coal, salt, hemp, tallow, and iron. The fol- 
lowing table exhibits the progress of trade during the last 
ten years :— 



Year 

•udfag 

6th Jan. 


Coatom Receipt! in 
PoftofUalway. 


Veticla I«wmrds. 


Veawta Oatvarda. 


1824 


£. a. 

13,951 8 


a. 
2 


No. 
73 


Teauage. 

6,856 


No 
127 


Tun OAK r. 

11.932 


1825 


17,308 2 


5 


156 


13,IG9 


150 


1 1 , 5:^0 


1826 


23,324 9 


5 


157 


12,866 


156 


13. '^97 


1827 


29,913 7 


8 


140 


12,992 


140 


10, IM 


1828 


35,784 10 





132 


12,451 


133 


11.3 J6 


1829 


40,109 18 


6 


129 


14,251 


153 


14.5Ci 


1830 


48,564 6 


4 


148 


13,830 


150 


12, ec: 


1831 


36,260 8 


3 


132 


14,006 


107 


10,9-:'; 


1832 


35,183 1 


4 


110 


9,991 


136 


13,29; 


1833 


27,755 4 


8 


112 


11,577 


136 


14,39S 



In 1835 the customs had increased to 31,1 33f 2#. 5^. : 
the vessels inward numbered 135, of an aggregate burthen 
of 12,915 tons; vessels outward 145, with a tonnage \A 
15,531. In the same year the excise duties for this distrirt 
amounted to 50,154/. 12«. 5d. 



TahU qf PiifpulaHon, 



Date. 



1813 
1881 
1891 



IlofW aaeaitaioed. 



Under Act 85 Geo. HI. e. 1801 
Umter AetlWai.lV.e.18. 



No. of 
Hooiea. 


Kaof 
Famlliei. 


• 

Famillei 
dilefly em- 
ployed In 
Agrical- 
tore. 


8,863 
3.857 
4,606 


• • 
6.833 
6.858 


• • 

• • 
S.64S 



Famlliea 

chiefly em< 

ployed in 

Trade. 

Manufae- 

torei. and 

Handicraft. 



1.307 



Familial 

not 

inelnded in 

preceding 

claiMS. 


Malec 


Females. 


« • 
«• 
9,809 


• • 
18,346 
18.487 


*■ 
14.4S8 
17,688 



ToCal 



84.684 

87.775 
33.188 



The number of young persons receiving instruction in 
the wardenship of Galway in 1834 was 2827, of whom 1763 
were males and 1064 females. The majority receive their 
instruction from the Roman Catholic religious orders, who 
are more numerous in Galway than in any other part of. 
the British empire. There are monasteries of tne Do- 
minican, Franciscan, and Angus tin orders for men, with an 
equal number of nunneries of the same orders, together 
with a Patrician monastery, in which is a school, in connec- 
tion with the National Board of Education, of 799 boys ; 
two convents for nuns of the Presentation order, in one of 
which there is a school, also in connexion with the same 
Board, for 529 girls ; and a Magdalen asylum. Two of the 
other schools within the wardenship are in connexion with 
the National Board. 

There are four newspapers published in Galway, to which 
39310 stamps were issued in the year 1835. There are 
two subscription news-rooms and a library; but in 1834 
there was no regular bookseller's shop in the town. 

Tlie expenses of the county of the town are defrayed by 
grand jury assessments, which, for the year 1835, amounted 
to 5,701/. 8«. 3d. The constabulary force in the same year 
consisted of one chief constable and twenty men, the expense 
of maintaining which amounted to 854/. \9s, 5d^ of which 
418/. 198. 7d, was chargeable against the county of the 
town. (Hardiman's Histnry qf Galtpay, Dublin, 1820; 
Mtathtiral Survei/ qf Gaitray; Inglis's Ireland in 1834; 
i^trh/invfniary Retumi, ^c.) 

O A MA. VA.SCO DE, the first European navigator who 
f .. '.d 'wa wa) to India by doubling the Cape of Good Hope, 
we ky,ru at xti^s amHll Maport town of Sines in Portugal. 
Tt.» o»«* vf Ka l/jfih, ana tlia circumstances of his early 
• %. WK U'A f/^^TiV/fjrd. It appears that he was in the 
uwaha'u'j/} 'A Hisiitwufl king of Portugal, and having de- 
\'f^<^ ' *u**!* t/y /,)(-. i/«r ion and discovery, was appointed to 
tu* •«^i *t.u 'A 'A %u •rx\0^Uutm which was to seek its way to 
tiM '•i'-.».v '>avf. ^tj ^xUu'x round the southern extremity 
<!• riXi^x T'-» •i/.vfi *A this passage was by no means a 
It* • VIM ii».fi »i>^. .t VM taken up by the Portuguese so- 
%.i«'.^i i> urw .•%M.-% hv'l been pretty well established, 
li .^; i't-drv 4r Cy.> »,»„, .^ ,,ut fQf India by way of the 
fi.iy.i •.#fuu»i.' . •!,► .* . wva of »u«B, and the Red Sea, and 
If*' Ha# «M^ viium- A^i M Uf M Ksrypt by Alfon«to de Payva, 
in.o fiifii i«^' ffii ♦ y |rv •». a^r h or ' Prester John,' a great 
< ».r*i»iu»i: i-Hiu, uri^'y. •f'#Y bnnj{ longht for in various 
4 .uiiu.i*. \^tu 1.1^ fk-p'/rU'd t/> \m hvinj in a high state of 
r.vi,/4iti<Hi lu «i*r c ^^ tm pajrts of Africa. [Abyssiwia.] 
livtvti tuekr iU^jwtunr U^m Portogal, Ctbacfilta bishop of 



Viseu gave these travellers a map of Africa, in which that 
continent was correctly described as being bounded on the 
south bv a navigable sea. Tliis map, or the materials for i(. 
had probably been procured ftom the trading Moors of Nu. i h 
Africa, to whom the Portuguese had long before been in- 
debted for much information concerning that continent 

Payva added little to geographical knowledge ; but Cor.l. 
ham crossed the Indian Ocean, visited Goa, Oilicut, ar»d 
other places on the coast of Hindostan, acquired an exalte*! 
notion of the trade and wealth of those parts, and on hi^ 
return towards the Red Sea he obtained from Arabian ma • 
riners some information concerning the eastern coast of 
Africa as fiu* as Sofala on the Mozambique Channel. S^-^n 
after his return he visited Abyssinia, where he was detained 
by the government for some thirty years. Shortly- after ar- 
riving in that country he found means of forwarding letters 
to the king of Portugal, in which he stated that no doubt 
existed as to the possibility of sailing from Europe to India 
by doubling the southern point of Africa, and he added thui 
that southern cape was well known to Arabian and Indian 
navigators. The reports of Covilham, and the well-known 
importance of the trade with India, greatly excited the Por- 
tugese, who moreover had long been pursuing discu^ory 
on the western coast of Africa ; and in the course of tins, 
the fifteenth century, they had gradually extended their r>'- 
searches from Cape Non, in lat. 28° 40' N., to Cape Cn>ss. 
or de Padrone, in lat, 22** S. At the end of December, 
1487, Bartholomew Diaz had returned to Lisbon after dis- 
covering 300 leagues of coast, and correctly laying down the 
^reat Cape, which he doubled in a storm without knowint; 
it, but which he had properly recognised on his retuni. 
[Afkica.] Vasco de Gama sailed from Lisbon on the *>:h 
of July, 1497, five years after the discovery of the Nc« 
World by Columbus. The royal squadron which he cum- 
manded consisted only of three small vessels, with »i\:y 
men in all. The Cape of Good Hope seemed to merit the 
name which had been given it by Diaz — Cdbo Tormonto<>. 
Dreadful tempests were encountered before reaching it, tli« 
winds were contrary, and their fears and their sufTerin^-i 
caused a mutiny among the sailors, who tried to ind ur-/ 
Gama to put back. But the firmness of the commander 
quieted the apprehensions of his men, and on the 19tli No- 
vember, with a stormv sea, he doubled the Cape and lurmil 
along the eastern shore. [Africa.] On reaching the 
African town of Melinda, which belonged to a coiniucrral 
and civilized people, a branch of the great race of Afoor> lt 
Arabian Mohammedans, he found several Christian niex- 
chants fh)m India, and ne also procuitd the valuable scr> 



GAM 



63 



GAM 



vices of Malemo Gana, • pilot from Gocent This man 
was a skilful navigator : he was not surprised at the sight 
of the Astrolabe^ or at their method of taking the meridian 
altitude of the sun. He told them that both Uie instrument 
and its uses were familiar to the mariners of the Eastern 
tieas. Under the guidance of this pilot Gama made the 
coaftst of Malabar in twenty-three days, and anchored before 
Calicut on the 20th of May, 1498, then a pkce of consider- 
able manufactures and foreign trade, which was chiefly in 
the hands of Moors or Arabs. Gama opened communica- 
tions with the zamarin or sovereign prince of Calicut, who, 
at\er some negotiation, agreed to receive him with the 
honours usually paid to an ambassador. 

The sailorsi who were well acquainted with the character 
of the Moors, feared that if their commander put himself in 
their power he would fiotll a victim to their treachery and 
jealousy. The officers also and his brother Paul strongly 
dissuaded him from landing. But Gama was resolved. 
Arming twelve of his bravest men, he went into his boat, 
strictly charging his officers, in case he should be murdered, 
to return immediately to Portugal and there announce to 
the king the discoveries made, and his fate. On landing he 
was received with great pomp and ceremony by the natives, 
who conducted him through the town to a house in the 
country, where on the fbllowing day the zamorin granted 
him an audience. At first his reception was very fevourable, 
but the tone of the prince soon changed; a circumstance 
which the Portuguese attribute to the intrigues of the Moors 
and Arabs, who were jealous of the new comers. The ill- 
humour of the zamorin was not soothed by an unlucky 
omission. Gama had not brought any suitable presents, 
and the few naltry things he offered were rejected with 
contempt by the officer appointed to inspect them. What- 
ever may have been the desi^s of the zamorin against 
the Portuguese, Gama, it is said, at last succeeded in con- 
vincing him of the great advantages he might derive from 
a commercial and friendly intercourse with the Portuguese ; 
and he certainly was allowed to get back to his ships in 
safety. As soon as he was on board he made sail, and after 
repairing his ships at the Angedive Isles, on the coast a little 
to the north of Calicut, he again stood across the Indian 
Ocean. He touched at Magadoxa, or Mukdeesha, on the 
eastern coast of Africa and nearer to the Straits of Bab-el- 
Mandeb than he had gone on his outer voyage. He next 
anchored at Melinda, and took on board an ambassador 
from the Mohammedan prince of that place. He arrived 
at Lisbon in September, 1499, having been absent about two 
Tears and two months. His sovereign received him with 
high honours, and conferred on him the sounding title of 
Admiral of the Indian, Persian, and Arabian seas. This 
voyage of Gama is a great epoch in commercial history : it 
showed the nations of the West the sea-road to the remote 
East ; it diverted the trade of the East from the Persian 
Gulf, the Red Sea, Asia Minor, Egypt, and Italy, the routes 
in which it had run for 1400 years; and it led ultimately 
to the establishment in India of a vast empire of European 
merchants. The effect it had upon Italy was most disad- 
vantageous, and though there were other causes at work, 
the decline of the great tradinj^ republics of Venice and 
Geno(^ may be traced to the discovery of the passage to 
India by the Cape of Good Hope. Soon after Gama's 
return Emanuel sent out a second fleet to India, under the 
command of Pedro Alvares de Cabral. The most remark- 
able incident of this voyage was the accidental discovery 
of BrazU. [Brazil, vol. v. p. 369.] From Brazil however the 
little fleet got to India, and Cabral established a fiictor>- at 
Calicut — the first humble settlement made by the Europeans 
in that part of the world. But Cabral had scarcely departed 
vhen all the Portuguese he left behind were massacred by 
the natives or Moors, or by both. The Portuguese govern- 
ment now resolved to employ force. Twenty ships were 
prepared and distributed into three squadrons ; Gama set 
sail with the largest division, of ten ships — the others were 
to join him in the Indian seas. After doubling the Cape, 
be ran down the eastern coast of Africa, taking vengeance 
}ipon those towns which had been unfriendly to him dur- 
ing bis former voyage. He settled a factory at Sofala, and 
another at Mozambique. On approaching the coast of 
India he captured a rich ship belonging to the Soldan of 
EjO'pt, and after removing what suited him he set fire to 
the vessel ; all the crew were burned or drowned, or stabbed 
Dy the Portuguese. He then went toCananore, and forced 
the prince of that country to enter into an alliance with 



him ; on arriving at Calicut, the main object of his voyage, 
he seized all the ships in that port Alarmed at his display 
of force— for Gama had been joined by some of the other 
ten ships— the zamorin condescended to treat; but the 
Portuguese admiral would listen to no propositions unless a 
full and sanguinary satisfaction were given for the murder 
of his countrymen m the factory. Gama waited three days, 
and then barbarously hanged at his yard-arms fifty Mala- 
bar sailors whom he had taken in the port On the next 
day he cannonaded the town, and having destroyed the 
greater part of it, he left some of the ships to blockade the 

Sort, and sailed away with the rest to Cochin, the neigh- 
ouring state to Calicut These neighbours being old 
enemies, it was easy for Gama to make a treaty with the 
sovereign of Cochin, whom he promised to assist in his wars 
with Calicut. It is not quite clear whether a war existed 
at the time, or whether Cochin was driven into one by the 
manoeuvres of the Portuguese ; and according to some 
accounts, Gama only renewed a treaty which had been made 
by Cabral two years earlier. It was Gama however who 
first established a factory in Cochin, at the end of 1502. 
In the following year, the Alburquerques obtained permis- 
sion to build a fort on the same spot ; the Portuguese then 
became masters of the port and the sea-coast, and Cochin 
was thus the cradle of their future power in India. Gama 
left the zamorin of Calicut with a war with Cochin on his 
hands ; and five ships remained on the coast of Malabar to 
protect the settlement The admiral arrived at Lisbon with 
thirteen of the ships in the month of December, 1503. The 
court created him Count of Videqueyra. Gama however 
was not re-appointed to the command in India, where the 
career of conquest was prosecuted by Alburouerque, Vascon- 
cellos, and ottiers. In 1 524, eight years after the death of 
the great Alburquerque, Gama, who had been living quietly 
at home for nearlv twenty years, was appointed viceroy of 
Portuguese India, being the first man that held that high 
title. He died in December, 1525, shortly after his arrival 
at Cochin. His body was buried at that place, and lay there 
till ] 538, when, by order of John lU., his remains were 
carried to Portugal. 

Vasco de Gama was a brave and skilful man, but owing 
to several circumstances his fame has been raised somewhat 
above his real merits. The main cause of this is probably to 
be found in the great national poem of the immortal Camoens, 
of a portion of which Gama is the hero, the adventures of 
his first voyage to India being described with even more 
than the usuiu brilliancv and amplification of poetry. (Bar- 
ros, Decades; Castanheda and Lafitau's Hist Conqu, 
Port US' ; Cooley's Hist. Mar, Discov.; Camoens.) 

GAMBIA, a river in Western Africa, whose embouchure 
U situated betwen 13** and 14° N. lat. and near IG** W. long. 
The upper course of thb river has not been visited by 
European travellers ; but according to information obtained 
from natives its source seems to be on the northern decli- 
vity of the mountain region which occupies nearly the 
whole country between the Sahara and the coast of Guinea, 
near the place where the 1 1th northern parallel is cut by 9'' 
W. long. More than one half of its course lies through 
the mountain region itself. Where it begins to emerge 
from the mountains and enters the hillv country, which 
separates them from the plain along the shores of the 
Ocean, it receives on the right a considerable branch, the 
Nerico, which comes down from Bondoo with a south- 
western course. Up to the confluence with this river the 
Gambia seems to run in a west-north-western direction, but 
soon afterwards it turns due west, and continues this course 
to its mouth. After this change in its direction, the €ram- 
bia has a small impediment in its navigation at Baraconda, 
near Madina, but tnough it is usually cal]^ a fall, it is only 
a rapid which does not totally impede the passage of canoes 
or small boats. Up to this fall, as it seems, the tide ascends. 
Small sailing-vessels may go up to this point from which 
to its mouth the course of the river is well known ; it 
mostly runs through a flat country, which however for some 
distance is enclosed by hills and rising grounds; tliese 
heights however sink lower and lower, and disappear en- 
tirely at Kayaye, about 120 miles from the mouth of the 
river. The remainder of its course is through an immense 
plain. The flat countries along its banks are annually in- 
undated and distinguished by their vigorous vegetation. 

The English have some establishments along this river. 
Formerly there was one at Pisania, about 160 miles from 
the mouth, but it was abandoned in consequence of the an- 



GAM 



64 



GAM 



novmnoe frequently experienced from the people of Bondoo 
and Woolli. The forthest En^rlMh establishment, we be- 
lieve, is now at Jonkakonda, a little more than 120 miles 
fiom the mouth of the ri%'er. Other settlements are at St. 
Jamos*s and lellifry ; but the principal establishment is at 
the mouth of the river, the town of Bathurst, whence the 
produce of the country is shipped for England. [Bathurst.] 
The whole course of the Gambia protmbly exceeds 500 
miles. It is called by the natives Ba Ueema. (Mungo Park ; 
Gray*s TYaveU in Wutem jifirica.) 
GAMBOGE. [Cambogk.] 

GAMBO'GIA. [HsBRADBNDItON.] 

GAME-LAWS were the remnant of the antient forest- 
laws, under which the killing one of the kins^^s deer was 
equally penal with murdering one of his subjects ; or, as 
Sir W. Blackstone somewhat quaintly expresses it, ' from 
this root has sprung a bastard slip, known by the name of 
the game-law, now arrived to and wantoning in its highest 
vigor, both founded upon the same unreasonable notion of 
permanent property in wild creatures, and both productive 
of the same tyranny to the commons ; but with this dif- 
ference, that the forest-laws establii^hed only one mighty 
hunter throughout the land, the game-laws have raised a 
little Nimrod in every manor.* 

These laws decided what birds and beasts should be 
deemed game, prohibited all persons not duly Qualified by 
birth or estate from killing any of such prohibited creatures, 
or even from having them in their possession as articles of 
food, and inflicted severe punishments and penalties upon 
the offenders against their provisions. 

Daring the operation of the game-laws the gaols were 
filled with offenders against them, and profligate habits were 
induced, violence was committed, and misery of the most 
dreadful description was caused by the temptations to vio- 
late these enactments. Yet the landed proprietors continued 
to support the obnoxious system, regardless of the evil it 
produced ; jealousies were created among themselves, and 
the most notorious injustice was perpetrated before indivi- 
dual magistrates and the courts of quarter-sesiiions, who 
could hardly be expected to judge offenders against their 
own cherished pririleges with impartiality ; until at last the 
legislature was compelled to interfere, and by a statute 
passed in 1631, 1 and 2 William IV. c. 32, the old system 
was materially improved. The whole of the farmer pro- 
visions respecting qualification by estate or birth wore 
removed, and any person obtaining a certificate is now 
enabled to kill game, cither upon his own land or on the 
land of any other person with his permission. 

The sale of game is under certain restrictions legalised ; 
and being recognised as an article of legal traffic, the statute 
very properly provides some more summary means than 
those previously in force for protecting it from trespasses. 
Poaching in the night-time still remains punishable by im- 
prisonment for the first two offences, and by imprisonment 
or transportation for the third. 

For the purposes of this statute the word Game is declared 
to include hares, pheasants, partridges, grouse, heath or moor 
game, black game, and bustards ; and the periods during 
which the different species of game may not be killed is 
declared, such periods being the breeding and rearing 
seasons of the different species ; and penalties are imposed 
upon persons laying poison for game, or destroying the 
e'r.rs of any bird of game, or of any swan, wild duck, teal, 
or widgeon, or knowingly having possession thereof. 

The penalty imposed by the above statute for killing game 
without a certificate in the day-time is 5/. for each oft'ence; 
and trespassers, even if licensed to kill game, may be fined 
i/. with costs, or if in greater number than five persons, 5/. 
each, and the ^me killed may be demanded and taken 
from them. The penalties were made recoverable in a 
summary way belbro two justices of the peace, and if the 
party trcspa.<sing refuses to give his name and address, he 
may be apprehended and taken before a justice of the 
peare by the person entitled to the game, or the person 
entiiled to the land, or any person authorized by either of 
them. 

Gamekeepers are persons authorized by lords oi manors 
or reputed manon to kill game ; but the authority does not 
extend beyond the limits of the manor, though a game- 
keeper may be appointed for any number of manors; the 
le-ttriction indeed is rarely, if ever, insisted upon. The 
' '^Hil of all game-laws being the pn«en'ation of game, it 
u lollicicDtly attained by the prohibition to kill game 



during the breeding and rearing sataons. All peraona 
having an equal right, under certain rastrietions, to kill 
game during the rest of the year, have in fact an interest 
in enforcing the observance of the laws. 

Though not coming strictly under the usual meaning of 
the term game-laws, we may mention that the salmon - 
rivers are closed during a certain specified period of the 
year, being the spawning season ; a regulation oonsidcrecl 
necessary to preserve the breed of fish, and also because at 
that season tne flesh is not wholesome lor food. (4 BU 
Com. ; Deacon on the Game-Laws.) 

GAMING, or GAMBLING, is an amusement, or we 
might properly call it a vice, which has always been com- 
mon in all civilized countries and among all claases, but 
more particularly the rich and those who have no reguliir 
occupation. But a pa.<sion for gaming is not confined to tb« 
nations called civilized : wherever men have much leisure 
time and no pursuit which will occupy the mind and 
stimulate it to active exertion, the excitement of gam- 
in|^, which is nothing more than the mixed pleasure and 
pain arising Arom the alternations of hope and fear, suc- 
cess and failure, is a necessity which all men feeU though 
in different degrees according to the difference of tempera- 
ment. The Germans, says Tacitus, stake their own per- 
sons, and the loser will go into voluntary slavery, and suffer 
himself to be bound and sold, though stronger than hi% 
antagonist; and many savage nations at the present day 
are notoriously addicted to gambling. Gaming has bet.-ii 
described by Cotton, an amusing author who wrote in the 
beginning of the last century, as ' an enchanting witchery 
gotten betwixt idleness and avarice.' Besides the pleasure 
derived from the excitement that attends games of ohancv, 
there is no doubt that the desire to enjoy without labour is 
one motive which operates on a gambler; but this moti%e 
operates more on those who are practised gamestem than 
on those who are beginning the practice ; and instances arv 
not wanting of men strongly addicted to gaming, who ha%c 
yet been indifferent to money, and whose pleasure has con- 
sisted in setting their property on a die. 

In France, and many other parts of the Continent, the 
government has not only allowed, but has derived a consi- 
derable revenue from games of chance. In Pkris, the 
exclusive right of keeping public gaming-houses was, un- 
til the year 1838, let out to one company, who paid an an- 
nual sum of 6,000,000 francs (about 240,000/.) tor the pri% i- 
lege. They kept six houses, namely, Frascati's, the 8aluns 
and four in the Palais Royal. In a recent trial in Paris, it 
came out in the course of the evidence, that the dear prqAt 
for 1837, exclusive of the duty, had been 1,900,000 i^ncs 
(76,000/.)> of which three-fourths was paid to the city of 
Paris, leaving the lessee lO.OOOi. for his own share, llio 
average number of players per day was stated at 3000, and 
about 1000 more reAised admittance. The games played 
were chiefly Roulette and Rouge-et-Noir, of which the latter 
is the favourite. It is very seldom that large sums are stakol 
at the former, as the chances against the player are ciin- 
sidered immense hy professional men, a class of gentlemen 
who are gamblers by profession. Rouge-et-Noir is played 
with four packs of cards, and the * couleur* which is nearest 
31 wins; the black being dealt for first, and then the red. 
All the houses were open from one o'clock in the afternoon 
till one or two after midnight ; and latterly till five or six i:i 
the morning. The highest play, especially at FrascatiV wa< 
carried on between three and six in the afternoon. Ten or 
twelve thousand francs were constantly lost at asittini;, ond 
once within these few years 100,000 francs, which ci>n!%ii- 
tuted the * Banque*of the day, was won by a French nohh>- 
man. The actual chance of the table or * Banque* is consi- 
dered to be 7^ per cent. abo\'e that of the player, supp<»in^ 
the game to be fairly played, as it no doubt was in Puri>. 
under tbe old system ; the cards being examined and 8tain|>«^ 
bv the government, and there being an agent of the poltcc 
always present and ready to detect any attempted f^ud < u 
the part of the company. But admitting the same to U- 
fairly played, the coolness of the ' croupiers* or dealers, %\u^ 
had no interest at stake (the whole of the losses or gani« 
being taken by the company), and the large capital of the 
latter, made it absolutely impossible for the player to win, in 
the long run ; nay, it is clear that he must lose, and that i;i 
proportion to his stake, which probably is regulated by his 
means. This we have heard admitted by the most constant 
frequenten of these houses ; and nevertheless, undtrr thu 
influence of those causes which first UssA man to gaming'. 



CAN 



615 



GAR 



•otly slight grounds, under the names of Lairt4ht>e, Dcjta- 
«Mii4*t MeiHa, MaerOy Pherusa, AmphiMe, Orchestiih &c. 
xhe greater part of these, M. De^mare^t states, have not 
been adopted by the more recent authors ou the natural 
bislory of the Crustaceans, and the only ones which had been 
generally admitted when he wrote were TalUnu and Cora- 
phium, Cerajna of Say he considers to )»e founded on 
sufticient characters. M. Latreille however, in the fourth 
Tol. of Cuvier's 'Regno AuimaV (ed.l&29), admits them all. 
Gammarus (Amphipoda) is noticed by Mr. Westwood as 
one of the types of each of the great groups of the typical 
Malacostracous Crustacea, which have been ascertained to 
uiidcrgo no change of form sufficiently marked to warrant 
the eraplovment of the term metamorphosis. iPhiL Tratu^ 




«• Oaniatnit Poles, nugnifled) h, (he Imd uid aBlaAaa of the tame, 
M|^y HiafBi&ML 

GAHMUT, in Music, signifies, in the popular sense of 
the word, the diatonic scale, as named either by the seTen 
first letters of the alphabet, or by the syllables used in sol- 
miiation. i,e. do. re, mi. fa, sol, la, si. [Diatonic Scalk.] 
And occasionally the term is applied to a single note — the 
• below the base clef. The word is compounded of the 
name of the third letter in the Greek alphabet, T (gamma), 
the final Yowel being cut oiF, with the sellable ut added. 
In the eleventh century the antient scale was extended by 
the addition of a note below that sound which the Greek^ 
ctlled proslambanomenos ii,e. supernumerary), the latter 
•ntwenng to our a, the first space of the base staff', and the 
note was called Gamm'-ut^ — that is, o ut, or g do. 

The invention of the gammut in its antiquated form 
is generally ascribed to Guido d*ArezEo, but it tiow seems 
nearly certain that in part, if not wholly, it exi:>tcd much 
eariier than his period. It long continued in use. and was 
one of the many stumbling-blocks in the path of musical 
atttdenta. Happily little more than the name remains ; it is 
therefora unnecessary for us to enter fVirther into the sub- 
ject. 

GANGA. (Tbtraonid.c.I 

G AN GAM. [CiRCARS, North krn.] 

GANGANELLI. [Clement XIV.] 

GANGES. [Hindustan.] 

GANNAT. [Allier.] 

6ANNET. iBooBY. vol. v.] 

GANYME'DA (Zoology), Mr. Gray*s name for a genus 
of radiated animals allied to the Echtnida and the Atteriid^e, 
wid which he thus characterizes. 

Body hemiipkeriealy depressed, thin, chalky, hollow. 
The back xounaed. rather depressed, flattened behind, with 
a rather sunk quadrangular central space. The sides co- 
vered with sunken angular cavities, witn a small round ring, 
having an oblong transverse subccntral hole in their base. 
Underside small, rather concave, with five slight sloping 
elevations from the angles of the mouth to the angles of the 
rather pentagonal margin. The edge simple. The mouth 
central. Vent none. Cavity simple. Farietes thin and 
minutely dotted : centre of the dorsal di<(c pellucid. 

The genus, in Mr. Gray's opinion, is very nearly allied to 
Dr. Gold/us»*s Glenotremitei paraJoxtu {Petri fact. tab. 49, 
i 9. and t. 51, f. 1), but Mr. Gray points out the diflferences, 
«nd is iiiduf'cd to ron^ider these two genera as forming a 
Ikmilv or order between the Echirndce and the AstenicUe; 
allied to the latter in having only a single opening to the 
digest t\e canal, and aprccing with the former in shape and 
consistence, but. differing from it in not being composed of 
nanv pbtei. 

Mr. Gray only knew of two specimens of Ganymedoy 
whi. h lie b*h»'\e* weie found on the coast of Kent, as he 
discovered them mix<!<l with a quantity of Ditcopora Pati- 
na, wli>:h he Cfllected se^eral years ago from ftici and 
abeUs on that coast, bize of specimens one-eighth of an inch 



in diameter. Species Ganymeda putehtlla^ Gray. iZ^^L 

Proc. Ib34.> 

GAOL. [Prison] 

GAOL DELIVERY. The oouraission of gaol di^h- 
very is directed to the justices of assiie of each cirruit tSf* 
Serjeants and king's counsel attending that circuit, the clerk 
of the assiie, and the judges associate. It is a patent in 
the nature of a letter from the king, constituting them li * 
justices, and commanding them. four, three, or two of ihrtn. 
of which number there must be one at least of the judtn^n 
and Serjeants specified, and authorizing them to delner h • 
gaol at a particular town of the prisoners in it ; it also i n ff >f : . . * 
them that the sheriff is commanded to bring the pri^ofi-. ^ 
and tlieir attachments before them at a day to be named \\ 
the commissioners themselves. Under this commission t: • 
judges may proceed upon any indictment of felony or trt «• 
pass found before other justices a?ain»t any person in t he- 
prison mentioned in their commission and not deter minc-1. 
in which respect their authority differs from that of ju<k!io./<» 
of oyer and terminer, who can proceed only upon iufhrt- 
men'ts found before themselves. (2 Hale, P.O.) [Asstr^ \ 

Antiently it was the course to i«sue specifld writs of ;:»>•! 
deliver}' for each prisoner, but this being found inrx>n> c- 
nient and oppressive, a general commission has iong be«rn 
established in their stead. (4 Bl. Com. ; Hawk, P. C) 

GAP, a city in France, capital of the department ^f 
Hautes Alpes (High Alp>), on the north-west bank of thi> 
little ri\er Line, which flows into the Durance: 44^ 34' N. 
lat., 6° b' E. long. Gap is situated in the centre of a h'>I> 
low : the neighbourhood is fertile, and the surrounding hi IN, 
naked and desolate in some parts, are in others en tirr:\ 
covered with vineyards. The streets of the town are narr • w 
and ill-paved, and the houses poor: the public edifices an* 
the cathedral, the episcopal palace, several Catholic rhurclK-s 
and one Protestant church, the townhall. the prefect^ oflirr. 
the courts of justice, and the barracks. A public w, ,'» 
(boulevard) occupies the site of the town walls. The p'>p :• 
lation of the town was, in 1831, 4572 ; that of the commui.t , 
7215 in 1831, and 7834 in 1836. There are at Gap a com- 
mercial high school, a seminary for the priesthood, a ntn- 
seuro of painting, sculpture, and antiquities, a museum of 
natural history, and a theatre. The dioeese of Gap f.r- 
merly included parts of Dauphin^ and Provence : at pie- 
sent it consists of the department of Hautes Alpes. 

Gup was in the middle aces subject to the counts of F>>r- 
ealquier, and afterwards to its own bishops, tk'ho bad the tit^e 
first of princes, then only of counU. Its territory, which 
took from it the designation Gapen^ois. was one of the su^.h 
divisions of Haut or Upper Dauphin^. It was bounded on 
the north by Le Gr6sivaudan, on the south by Les Baronnsri 
and by the dioceses of Sisteron and Digne, on the east l>v 
L'Embrunois and on the west by Le Diois. [Dattphiml.J 

GAR-FISH, a species offish inhabiting the European 
seas, and which is caught in tolerable abun£ince on van'ou> 
parts of the coast of our own country. This fish is allied 
to the Pike, and from the resemblance it bears to that <;pc> 
cies, has been called by some the Sea Pike. It is bowc\> r 
of a more elongated form, and is remarkable for the great 
length and slcfidemcss of the jaw-bones. 

Both jaws are furnished along their edges with nuneroui 
small pointed teeth : the upper-jaw. which consists of the 
intermaxillary bones, is the shorter. The body is covertxl 
with scales, which are not very distinct. The dorsal ami 
anal fins are of a simple form, and about equal in size: they 
are placed opposite each other, and not veiy distant fn»m 
the tail, which is forked. The ventral fins are small, aii') 
situated behind the middle portion of the body. The up]K'r 
parts of the head and back are of a deep blue-green coiuu.'. 
and the under parts are silvery-white : the dorsal fin and 
the tail are greenish -brown ; the other fins are white. The 
ordinary length of this fish is about two feet. 

The f^ar-fish is sold in the London and other markets : .'- 
flesh somewhat resembles that of the mackerel in flavour, I ut 
is more dr}* ; before it is cooked it emits an unpleasant uduur : 
the bones are green. ' The elongated narrow beak-lise 
mandibles of this fish make a knowledge of its food a sui- 
ject of some interest ; but I have only found.* says Mr. Y:(r- 
rell, 'a thick mucus in the stomach, without any rcmami 
that I could name. In all the works to which I have access 
I can find no mention of the nature of its food.* 

In addition to the various parts of our coast, cnumcratt^l 
by Mr. YarrcU. in which the gar-fish is caught, the mouth 
of the river Mersey may be mentioned. From knoiring that 



GAR 



68 



GAR 



Hilled Dr. Roxburgh says, ' For these 35 yevLVH ynA I have 
laboured in vain to make it grow and be fruitful on the 
ooQtineDt of India. The plant has uniformly become ftickly 
when remoTed to the north or west of the' Bay of Benc^t 
and rarely riaes beyond the height of two or three feet 
befbre it perishes.* The male and female flowers are sorae- 
timea on the same, bnt usually on separate trees. The 
«nn is superior, round, from 6 to 8-celled, with one ovule 
in eaeh« attached to the middle of the axis. The ripe berry 
IS spherical, of the size of a pretty lars^e apple, having the 
torface even, and crowned with the permanent peltate 6 to 
S-lobed stigma. The rind is thick, firm, though somewhat 
spongy, of a dull crimson colour, sometimes compared to 
tnat of the pomegranate. Seeds as far as eight in number 
enelosed in a very abundant soft fleshy envelope which is 
delicately white, forming the edible part of the fruit, de- 
scribed as delicious to the taste and as dissolving away in 
the mouth. It is also extremely innocent in its nature, as 
almost any quantity of it may be eaten without detriment, 
and persons sick of almost any disease are allowed to par- 
take freely of it without inconvenience. The fruit before 
ripening is slightly acid. The rind is powerfully astringent, 
and its decoction is employed in dysentery and as a gargle 
in aphthsD of the mouth. The bark of the trunk and 
branches is also considered astringent, and said to be em- 
ployed by the Chinese in dyeing. 

G. Cambogio, Cowa, lancesfolia, Kydia, pedunculata, and 
paniculata, all yield a kind of edible fruit, but of these the 
last is most like the Mangosteen. From incisions made in 
the branches, a yellow juice exudes and soon concretes, 
having a close resemblance to, and in fact forming an in- 
ferior kind of gamboge ; whence it has been inferred that 
this substance is yielded by a species of this genus, which has 
therefore been called G. Cambogia. Later investigations 
have proved the incorrectness of the opinion, and the true 
gamboge-tree of Ceylon has been determined to belong to a 
new genus named Hebradendron. [Hxbradbndron.J G. 
Cambogia, Zeylona, Cowa, cornea, and pictoria (the last 
also supposed to be a species of Hebradenaron), all yield an 
inferior Kind of gambo^ 

Garcinia Cambo^a. xhe species supposed to yield Cey- 
lon gamboge, and mdicated as the gamboge-tree in many 
works. It is distinguished from the other species of Gar- 
cinia by its fruit bemg from 8 to 10-furrowed while that of 
others is simply round. It is called by the natives of Travan- 
eore Gharka puUi, and is therefore inferred to be Carca 
puUi of old writers. In Ceylon the fruit is called Gorakth 
and much used by the natives in their curries ; when ripe it 
is said to form a fine fruit as large as the Mangosteen. 
The tree is one of the most common in the neighbourhood 
of Colombo, where it attains a large size and forms a hand- 
some tree with thick dark foliage. Mrs. Col. Walker, in 
her letters to Dr. Graham, describes the outer husk of the 
fruit as being prepared by the natives by taking out the pulp 
and seeds, bruising and then heaping it up until the wnole 
is soft It is then smoked and kept within the influence of 
smoke, being much used as a favourite ingredient in their 
curries and also for preserving, along with salt, a small kind 
of fish, which thus cured will keep ror six or seven months. 

GARCZYN'SKI, STEPHEN, palatine of Poznania, 
died in 1755, at an advanced age. lie spent all his life in 
public employments, which gave him tiie opportunity of 
acquiring a thoroush knowledge of the affairs of his country. 
He published, in Polish, a political work on Poland, en- 
titled 'The Anatomy of the Republic of Poland,' Warsaw, 
1751, and Berlin, 1754. 

GARCZYN'SKI, a young man of the same family, who 
died in 1 832, in conseauence of the fatigues of the Polish 
war of 1831, left behind him several poems, which are cha- 
racterized by great beauties. 

GARD, a department in the south of France^ which de- 
rives its name flrom the river Garden, which is found in 
some compounds (Vers du Gard, Pont du Crard), in the 
abbreviatea form Gard. The department is bounded on 
the north bv that of Ardiche ; on the east and south-east 
by those of Vaucluse and Bouches du Rhdne ; on the south 
by the Mediterranean ; on the south-west by the depart- 
ment of H^ult ; on the west by that of Aveyron ; and on 
the north-west by that of Loz^re. The form of the depart- 
ment is irregular ; its greatest length is in a direction nearly 
east and west about 76 miles; its greatest breadth, at right 
angles to the length, is about 70 miles. The area of the de- 
partment is about 8294 English square miles, which is 



ratlier under the average of the Fretch departments, and 
rather more than the combined areas of the three English 
counties of Cambridge, Huntingdon, and Northampton. 
The population, by the census of 1836, was 366,259, or 
nearly 160 to a i^quare mile. In absolute and relative po- 
pulation it is below the average of the French departments, 
and also below the conjoint English counties with which «c 
have compared it. Ntmes, its capital, is in 43^ 51' N. lat., 
and 4° 2l' E. long., and about 360 miles in a straight line 
south-by-west of Paris. 

Surface; Hydrography ; Communication*. — ^Tlie north- 
western part of the department is occupied by the branches 
of the C^vennes, of which the principal ridge is for the nit ^^t 
part without the boundary of the department. From ibu 
part the face of the country gradually declines to the south- 
east, in which direction the principal rivers flow, to i he- 
lower part of the vallev of the Rhdne and to the Mediterxa- 
nean. The coast and the lower banks of the Rb6nc arr 
lined with ^tangs or pools of considerable size: those uf 
Repauset and E:rcamandre are among the largest. 

The principal rivers are — the Rhone, which bounds the 
department on the east ; the Ard^he, which has the lower 
part of its course along the northern boundary; the Ch.i«- 
sezac, a tributary of the Arddcbc, which just touches the 
northern boundary in one part; the C<h&e, about 55 miU*«> 
long, and its feeders, the Luech, the Auzonet,the Aigui!- 
lon, and theTave. The Garden, which waters the central 
districts, ikils into the Rhone, and is 65 to 70 niili.*** 
long : its tributaries are all small' The Vidourle flows into 
the .Etang of Manguio, in the adjacent department ft 
H^ult. Its course may be estimated at from 48 to 50 
miles. The Vistre, which flows near Ntmes, and tlie Rhosny, 
which flows near Aymargues, unite and sene as feeders to 
the canal of Radelle. The Herault, and its tributaries, the* 
Vis and the Rieulor, have their sources and part of thetr 
course in the department, as well as the Dourbie, an afllueot 
of the Tarn. Of these rivers only the RhOne aud the 
Arddche are navigable. 

There are several canals. That from the Rh6ne at Beau- 
caire to Aiguesmortes (undertaken a.d. )776« finished a. p. 
181 21 is about 31 miles long; the canal of Silv^r^al. vbich 
forms part of the navigation of one arm of the Rh6ne. i.s 
about 7 miles long ; that of Bourgidou, from Aiguesmort<'> 
to the Canal de Silv6real, about 6 miles; that of Grau du 
Roi, nearly 4 miles ; and that of Radelle, little more than a 
mile ; making together nearly 50 mile:i of canal navigatiou : 
in all about 1 1 1 miles of water communication. 

The Routes Roy ales, or government roads, have an ag- 
gregate length of above 300 miles, but only about half, ac- 
cording to the oflicial statements last pubUshed, are in 
repair. Of these roads the greater part cxmverge at Ntmes. 
The Routes Departementales (* County Roads, maintained 
at the cost of the department) amount to above 400 miles ; 
but not two-fifths are in good repair: the bye-roads and 
paths iChemins vicinaux) are estimated at 3000 miles. A 
railroad has been constructed (or is in course of oonstructinn ) 
from Alais to Nimes and Beaucaire: its length is about 43 
miles. The above statements are taken fh>m ofllcial 
sources. 

Geological Character and Mineral Productions, — ^The de- 
partment is chiefly occupied by the oolitic aud other strata, 
which are found between the cretaceous group and the 
red marl, or new red (or saliferous) sandstone. The south- 
eastern portion is occupied by the rocks of the supercreta- 
ceous group. The primitive rucks which form the loftiest 
summits, and the western slope of the (Revenues, hardly 
appear in this department. Its mineml treasures are con**i* 
derable; but they are either altogether neglected or im- 
perfectly worked. There are mines of antimony, loJ 
(which contains silver), sulphate of lead, oxide of iron, 
copper, calamine, and manganese, coal-pits, and quame^^ of 
gypsum. Ochre, asphaltum, sulphate of magnesia, and 
clay for porcelain and earthenware, of various degrees uf 
fineness, are procured. There are extensive salt-marshcs» 
the produce of which is considerable, and mineral springs 
in various places. 

Climate. — ^The air in this department is commonly mild; 
but in March and April considerable changes of temperature 
are experienced within the twenty-four hours. In May tho 
heat in the afternoon rises to 77" or even Se"* (Fahrenhtnt) « 
in June to 90** or 93°; and in July and August to 95' or 
98^ The autumn is usually dry and cool. The greatest 
cold is commonly at the end of December. 



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Soil; Agriadtural and other Produce. — ^The surface of 
the department is estimated to contain 592,108 hectares, or 
about 1,463,440 acres: the soil is thus classified :— Rich 
loam, 1 1,500 hectares; chalky or limestone, 125,000; gra- 
velly, 15,500; stony, 325,000; sandy, 45,000; various, 
70,108: total, 592,108 hectares. The sheltered hUls and 
the plains are devoted to the cultivation of the vine, the 
olive, the mulberry, and the almond. The arable land is 
contained chiefly in the valleys. The produce of the de- 
partment in grain is not sufficient for the home consump- 
tion ; but what wheat is grown is of superior quality. The 
soil is thus appropriated :~Arable land, 157,535 hectares; 
meadows, 8,382 ; vineyards, 71,306 ; woods, 106,472; 
orchards and gardens, 1,592 ; osier and willow plots, &c., 
2, 1 62 ; various, 58,1 56 ; heaths, commons, and other wastes, 
158,058 ; pools, ponds, and ditches, 2.766 ; lakes, rivers, 
brooks, 12,365 ; forests, and non-productive domains, 1,202 ; 
not accounted for, 12,112: total, 592,108 hectares. The 
Quantity of arable land sown with different kinds of grain, 
&c., in 1835 was as follows .—Wheat, 28,953 hectares ; rye, 
6,286 ; maslin or mixed com, 1,681 ; barley, 5,644 ; buck- 
wheat, 2,081 ; mai^e and millet, 1,181 ; oats, 7,900 ; pease, 
beans, and other pulse, 891 ; other grain, 442; potatoes, 
2,643. The great wealth of the department consists in its 
wines, and in oil, silk, and delicious fruits. 

Only a small number of oxen are reared : but sheep arc 
numerous, and their wool is very fine and much sought 
after. Tho horses are small, but vigorous, lively, and al- 
lowed to run almost wild. The wolf and the fox are com- 
mon in the forests, but the wild boar is of rare occurrence : 
the beaver is occasionally seen in the islands of the Rhdne, 
while the otter has his haunts on the banks of the Gard. 
Ortolans, red partridges, storks, and bustards are com- 
mon ; and the etangs and rivers abound with fish. 

Divisioni, Towm, and other Locah'ties.^This depart- 
ment is made up of the former dioceses of Ntmes, and fjzds 
in Languedoc It is now divided into four arrondissements 
as follows : — 



CapitaL 



Population in Sitaation, area, and ponnUtiou of arrondtii. 
1631. 1936. ■» aq.mllea. 1831. L83S. 



Ntmes, 41,266 43,036 S. & S.E. 650 128,461 131,712 

Alais, 12,077 13,566 N.&N.W.528 79,823 83,091 

Uzes, 6,162 6,856 E. & N.E. 573 83,752 95,701 

Le Vigan, 4,909 5,049 W 543 65,247 65,755 

2294 357,283 366,259 

The whole department comprehends 38 cantons and 342 
communes. 

The towns in the arrondissement of Nimes, beside the 
capital, and Beaucaire (population 9967) on the Rhdne, of 
which an account is given elsewhere rNtuES ; Bbaucairb], 
are : Aiguesmortes (pop. 2897), near the sea ; Aramon (pop. 
2447). on the Rhdne; Montfrin (pop. 2331), on the Gard; 
Marguerittes (pop. 1925) and Milhaud (pop. 1613), on the 
Vistre ; Soramiires (pop. 3632), and Villevieille, adjacent to 
it, on the Vidourle; St. Gilles (pop. 5561), on the canal of 
Aiguesmortes and Beaucaire ; Calvisson (pop. 2692), Aubais, 
Galargues (pop. 2096), Aymargues (pop. 2182), and St. 
Laurent, between the Rhosny and the H6rauU, and Vauvcrt, 
between the Yistre and the Aiguesmortes canal. 

Aiguesmortes is well laid out and well built : the houses 
are chiedy of stone, and of one story only, in order that they 
may be under the shelter of the ramparts. The inhabitants 
of the tawn are engaged in fishing and in procuring salt 
from the salt-marshes of Peccais» which are a short dis- 
tance south-east from Aiguesmortes. From May to August 
150 workmen are employed in them; but in the latter 
month more than 2000. 

St. Gilles (distinguished as St. Gilles4es-6oucheries) is on 
an eminence; the kings of the Visigoths had a palace here, 
and it was the birthplace of Pope (Jlement I v . The en- 
virons produce excellent red wine. 

In the arrondissement of Alais, beside the chief town, 
and Anduze (pop. 5020 town, 5554 commune) [Alais; 
AnduzxI there are Baijac (pop. 1700 town, 1975 com- 
mune), between the boundary of the department and the 
river C^ze; St. Ambroix (pop. 2560 town, 2947 com- 
mune), on the C^zo ; Genolnac, on a branch of the same 
river; and St. Jean du (yard (pop. 2788 town, 4128 com- 
mune), on the Garden d* Anduze. At] St. Ambroijc silk, 
hats, leather, and nails are manufactured; and at St. 
Jean du Crard, silk and leather. 



In the arrondissement of TJzIs, beside the chief towii« 
Uz^, there are Le Pont St Esprit (pop. 4250 town, 4853 
commune) ; Roquemaure (pop. 2653 town, 4138 commune), 
and Villeneuve les Avignon (pop. 3564), on the Rhone ; 
Bagnols (pop. 3800 town, 4902 commune), on the Ceze; 
Laudun (pop. 1888 town, 2260 commune), on the Tave; 
St. Quentin, near Uzds (pop. 1770 town, 1994 commune); 
and St Genies, near the south bank of the Garden. 

Le Pont St Esprit (Bridge of the Holy Spirit) takes iU 
present name (it was previously called St. Savoumin) from 
a bridge, which at the commencement of the present cen- 
tury was the only one across the Rhdne below Lyon, except 
the bridge of boats established for a part of the year between 
Beaucaire and Tarascon. Viewed from the river the bridge 
of St. Esprit presents, fram its great length and height, the 
appearance of a wall built upon arches across the stream. 
Its length is rather more than half a mile; its breadth not 
more than 14 or 15 feet between the parapets, so that car 
riages cannot pass each other, except in particular parts 
widened for the purpose. It has twenty-three arches, nine- 
teen large and four small ; beside which the piers have each 
a small arch above the starlings to admit the passage of the 
water in the time of the floods. This bridge was built with the 
offerings presented at a small oratory or chapel on the bank 
of the river, dedicated to the Holy Spirit ; the first stone was 
laid A.D. 1265. Considering the state of the arts, the 
breadth and rapidity of the stream, it is a wonderful work. 
At Le Pont St Esprit is a citadel built by Louis XIV. to 
bridle the Protestants of Languedoc. The inhabitants carry 
on a considerable trade by means of the Rhdne, in oil, wine^ 
and silk. There is a considerable yearly fair. 

The inhabitants of Roauemaure are engaged in silk- 
weaving and in distilling brandy. There is an old castle, 
once belonging to the counts of Toulouse. Villeneuve les 
Avignon forms a suburb of Avignon [Avignon], from 
which it is separated l:y the Rhdne. 

In this arrondissement, on the road from Lyon by Le Pont 
St Esprit to Ntmes, is Le Pont du Gard. This aqueduct- 
bridge, designed to convey the waters of the fountain of 
Aure to Ntmes, crosses the valley and stream of the Garden, 
uniting two steep hills by which the valley is bounded at 
this place. It consists of two tiers of large arches, and a 
third tier of small arches which supports the trunk of tiie 
aqueduct. The channel for the water is above four feet 
wide and five deep, and is lined with cement three inches 
thick, and covered with a fine coat of red clay. The bottom 
is formed with small stones, gravel, and chalk. Tlie whole 
work is built of stones joined without mortar or any other 
dement, except in the trunk for the water. The river, over 
which the bridge is carried, does not in summer occupy 
more than one of the arches of the lowest tier ; but in 
the floods in winter its stream is so swelled as to occupy 
them all. 

In tho arrondissement of Le Vigan are : Le Vigan, the 
chief town, on the Arre, a feeder of the Herault ; Valle- 
raugue (pop. 1878 town, 3895 commune), on the Herault; 
Sumine (pop. 2030 town, 3017 commune), on the Rieulor ; 
St Andre ae Valborgne, on the Garden d' Anduze ; La 
Salle (pop. 1750 town, 2270 commune), on one of the 
affluents of the Crardon ; Aulas, near Le Vigan ; and St 
Hypolite, or Hippolyte (pop. 5120 town, 5214 commune); 
Sauve (pop. 2851 town, 3021 commune); and Quiasac, on 
the Vidourle. Le Vigan is amid the C6vennes. The in- 
habitants are engaged in the manufacture of silk and cotton 
stockings and leather. St Hypolite is well built : it is tra- 
versed hy a canal which supplies several fountains. Hie 
inhabitants are engaged in the manufacture of leather, wool- 
len stuffs, and silk and cotton stockings. 

The population of the towns, except when mentioned to 
be otherwise, is from the census of 1831. 

In respect of education the department occupies a low 
place ; but it is in advance of the adjacent departments, 
except that of H6rault. Of the young men enrolled in the 
military census in 1828-29, only 40 in 100 could read and 
write. The condition of the mountaineers who occupy the 
mountains wliich separate this department from that of 
Lozcre, is very wretched. They dwell in huts built of stone, 
without windows, and almost without roofs ; and a con- 
siderable part of their subsistence is derived from the 
chesnuts, which constitute the only produce of their soil. 
They are a stunted and ill-made race. 

This department constitutes the diocese of Nimes, the 
bishop of which is a suffragan of the archbishop of Avig 



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70 



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Hon* Th«re are many Pioiestantt in the dejiartiDent ; 
they oonstitute a majority of the popnlation, and have 
aeTcnteen consistorial churches. The de|MLrtment ia within 
the jurisdiction of the Cour Roffole of Ntmes, and in the 
circuit of the Academe Uhiverittaire of that city. Among 
the buildinf^s not subjeot to taxation, the official returna 
enumerate 5 prisona, 4 ichools, libFaries, or establiahmenta 
for superior education, 24 hospitab or almshouses, and 
462 churches and chapels. 

The department sends 5 members to the Chamber of 
Deputies. It is in the ninth military division, of which the 
head-quarters are at Montpellier. 

GARD, PONT DU. JTGaiid.] 

GARDA, THE LAKE OF, the antient Benaeus, the 
largest of the Italian lakes, is in the Lombardo- Venetian 
kingdom, between the province of Brescia on the west and 
that of Verona on the east ; the boundary between the two 
provinces crosses the lake in its length. Its south coast 
neloni^ to the province of Mantua.' The northern ex- 
tremity of the lake enters the territory of Trent in theTsrrol. 
Its length, which is north by east to south by west, is 28 
Italian miles of 60 to one degree of latitude ; and its greatest 
breadth, which is in its southern part, is ll( Italian miles; 
but it is much narrower towards the north. Its greatest 
depth is about 1800 feet. (QMadrh Proffpetto StaiMco delle 
provinrie Venete.) It receives at its northern extremity 
the river 8 area, which rises in the mountains of Tyrol, and 
numerous other streams on its east and west banks. The 
Minrio issues from its south-east extremity by the fortress 
of Peschiera. Two ridses of mountains run parallel to its 
east and west banks : that on the east is more rugged and 
nearer to the coast, but the western ridge leaves a fine and 
fertile strip of land between it and the bank, and is known 
by the name of Riviera di Sal5. The south coast of the 
lake forms part of the great plain of Lombardy. Some ac- 
count of the territory along the banks of this lake, the 
scenery of which has been praised by Catullus, Dante, and 
other poets, is given under the heads Brescia, and Verona, 
THB Provinces of. There is a good description of the 
lake in Valery's Voyages Litter aires en Italie, A steam- 
boat plies on the lake of Garda, between Desenzano on its 
south coast, and Riva at its north extremity, in the Tyrol. 
The lake has some small islands near its west coast, the 
largest of which is called * Isola Lecchi,' from the name of 
the family to which it belongs, and is little more than one 
mile in circumference. 

GARDEN. A garden, as distinguished from a farm, is 
a piece of ground designed for the cultivation of plants not 
actually indispensable to man for food. While corn for 
llour, various roots and herbs for the sustenance of cattle, 
or tracts of pasture land on which animals destined fbr 
slaughter are maintained, constitute the essential features 
of a farm ; a garden, ei'en when exclusively occupied by 
culinary vegetables, is still a source of objects of luxury, not 
of first necessity; in a more extended sense, and as it 
usually exists at the present day, it is clriefiy intended to 
gratify the senses and to minister to the more refined en- 
joyments of social life. 

The possession of a garden is one of the most early indi- 
cations of civilization in man, and it is only among the 
most brutal and degraded races of savages that it is alto- 
gether unknown ; while we find such an appendage to a 
dwelling increased in magnificence, or diminished and 
neglected, with the prosperity or decline of the most mighty 
states. It is Lord Bacon who says that ' when ages do 
grow to civility and elegancy men come to build stately 
sooner tlian to garden finely, as if gardening were the 
greater perfection.' 

According to Sir John Malcolm, the Persians had war- 
dens from the period of their first king Mahabad. We 
learn from Xenoplion that Cyrus considered them an indis- 
pensable appendage of his re>idences. • Wherever he re- 
sides, or whatever ]ilace he visits in his dominions, he takes 
care that the para Uses shall be filled with all that is beau- 
tiful and Uftcful which the soil can produce.* (Cyropa^d.v.) 
And it Hpi)ears upon the testimony of Pliny and other 
Roman autnurs, that among the same people small gardens 
existed, in which trees were arranged in strais^ht lines and 
regular figures, the margins of the walks being planted 
with tuflR of roses, violets, ntid other odoriferoiis tlowering 
plants, while the trees consisted of kuids grateful for their 
fragrance, as the cypress and the pine, or agreeable for 
tlkeir shade, as the plane and the common elm. The Greeks, 



in their most flourishing times, appear to hare been equally 
attached to the formation of gardens, and even, in soma 
respects, to the nicer parts of the art of gardening. Hie 
Oriental narcissus, violet, ivy, and rose, are mentioned as 
their favourite flowers, and terebinthinous trees as thow 
which were chiefly valued for their fragrance. The rich 
and polisheil Athenians are represented by Mr. Meason 
as having borrowed their garaening from Asia Minor. 
Myrtles and roses, the box and the lime-tree, were planted 
for clipping into artificial forms, while flowers ana fruU« 
were cultivated in the winter, and the violet was in pm- 
fiision in the Athenian markets when snow was lying on 
theground. 

Theophrastqs himself not only gives directions for garden- 
ing operations, many of which were fanciful enough, su<'h 
as sowing rue with chips of fig-wood, and pulling up pacu- 
lents by way of making them more tender, instead of rutliny^ 
them ; but he had a garden of his own which he left to t«'n 
of his friends to be preserved as a place of public resort for 
those who employea their leisure in letters and philosophy. 
(Diogen. Laert. v. 53.) The instances of the kings Attalu^ 
Phtlometor [Attalus] and Mithridates, who culti^'ated all 
sorts of poisonous plants in their gardens, are pcrhati^ 
the earliest upon record of such places being occupied M 
medical purposes. 

It is not to be supposed that gardens were tiej^lected by 
the luxurious and wealthy Romans. The prodigious gar- 
dens of Lucullus, who introduoed the cherry, the pcacb, 
and the apricot from the Persians, were derided by hia 
Roman friends for their extraordinary sumptuosity. Thoy 
are related to have consisted of immense artificial towers^ 
large sheets of water, gigantic edifices jutting into the sea, 
ana mountains raised where no hill had existed before 
Such an example might be ridiculed by some, but was 
certain to be followed by others whose taste for splendour 
and profusion was supported by unbounded wealth ; and 
accordingly the gardens of Sallust, of the emperors Nero 
and Hadrian, and of many of their subjects, are doubtless 
to be classed in the same order as those of Lucullus. It i« 
however to be remembered that such gardens were rather 
more similar to an English park and garden combined 
than to a mere garden, in the modern sense of the word* 
and moreover were so uncommon as to be looked upon with 
wonder by the people among whom they were created. A 
common Roman garden must have been a very diflerent 
place, if we are to take the description given by Virgil 
{Georeic, iv. 121) as at all a faithful sketch ; for he spcuk« 
of nothing but endive (intyba), celery (apium), melons? 
(cucumis), narcissi, acanthus, roses, ivy, and myrtles. That 
they had various trees bearing fruit, as well as the common 
wild timber of the country, and many different kinds of 
flowers, must of course be admitted; but that all gardens* 
up to the most flourishing period of the Roman empire, 
must have been much alike in respect to the plants they 
contained, is manifest fi:om the fact that hardly more than 
seventy plants of all descriptions are noticed by this poet, 
although he wrote professedly upon rural affairs. It i« 
true that the Romans carried their passion for flower"* >'j 
far that it became necessary to restrain it by sumptuan 
laws, and that cases of extreme profusion in the uc ik 
them are mentioned by historians. The institution of Flo- 
ralia, or flower-feasts, the universal passion for garlands, 
the reproaches addressed by Cicero to Verrcs for ha \ ins; 
made the tour of Sicily in a litter, seated on roses and 
decked with festoons of flowers, are a sufficient evidence uf 
this taste having been carried to an extent unknown at tt;e 
present day ; to say nothing of the prodigality of Heliojni- 
balus, or of Cleopatra, the latter of whom is said bv Atlie- 
niDus to have paid upwards of 200/. (an Eg)ptian talent) for 
roses expended at one supper. But notwithstanding thif. 
the variety of plants that were culti^Tited in the gar (loi.< 
of both Greeks and Romans must have been extremely 
small. Tlieopluastus speaks only of roses, gillyflowers, 
violets, narcissi, and iris, as used for decoration, to whr h 
the larkspur and gladiolus (hyacinthus), with the white 
lily, and a few others may be added. The great object 
of their ailmiration was rcses, which were forced by platen 
of talc (said to have been as much as five feet long ; hut 
it is more probable that these svecularia were sashes fi\c 
feel long, glazed with tair) oeing placed over buvhe» 
watered with warm water. Pliny, in nis * Natural Iliston .' 
docs not enumerate above one thousand plants of all de- 
scriptions, a very small part of which were objects of cul* 



fi 



GAR 



"n 



OAR 



wbieh an epitome lifts been eiven hy CeBiriui (Bibl, Bfcurial, 
i. 326, 8.) ; and according to Mr. Loudon, Uiii writer has left a 
list of plants cultivated in the garden of Seville, more 
extensive than that of the Oreelu and Romans. In the 
13th century the then Vixir of Cairo, Ebn-Beitar, a native 
of Malaga, was so much attached to botany that he visited 
all parts of the East for the express purpose of extending 
his knowledge of plants. His works are preserved in MSS. 
in the library of the Escurial, and it is said that althou8;h 
he scrupulously abstained from describing anything which 
he had not seen, yet he speaks of 2000 species more than 
I>iosoorides. (Spreng.i. 238.) It is only reasonable to suppose 
that such a man had a garden. We must however fix the 
period when gardens first began to be extensively improved, 
in the middle of the 1 6th century, when, as has been already 
shown, the rich Italians turned their attention to the intro- 
duction of new and rare plants. By the time that this new 
tftste began to be fixed in the minds of Europeans, the 
numerous geographical discoveries that had been made by 
the Portuguese and Spaniards, had opened new and unheard- 
of sources from which the lovers of gardens were able to 
enrich them. It would appear that the maize, the yam, 
tobacco, and the cotton-tree (Bombax) were brought to 
Europe by the Spaniards so early as the end of the 1 5th 
century (Barcia, ^t>/., i 24), and king Ferdinand is recorded 
to have preferred the pine-apple, brought home in Colum- 
bus's second voyage, to all otner fruits. (Petr. Martyr. Beb, 
Oc, Dec, 1. 2, b. 39.) 

It would be impossible to trace the progress of public 
taste in the construction of gardens any mrther historically, 
without occupying more space than such a subject can have 
allotted to it in a work of this description. It may easily 
be conoeived that flrom the time when the taste for gardens 
revived, up to the present period, there has been a gradual 
improvement in such places, commensurate with the wealth 
of mdividuals and the commercial power of nations, their 
peaceful habits, the securitv of property, and their general 
progress in settling the relations of social life. At the 
present day the most prosperous nation is Great Britain, 
and here the cultivation of wardens is unrivalled as a general 
national object : the most degraded are Spain and Portugal, 
and there a feeling for garden enjo3rment is almost extinct 
In the remainder of this article we shall ofier a few remarks 
upon the most important causes which have contributed to 
bring gardens to their present improved condition, and con- 
clude by a brief account of some of the most remarkable 
Botanical Gardens of the present day. 

The first great step that was made by gardeners to ad- 
vance their art beyond mere mechanical operations, was the 
invention of glassnouses, in which plants might be grown 
in an artificial climate, and protected from the inclemency 
of weather. Until this was effected, it is obvious that the 
cultivation of exotic plants in Europe, especially its northern 
kingdoms, must have been much circumscribed. Mr. Lou- 
don refers the invention of greenhouses to Solomon de 
Cans, architect and engineer to the Elector Palatine, and 
who constructed the ga^ens at Heidelberg in 1619. But 
there can be no doubt that buildinn of this description 
claim a higher antiauity. The specularia of the Romans, 
whether pieces of talc 5' feet long, or, as we rather suppose, 
sashes 5 feet long glazed with talc, were certainly used for 
the purpose of forcing roses and some other plants ; they 
were essentially greenhouses, although perhaps more like 
our garden-frames. It is scarcely likely tnat where garden- 
ing survived, the learned men, in whose hands all such sub- 
ject then were, should have been unacquainted with the 
existence of these specularia, and they would naturally 
endeavour to reconstruct them. Greenhouses certainly 
existed among the Italians in the middle of the 16th cen- 
tury, as has been already mentioned, and there is no reason 
to suppose they had then for the first time been thought 
of. In fact, the anticnt viridarium seems to have been a 
room with one side of it glazed with sashes reaching from 
the top to the bottom, and resembling the old English 
conservatory. It may or may not have been heated ; pro- 
bably not, for it was chiefly Greek, Egyptian, and Le- 
vant plants that were at first cultivated as rarities by the 
wealtny Italians, and they required no artificial heat in 
Italy. 

If heat was required, it would be supplied by stoves or 
such other contrivances as were used for aomestic purposes. 
Ray says, that in 1684 the greenhouse in the Apothecaries' 
gmoa at Chelsea was heated by means of embers placed 



in a hole in 'the floor; and it appears, firom a section of a 
greenhouse in the Electoral garaen at Manheim, published 
in * Medicus Index Plantarum,' that a German sto>'e was 
used there as late as 1771. We however agi^ce with Mr. 
Loudon in considering the invention of gUoM-roo/t fir 
greenhouses to be an sera firom which the principal part o( 
modern improvements takes its date. This happened lu 
1717, when Switzer published the nlan of a forcmg-bou.v?, 
suggested by the Duke of Rutland's graperies at Bel voir 
Castle. Up to that time the want of light, must have ren- 
dered it impossible to employ greenhouses for the gro\t tb 
of plants, either in winter or summer; they could only have 
been hybernatories, receptacles inwliich plants might be* 
protected from wet or cold during winter, but from which 
they were transferred to the open air as soon as the si.rin^ 
became sufficiently mild. The substitution of glass-roof», by 
increasing the quantity of light, put it at once in the power 
of the gardener to cultivate permanently in his greenhuuho 
those natives of hot countries which are not capable of bear- 
ing the open air of Europe even during the summer. Froui 
the time of Switzer to the present oay there has been a 
gradual improvement in the construction of greenhouxMi^ 
the object being to supply the plants with as nearly the 
same amount of light when under the glass-roof, %s they 
would have had if in the open air. The modem invention 
of curvilinear iron-roofs has accomplished this end in a 
most remarkable degree ; fur they substitute an obstruction 
to light amounting to only ii or ^ for a loss equivalent to \ 
or even J. 

The mode of heatine such houses has given the modern 
cultivator additional advantages of the greatest importance. 
Stoves of all kinds not only diy up the moisture of the at- 
mosphere, but impregnate the air with gaseous exhalations 
unfavourable to vegetation. The substitution of flues, while 
it equalixed the heat, was still worse tlian the stove in dr)'iiig 
and deteriorating the air; the introduction of fermenting; 
vegetable matter, such as tan in a pit, in the interior of the 
house, remedied this evil in some measure, but the applica- 
tion of steam-pipes or hot-water pipes has had the great 
advantage of obviating every inconvenience, and has given 
the g^ardener the power of modifying the heat and moisture 
of his greenhouse at pleasure. Add to this, the rapidity 
of communication between one country and another, the 
long peace with which Europe has been blessed^ and the 
leisure it has given men to occupy themselves with domestic 
enjoyments, ue great encouragement given to gardeners 
the establishment of Horticultural Societies for the promo- 
tion of the art of gardening, and the discoveries made in 
vegetable physiology— add aH these things to the improve- 
ments in greenhouses, under which name is here included 
all descriptions of glass buildings for horticultural purposes, 
and there is no difficulty in accounting for the present flou- 
rishing condition of European gardens. 

There is one point furtner that requires to be notioc<l. as 
contributing to this result, and that is, the extension of the 
education of the working gardener. Great numbers of irar- 
doners are now well informed in the higher branches of their 
profession. Instead of trusting to certain empirical ruK-^ 
or to receipU for gardening operations, as if growing a pla.ni 
was much the same thing as making a pudding, they make 
themselves acquainted with the principles upon which their 
operations are conducted, they acquire a knowle<lge of 
botany and vegetable physiology, and some even of pli) »ical 
geography, ana thus they place themselves in the only |o^i- 
tion from which they can securely advance to the improve- 
ment of their art Tne necessity of these subjects forming a 
part of all gardeners* education cannot be too strongly in- 
sisted upon ; the Horticultural Society of London ha%e re- 
cognised their importance by requiring all the young men m 
their garden to pass an examination in such subjects, in ad- 
dition to their possessing the usual gardeners* acquirements ; 
and although people ignorant of such subjects them^eUva 
have been found aosurd enough to blame the proceeding, 
there can be no doubt that the world will give tne Society 
the credit they deserve for having been the first to set this 
most important example, which we trust will be ibllo«'ed by 
all such institutions through the country. 

In noticing modern gardens we must neoessarily confine 
ourselves to a few of the most remarkable, passing by entirely 
those of private individuals, and in genend all second-rate 
public establishments. The reader who is desirous of pro- 
curing detailed tnibrmation upon the subject will find an ample 
account of all the best modem gardens in Mr. Loadpo*a ^a- 



GAR 



74 



G A U 



placing the plants geographically, so that the mo&t careless 
observer in prcceeaing through' the diflferent luiles cannot 
fail to be struck with the changes in vegetation as he jpa-»acs 
f«om Africa to America, to Nov Hollaudi to India, China, 
and so on. 

In France gardening has never been in a very flourishing 
condition ; it is true tnat great quantities of vegetables are 
raided for the market, that the fruits of France are justly 
celebrated for their excellence, and the flower- markets of 
Paris are well supplied ; it is also true that numerous ex- 
cellent works on gardening have heen written in France. 
But for the quality of their fruit the French are chiefly 
indebted to their climate, for the abundant supply of the ve- 
getable market to their peculiar cookery, and tor the excel- 
lence of their written works rather to the ingenuity of a few 
clever men, than to the general haljits of the community. 
In flowers their taste is rather that of the Romans than of 
other European nations, for they are contented with a few 
showy kinas of sweet-smelling flowers, especially roses. 
Their great public gardens remind one of the days of 
Henry VIII., and if it were not for the imposing effect 
produced by the architectural grandeur of the buildings 
with which they are associated, thev would be quite con- 
temptible as works of the nineteenth century. There no 
doubt are exceptions to this statement, but as a general 
fact it cannot be contradicted. The Garden of Plants at 
Paris, which is the largest of the public establishments in 
France to which tlic name of garden properly applies, is 
not an exception to this statement, so ikr as the plants it 
contains are concerned. In 1818 it consisted, in the open 
air. of departments devoted to various purposes of teaching ; 
there was an indifferent collection of nardy herbaceous 
plants, and hardy trees and shrubs, some puerile contriv- 
ances to aid the student of agriculture : the plants in the 
houses were ill cultivated, few in number for such a place, 
and altogether unworthy of the reputation the garden had 
gained. Since that period two large hothouses have been 
built, 72 feet long, 4*2 feet wide, and about 50 feet high, 
with iron span roofs and heated by steam, and undoubtedly 
the establishment is pro:;ro<sing to a better state. But 
even now there are few judges of gardens who would assign 
the Jardin dcs Plantes a place among the first class of Eu- 
ropean gardens. 

In Great Britain it has never been the policy of the go- 
vernment to offer direct encouragement to either science or 
art, except in an uncertain and sparing manner, but rather 
to throw the duty of fostering them upon the people. So 
far as gardening is concerned the government has been right ; 
for if in this country such public gardens as we have enu- 
merated are unknown ; on the other hand no part of the 
Continent possesses such multitudes of good private gardens 
as Great Kntain. That which in other countries is a luxury, 
provided for at the publie expense, is here rendered a kind 
of necessity, which all persons, from the cottager to the 
noble, strive to possess. Nothing can be more beneficial 
to the community, or more advantageous to horticulture 
itself, than this difference, for the result is not here and 
there a raa^uiticent garden, and all round it comparative 
sterility, but a universal garden all over the country. The 
chief English garden containinj^ a large collection of plants 
is that of Kew, which is certainly the richest in the world 
in New Holland plants, and which was, during the late war, 
almost the only place in Europe to which exotic plants 
were introduced in considerable quantity. It contains a 
bad and ill-named or rather unnamed collection of hardy 
plants, and a good many small hothouses and greenhouses 
filled with rare plants; there is moreover an excellent 
kitchen-garden and forcing department. In consequence 
of thu» establishment having had a monopoly of govern- 
ment support §or above 30 years, it has been the channel 
through i^hich an enormous quantity of new plants have 
been introduced to Europe from all parts of the world. For 
many years however it was unworthy of the nation, from 
the illiberal manner in which it was conducted, a system 
of cxclufrive po>bes)»ion having been obser\'ed in it, which 
was most disi^roceful to tho^e by whose authority it was 
maintained, and who acted as if such gardens were supplied 
by the public purse for the private gratification of a few 
selfish cnurlierji, and not for cither the crown or the country. 
Of late }ears Iiowevcr this system has been abandoned, a 
liberal luuiii^eineut has been introduced, and the collec- 
tion is OS accessible as that of other nations. Next in im- 
portaaico omgng public gardens is that of the Horticultural 



Society, at Chiswick, near London. It was efttablisbed U 
the expense of the members of the society, and was inteodeA 
both as a place of experimental researches in horticultuml 
bcience, and a^i a station i\ hence the most valuable, useful, 
and ornamental plants of all kinds, might be distributed 
through the country ; for which purposes its extent, 
amounting to 33 acres, was expected to be amply sufficienU 
It has now been instituted 17 years, and consists of— i. aD 
Arboretum, probably the vichest in Europe in trees and 
shrubs that are ornamental ; 2, of an orchard, beyond al! 
comparison the most perfect collection of fruit-trees^ of all 
descriptions, that has ever been formed ; 3, of a few forcing- 
houses, now chiefly employed in the determination of tiie 
equality of different kinds of grapes; 4, of a kitchen-garden. 
in which trials are made of new vegetables, or of new 
methods of cultivation ; but which is principally used as a 
school of practice for the improvement of the young gar- 
deners in this branch of their art ; and 5, of a few small hot- 
houses and greenhouses filled with rare plants. It is more- 
over conducted as a kind of normal school for young men 
intended for gardeners, who are now obliged to pass an exa- 
mination in the principles of their business before they at* 
recommended to places. It was originally intended to erect 
a magnificent range of hothouses, but the mismanagement 
of the funds of the society by the late secretarjr ha» pre- 
vented that object being yet accomplished; it is however 
generallv understood that this part of the plan, so far from 
being abandoned, will actually be commenced in m few 
months, now that the resources of the corporation bate 
been invigorated by a more prudent and c*refiil roanoire- 
ment. Even as it is, no association of individusls e%cr 
produced so marked an effect upon gardening in a few years 
as has been brought about by tlie enormous distributions of 
cuttings of improved fruit-trees, of the finest kinds of ve{:c- 
table seeds, and of new plants mostly imported direct fK*ra 
the British colonies and from the west coast of America, 
made annually from the society's gardens, independently of 
the collections sent in return to all parts of the world. 

Tlie botanic garden of Edinburgh is one of the finest and 
best-managed in Europe. It consists of 16 acres, deliirht- 
fuUy situated, and includes everything that can be required 
for the purposes of teaching. The houses are remarkably 
good, and the healthy condition of the plants deserving nt 
all praise. It is particularly celebrated for its beautiful 
specimens of heaths. Besides these, there are botanic 
gardens at Glasgow, Liverix>ol, Cambridge, and 0.\fonl : 
fine public gardens in the towns of Shcflield, Manchester, 
and Birmingham ; and a garden at Chelsea, belonging to 
the Apothecaries' Company, who maintain it for the u%e of 
the medical students of the London schools. The latter 
was once among the most celebrated in Europe, having 
been for nearly 50 years under the management of Pb<lip 
Miller, the author of the * Gardener's Dictionary,' and 
whom Linnaeus called the * prince of gardeners.' Its situa- 
tion has however become unfavourable for a garden* in 
consequence of the number of houses with which it h 
surrounded; and the collection had latterlv fallen ini9 
some disorder ; but a commencement has lately been made 
by the present professor to re-arrange it, and it may a:c.im 
be expected to becomo an eflicient school of botanical m* 
struction. 

The number of species included in Loudon's * Hon us 
Britannicus,' or catalogue of the plants either cuUivate<l m 
Great Britain or indigenous, amounted in 183U to uowarls 
of 25,000, exclusive ojf Cryptogamous plants; and alibou.^h 
a vast number of deductions must be made, it is not impfv^- 
bable that there are at this time nearly as many s]i€Cios 
known in the different British collections. 

GARDEN HUSBANDRY U a branch of Horticulture, 
the object of which is to raise fruits, vegetables, and seedf 
fi)r profit on a smaller extent of ground than is osually oo» 
cupicd for the purpose of Agriculture. 

The best examples of this kind of industry are found 
among themarkot-gardeneis near populous towns, paiti-.*- 
larly London, Paris, and Amsterdam. By Iba appUa- 
tion of much manual labour and an abundant supple (*f 
manure they accelerate the growth of vegetables, aud pru> 
duoe them more abundantly than where manure is not to 
easily obtained, or where there is not so large a demand fv>r 
the produce. 

The eardeners near Paris, some of whom have gardens 
within the outer walls of the city, are called Manachrr^, 
iium the situation of their gardens in a low district «btcU 



I 



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:6 



GAR 



exposes then more to the influence of the sun. In very 
frosty weather, these heds are covered with mats or looso 
straw. We do not mention frames covered with glass;, as 
thev helonf^ to a higher kind of horticulture : but a moderate 
hotbed made with fresh dung, and covered with mats laid 
over hoops, is indispensable lor the raising of early vegeta- 
bles. By these means radishes and various salads may be 
raised very early in the spring, and sometimes, in mild 
winters, without any interruption during the whole year. 

An abundant supply of manure is indispensable in a 
market-garden, and tnis can generally be obtained in large 
towns at a tritling expense. The neis^hbourhood of a town 
is therefore a necessary circumstance towards the production 
of the crop, as well as its sale. It would be impossible to 
make a sufficient quantity of manure by means of the 
horses which are employed to carry the produce to market : 
and the extent of land usually laid out in garden-ground 
could not raise sufficient fuod for cattle, without taking up a 
•pace which may be more profitably employed. The only 
animal which can be kept to advantage bv a gardener is a 
pig. This animal will live well on the oflal of vei^etubles ; 
and the gardens of cottagers could not well be kept in a fer- 
tile state if it were not for the manure made by the pigs. 

The market-gardeners about Amsterdam are mostly 
Jews, and the vegetables which they bring to market are 
similar to those of the London or Paris gardeners ; but they 
excel particularly in raising cauliflowers, large white cab- 
bages for making taur-kraut, a dish much relished in the 
winter by theDutchand Qermans, [Cabbage,] French beans, 
cucumbers, and melons. They raise these last in such 
abundance, that heaps of them are sold in the markets at 
a very low rate. They also excel in the forcing of early peas 
and beans, and in the general management of hot beds. 

The profits of a garden near London, of the extent of ten 
or twelve acres, are as great as that of a farm of ten times 
the extent cultivated in the best manner, without the help 
of purchased manure. But if manure can be obtained at a 
reasonable rate, as is often the case in great thoroughfares, 
where many horses are kept for public conveyances, although 
there be no immediate demand for vegetables, a garden may 
be very profitably cultivated, entirely for the purpose of 
raising seeds. This branch of industry is the more worthy 
of notice, as it may enable a cottager to improve his situation 
greatly by the produce of a small garden or allotment of 
land. Tiie demand for seeds of all the most common pro- 
ductions of a garden, and especially of flowers, is great be- 
yond belief, and the profit of those who retail them in small 
Quantities is so great that they can aflbrd a liberal price to 
tnose who raise them with proper care so as to keep the 
varieties distinct 

In some agricultural districts it is the custom for the la- 
bourers to plant turnips in their gardens in November, in 
order to obtain the seed in time for sowing in the next year. 
They choose the soundest and best shaped, and by attention 
in keeping the ground clean, and allowing only one sort to 
go to seed within a certain distance, they produce a better 
seed than the farmer could ; because the labourer and his 
family having their garden constantly in view, can more 
easily keep off birds and watch the ripening of the seed, so as 
to allow it to oome to perfect maturity, without danger of the 
pods bursting, and shedding the seed horn being left too long. 
Thus they can collect a bushel or two of excellent seed deom 
a small portion of land; and this, at the price of a guinea a 
bushel, which is cheaper to the farmer than if he raised it 
himself, or purchased it of the seedsman, is a verv profitable 
crop to the labourer. An industrious cottager, without losing 
any time, with the help of his wife and children, may much 
increase his comforts in this manner, while at the same time 
he trains his children in habits of industry. To no class of 
men would a knowledge of garden husbandry be more use- 
ful. The improvement which may be made in the condition 
and character of the poor, by combining in their education 
a knowledge of the most common arts of life with that of 
]etters,which is often the only thing taught in schools, must be 
evident to every man who has reflected on the subject ; and I 
of all these arts the most generally useful amongst an agri- 
cultural population is the art of horticulture. The cot- 
tager who b acquainted with the means of raising early 
guden produce, who can graft young trees, who knows what 
slants may be propagated with a little care, and bo readily 
* M when in perfection, can employ his labour with a double 
^^ itage. And many a man, mm a very small beginning, 
ith a moderate share of judgment and prudence, 



raised himself to independence, if not to affluence; \ihile he 
that plods on in the beaten track like a horse in a mill eii'l -> 
his days in ignorance and poverty. 

The gieat bupi'riurity of those schools which have hc< ri 
established to teach the children of the poor to work as wi-w 
as to read, over those which teach book knowledge only, t- 
indisputable. A boy who can manage a little gvden, u \vj 
takes a pleasure in watching the seed he has sown, who 
plucks out every weed as soon as it appeara, and who phdi-^ 
liiroself on the fruit and vegetables which he can pla«v on 
his father's table, is more advanced in his education than 
he who can only read and write, however well he roav do 
both. 

Many plans have been proposed for the distribution of 
the crops in a cottage frarden ; but none of them are suiti^'l 
to every situotion. Much depends on the nature of the m>iI. 
which may be better suited to one kind of produce tha a 
another ; and also to the demand for any peculiar clav^ «tf 
vegetables. New sorts may often be introduced with a<l* 
vantage. The raising of any useful plant with great cai«* 
will often givo a man a reputation, which makes it advan- 
tageous to him to confine himself to these principally, antl 
raise them in the greatest perfection. An ingenious m^n 
will find out what is most for his own advantage ; and 
from the list of plants which may be cultivated fur orn..- 
ment or for use a selection may be made which may be 
well suited to the situation of the ground and the circum- 
stances of the grower. The practice of the market-gardeners 
mav be exammed with advantage; and long expenenor. 
with the test of profit, will lay down better practical rules 
than the most plausible theories. 

An allotment of land such as is now very frequent b 
given to agricultural labourers with the laudable intention 
of making them more industrious and independent of 
parochial relief, may be cultivated to great advantage b> 
applving judiciously the general principles of garden hu«- 
iMtndry. There are few cottages which have not alrcortv 
attached to 'them a small garden of a few perches, in whirh 
common vegetables, such as cabbages, onions, and earl> 
potatoes, are raised. The same vegetables may continue !o 
be cultivated there, provided the situation is more con- 
venient from its proximity to the cottage, or a small part 
of the allotment may be set apart every year for tUt:* 
purpose, so as to change the crops, which is always a n 
advantage. But the remainder of the allotment should Ix* 
cultivated on a regular plan, as a farm in miniature, wiih 
this difference, that all the operations should be perform e<l 
with the minute attention of a gardener. Potatoes anil 
wheat, if the soil is not too light for the latter, or rye. in 
very sandy soils, will be the principal crops, being imtiu*- 
dialely necessary to the support of the family. Thevf 
crops have sometimes been recommended to bo raised in 
every alternate year; but whatever be the tillti(;e or 
manuring, there are few soils which will not soon be 
reduced in fertility by this constant succession. One- 
fourth of the land in wheat, and one-fourth in potatoes, u 
the utmost which can be profitably cultivated in one \ear. 
The remaining half of the allotment must produce nuUo. 
roots, and green crops, by which animals may be fed and 
manure collected. An allotment of three acres will enable 
a cottager to keep a cow, by having a portion of it in clu\ cr 
or other artificial grass. In the ' Farmer's Magazine' tur 
February, 1802 (p. 38), there is an article drawn up bv 
Mr. John Sinclair, in which it is shown how this may b« 
effected without difficulty. But as the allotments usually 
given to labomvrs seldom exceed half an acre, or at tlfe 
most an acre, the keeping of a cow is out of the question ; 
and the only animal which can be profitably reared and 
fatted is the pig, to which we shall therefore confine our 
observations. By means of pigs the cottager may greatly 
increase the profit which can be made from his allotment 
of land, keeping up at the same time a proper degree of 
fertility. One-half of his bnd must be cultivated to feed 
his pigs; besides the smaller potatoes which remain when 
the finest and best are taken out for the use of the ikmily, 
he may give them beans, barley, carrots, parsnips, and 
turnips, especially the Roola Baga, or Swedish turnip ; and 
all the straw must be used for litter. If this be strictly 
attended to, the greatest possible profit will be made from 
the land, without any danger of iu being exhausted and 
loosing iu fertility. The rotations will therefore be— pota- 
toes, with a great quantity of manure ; then barley, then 
peas, bean^, . carrots, parsnips, and Swedish turni|>s. 



GAR 



78 



GAR 



eoimeil, on his refusal (o comply with their injundions, I 
comtnitled him to the Fleet. Here he was confined until 
the art of general amnesty, which passed in the December 
after the arcc-sion of Edward, released him. As soon as 
he was free ho went down to his diocese, and while there 
he remaine<l unmolested; but on his return to London, on 
account of a certain sermon which he preached on St, 
Peter's Day, he was seized and committed to the Tower 
(1548). Various conferences were held willi him, and his 
release was promi-^ed him on condition that he would 
express his contrition f ;r the past, promise obedience for 
the future, subscribe the new settlement in relij^iou, also 
the king*8 complete power and supremacy, though a minor, 
together with the abrogation of the six articles. With the 
first of these conditions alone did he absolutely refuse to 
comply. The terms of liberation were afterwards rendered 
still more ditlicult. Tlie number of articles that he was 
called upon to subscribe was considerably increased. On 
his refusal to sign them, his bishonric was sequestered, 
and he was soon afterwards depiivcfl. For more than five 
years ha suffered close imprisonment, and it was not until 
the bej^inning of the reit^n of Mary that his liberty was 
restored (1553). If his fall from power at the conclusion 
of Henry's reign had been great and sudden, still greater 
and still more sudden Was the rapidity of his reinstatement. 
A Catholic queen was on the throne, and he who had been 
ever the foremost of her partisans must necessarily be 
raised to be one of her first advisers. The chancellorship 
was conferred upon him. His bishopric was restored, and 
the conduct of affairs placed in his hands. The manage- 
ment of the queen's marriage treaty was intrusted to him. 
He was chosen to otfiriute at her marriage, as he had also 
done at her coronation, and became her most confidential 
adviser. No matters, whatever they might be, could be 
proceeded in without his privily and concurrence. We 
must refer our readers to the ecclesiastical and general 
histories, and to Burnet's * History of the Reformation,' for 
an account of his share in the persecutions of this reign. 
Those horrors which were not committed by his artual 
orders must at least have obtained his sanction ; for he 
had reache<l a height of power, both civil and ecclesias- 
tical, perhaps unequalled in this kingdom, except by his 
master Wolsey alone. He died on the I'ith of November, 
1555. His funeral was conducted with great pomp and 
magnificence. A list of his writings is given in Tanner's 
' Biol. Britannica,' Hiberuica, p. 3UH. 

The character of Gardiner mav be stated in a few words. 
He was a man of great abilitv ; his general knowledge was 
more remarkable than his learning as a divine : he was 
ambitious and revengeful, and wholly unscrupulous; bis 
drst object was his own preservation and advancement, and 
his next the promotion of his party interest. He saw 
deeply into the characters of those with whom he dealt, 
dealt with them with infinite tact, and had an accurate fore- 
sight of affairs. (ICcclesias Hist. ; BnrneVs Reform. ; &c.) 

GARFAGNA'N A is a highland district of the northern 
Apennines, on the borders of the states of Tuscany, Genoa, 
and Modena, including the valley of the Upper Serchio 
above its junction with the Lima. The valley extends from 
the sources of the Serchio in a south-east direction for about 
twenty-four miles between the main ridge of the Apennines 
and the lofty croup called Alpe Apuana, which divides the 
Talley of the. Serchio from that of the Magra, and also from 
the maritime districts of Carrara, Massa, and Pictrasanta. 
The most elevated summits of the Alpe Apuana. called Pisa- 
nini) and Pizzo d'Ucccllo, are between 6000 and 7000 feet 
high. The climate of Gar fag nana is cold and fogjry, and 
ex|»oscd to btji>terous winds from the mountains. The in- 
habitants of this secluded district amounted in 1832 to 
40,100. The low lands of the > alley produce some corn, 
hemp, and tlax, and in some sheltered and favoured spots 
the olive and intilbcrry ; but the main resource of the 
people is thoir pa^ures a'ld their forests of chestnut-trees, 
the fruit of >\hn-h is to them a substitute for bread. In 1^32 
they had 8<^36 head of horned cattle, 47,505 sheep, G^58 
goats, 1867 pi;.;-, ij-j horbos 6.i4 a>5;es and 172 mules. In 
the same year they exported 40.000 lbs. of silk cocoons; 
other exnortations are c!ici»se, undressed skins, chestnuts, 
w«}ol, anu timber. There are also iron and coal-mines. The 
Garfa^nana contains sixty-seven parisho<«. and is di\ided 
for administrative purposes into six jurisdictions, three of 
which belong to the duchy of Modena, two to the duchy of 
Laoca, and one to Tuscany. The principal towns are— 1. 



CastelnuoTo. with 2400 inhabitants, and some good btiilJ* 
in^, being the residence of the Modenese governor; it ha« 
a college, an hospital, and a Monic di Pict4. The puet 
Ariosto was at one time governor of this place, of which he 
gives a curious account. [Ariosto.] 2. Gallirano, with 
about 1000 inhabitants, the head place of the district, attd 
belonging to Lucca. 3. Barga, with 2500 inhabitants, hcail 
town of the district, and belonging to Tuseanv. 

GARLIC, a hardy perennial plant with bulbous rootc^ 
found growing wild in the ialana of Sicily, and in se%*eral 
other parts of the south of Europe. In.^rdens it is culti 
vated chiefly on account of its bulbs, which are much used 
in cookery, and occasionally in medicine. 

It is the Allium sativum of botanists, and is regularly 
grown for the market. For this purpose, a light tolera- 
bly rich soil is selected in a dry warm situation. Tlie grouml 
should be well dunged for the crop which precedes garlir ; 
and not when the garlic is planted, because, when this i- 
done, the bulbs are very apt to canker and to be infe»tcdi 
with maggots. 

It may either be planted in beds or in rows ; it in be<K. 
the distance between the plants may be seven or ci^ht 
inches; if in rows (which is most recommended), the> nny 
be one foot apart, and six inches between the plants m the 
row. In ganlens where the soil is light and dry, the h*"-x 
season for planting is late in autumn ; but where the mi\ i% 
wet, the operation should be deferred until spring, that u«« 
to any time in February or March. 

The plant is propagated by offsets, which it produces an- 
nually in consiucrable numbers, and which are common ly 
called cloves. The season of ripeness, which is generally tu 
the end of July or August, is easily known by the lea\«*^ 
changing from green to yellow. At this period the bultjs 
should be taken up and spread out in the sun to dry, af(c»r 
which they may be tied in bunches and kept in a dry hou^« 
for winter use, in the same way as onions. 

GARNET, a well-known precious stone, of which there 
are many varieties. Some of them are probably distinrc 
species; but agreeing in form, and some other propertii-s 
they are classed together. This mineral occurs crystallizol. 
massive, and granular. The primary form is a cube, but 
it occurs in the form of a rhombic dodecahedron. The 
colour is various, and accordingly, as will be seen beU>^, 
it has received different names. It is transparent, transr- 
lucent, rarely opaaue. Lustre vitreous, resinous. 8pcc;tle 
gravity, 3*6, 4*2. Haidness, 6*5, 7*5. Cleavage parallel to 
the planes of the rliombic dodecahedron ; fracture, uneven. 

This mineral occurs in the mountainous porta of mu^t 
countries. 

The massive varieties are amorphous, structure granular, 
compact The crystalline varieties, according generally to 
their colour, have received various names. Precious gamer, 
Almandine; hlackt Alelantte, Pyreneiie ; greenish yellow, 
Grosmlaria ; yellow, crystallized, Topasmite ; granular. 
Succinite ; brownish-yellow, granular, Colophmite ; green- 
ish, compact, Allochroite ; red, Pyrope, Carbuncle ; reddi>h- 
brown, Essonite, Cinnamon-stone, Romanzovite ; magxie- 
sian, Rothnffite. 

The following are the analyses of the almandine, by the 
authors named, and from the places mentioned *— 

Butfmia. New Yurk. 

Silica 33-75 42*51 

Alumina . . . 27*25 19-15 

Oxide of Iron . . 3600 .?3*57 

5-49 
000 1*07 



Oxide of Manganese 0*25 
Lime 



9r*25 Klaproth 10l79Wachtmcister 
It appears that the essential ingredients of the garnet are 
silica, alumina, and oxi«le of iron ; these are frequcnfh par- 
tiallv replaced bv oxide of manganese, lime, and magnes:a. 
GARNET, riENRY. superior of the Jesuits in Eng- 
land, was the son of a schoolmaster at Nottingham, and 
was born about the year 1554. He was educated in the 
Protestant religion at Winchester College, whence it was 
intended that he should go to New College, Oxford, aad 
his not having done so has been assigned to diflTerent causes 
by Protestant and Catholic writers. He removed from 
Winchester to I^ondon. where he became corrector of the 
press to a celebrated law-prinitr; and having turned 
Roman Catholic, travelled nrst to Spain and thence io 
Rome, where he entered the society of Jesuits in 1 575. In 
the Jesuits College, at Rome, he studied with great induf 



GAR 



80 



GAR 



flir Biirpasftf's the English counties with which we have 
compared it. Toulouse, the capital, is on the right hank of 
the Garonne, in 43' 36' N. lat., and l" 26' E. fcng^ ahout 
363 miled in a straight line west-by-south of Paris. It had 
in 1831 a population of 59.630; iiri836. of 77.372. 

Surface ; Hydrography ; and Communications, — ^The 
southern part ot the department is covered with lofty moun- 
tains, forming the principal range or the branches of the 
Pyrenees. The Pic Quairat. 9964 foot high, and Mont 
Carb&rc or Crab^re, 8655 feet high, arc in or close upon the 
bolder of the department. The lower sloj)e8 arc covered 
with thick forests, or are occupied as shccpwalks or pas- 
ture grounds. The mountains are intersected bv beautiful 
valleys, such as that of Luchon, and are crossed by the vari- 
ous ports or passes by which communication is kept up 
between France and Spain. The northern part of the de- 
partment is occupied by hills of moderate elevation, sepa- 
rated by extensive plains. 

llie Garonne enters the department from the valley of 
Arran, in Spain, and traverses it in its whole length m a 
circuitous course from south to north. 

The other rivers which water the department belong to 
the system of the Garonne : the principal are the Nesle, 
the Salat, the Aridge, the Lers, the Lougd, the Touch, the 
Save, the Gimone, and the Tarn. 

The Canal du Midi, or Canal du Languedoc. commences 
in the Garonne at Toulouse, and follows the valley of the 
Lers into the department of Aridge. There is another 
small canal in the department, the canal of St. Pierre. The 
official return of the extent of water conveyance in this 
department is as follows :— 

Navigation of Rivern, 

Garonne . • • 70 miles. 
Salat . • • . 10 „ 

Ari^e . . • - 19 „ . 
Tarn • • • . 14 „ 



River navigation 
Canals, 
Canal du Midi • 

of St. Pierre . 



«f 



113 miles. 

32 miles. 
1 » 



Total water communication 146 miles. 

The number of Routes Rnyales or government roads in 
the department is seven, in all states of rei^air and com- 
pleteness ; their aggregate length is nearly 200 miles. None 
of these roads are of the first class. One road of the se- 
cond class, coming from Paris by Limoges, Oihors. and 
Montauban. crosses the department from north to south, 
through Castelnau and Toulouse to Painiers (dep. of Aridge), 
and so into Spain. The other roads are of the third class. 

Thero are about thirty Routes Dcpartementales, or roads 
under the direction and at the charge of the local govern- 
ment, having an aggregate length of 476 miles; and a vast 
number of bye-roa& or paths (chemins vicinaux), amount- 
ing in their total length to above 8000 miles. Tlie Routes 
Royaies are, on the whole, in tolerable repair ; but of the 
Routes D^partementales one- fifth only are in good repair. 
There are no railroads in the department. 

Geology and Mineralogy, — The greater part by far of 
the department is occupied by the supercretaceous stnita, 
which extend from the northern boundary to the junction 
uf the Garonne with the Salat and the Nesle. llie chalk 
fbrmation does not rise to the surface: the oolitic or other 
formations between the chalk and the red marl or new 
(sal ife reus) red sandstone crop out from beneath the super- 
cretaceous strata, and occupy a narrow belt to the south of 
these. The Pyrenees are lurmcd of the older limestunes 
and other primitive rocks. The various mineral treasures 
of the department are in a great degree neglected. There 
are ores of iron, cupper, lead, antimony, bismuth, and zinc ; 
slates, gypsum, and various species of marble and other 
litueitunes. and of granite. There are two brine springs 
and bcveral mineral waters, of which the most celebrated 
are those of Bagndres de Luchon. [Bagnlres de 

LtXHON.] 

Climate ; Soil ; Agricultural Pro luce ; Animah^—hi the 
higher parts of the mouutains the winters arc severe and 
long; in the lower hills and plains, which make up the 
mater part of the department, the cUmate is mild ; it rarely 
freesei^ and a fall of snow is almoftt unknown. The medium 



temperature in winter is from 36^ to 39° Fahrenheit ; that 
of spring and autumn from 59^ to 64^ and that of aummer 
).Vom 81^ to 86°; the average number of days in the year 
in which rain falls is 100. The east and west winds pre- 
dominate ; the latter brings cold and rain. Tempests are 
frequent and violent. Catarrhal and rheumatic disordera 
and remittent fevers are common ; goitres and diseaaea of 
the eyes are frequent in the mountainous countr)', especially 
on the banks of the Garonne. 

The soil is thus divided :— mountains, 125.957 acree; 
hea^ and moors, 81,502; rich loamy soil, 7,409; ralca- 
reous, 354,384; gravelly, 185,231; rocky or stony, 111,134; 
sandy, 338,355 ; clayey, 271,672; various, 152,033: total* 
1,527,681 acres. 

In the mountainous tracts it is only by dint of industry 
that any returns can be procured by the farmer. The mo>t 
fertile localities are the neighbourhood of Toulouse, the 
productiveness of which in com was noticed by Ca^^ar 
('Locis patentibus maximdque frumentariis :' De B, G,<, lih. 
i. 10) ; and of Rieux ; and other parts of the valley of the 
Garonne : at Rieux two harvests are obtained in the year. 
The soil, according to it^ occupation, is distributed as follows : 
arable, 870,383 acres; meadows, 97,893; vines, 120,790; 
woods, 215,214 ; orchards, gardens, and nurseries, 13,749 ; 
osier and willow plots. 96; various, 7.84 1 ; heatlis, commons, 
pastures, &c. 114,087; pools, ponds, ditches, 1.008; lakc?7», 
rivers, brooks, 11,551 ; forests, and non-productive occu- 
pations, 35,290; not accounted for, 39,779 : total, 1,527,6^1 
acres. 

The arable land is chiefly devoted to the cultivation 4>f 
wheat, maize, millet, r}'e, and other grains and pulse. The 
following is nearly the proportion in which the various 
kinds of grain are cultivated, taking as the basis of our cal- 
culation the otficial return of the quantity of land sown for 
the various crops in the year 1835. Wheat, 56*5 acres out 
of every 100 of arable;' maslin, 3*5; rye, 9*5; barley, I*; 
buckwheat, 1 '5 ; maize and millet, 21 ; oats, 3 ; peas, beans, 
and other pulse. 3*5 ; potatoes, &c. '5. 

The quantity of wine grown in the department is consi- 
derable, though far from equal to what is grown in many 
other departments. The uplands and the \'alleys furuiaih 
abundance of excellent pasture; the mouutains abound 
with wood, suited fur ship-building. 

Many oxen are bred in the extensive pastures of this il<*- 
partment; also many asses and mules, which are mu'-h 
sought after by the Spaniards. There are sheep and awine ; 
the poultry are good, especially that of lle-en-Uodon. Tlie 
geese and ducks are of great size; numbers of them are 
salted : the duck's-liver pies of Toulouse are highly c^ 
teemed by epicures. The care of bees and of siTkwunii* 
appears to have been long declining. Game and wild ani- 
mals are plentiful. In the mountains there are the wild 
boar, the roe-buck, the wolf, the fox, and other beasts ; the 
heath-cock, and different varieties of the eagle. The par- 
tridge, the ortolan, and the quail, are taken in abundance 
in the plains. The rivers and lakes abound with fish ; the 
lakes contain excellent trout. 

Divisions, Towns, 4*c>— This department is composed uf 
portions of Languedoc and of Gascogne rGa*«cony) : Le Tou- 
lousain. or county of Toulouse (comprehending the dioceses 
of Toulouse and Rieux), a small part of the district of Le 
Lauraguais in Languedoc ; and portions of the districts 
of Comminges. and^of Couserans, and of Nebouzan. L(*i 
Quatre Vall6es. Lomagne. Riviere. Verdun, and the couuiy 
of lie Jourdain, subdivisions of Armagnac in Gascogne. are 
comprehended within it 

It is subdivided into four arrondissements, as fbllowsi: — 



Cfipilal. 


Populati 


•m in 


SitiuiUoD. aici, and popalnttoD orarr««n<)HL 




1831. 


1^36. 


jiq. roilea. 1831. 


IK-^ 


TouUaM. 


b'J,fM 


7';.3ra 


N. 612 139.987 


r.». t.i 


Villefratich*. 


a.sds 


8.765 


E. 339-5 61.S51 


f:i .". 


Muret. 


3,7fl7 


a.97U 


CcBlrnl Sc W 604 H'.JUl 


h« ^H 


8(. GaufUns, 


6,179 


6,030 


s aads.w. mss VJQsey 


Ul,Mi 



S3W* 427.*«6 4S:.7 

The department conmprehends 39 cantons and i>00 com* 
munes. 

In the arrondissemcnt of Toulouse, besides the capital 
[louLOUss], there are Grenade (population, 2670 to'^n. 
424U commune), a neat town on the Garonne; Villeu'ir 
(pop. 3166 town, C0G3 commune), an ill-built town; Bi-^- 
sidres and Buzet, all on the Tarn ; Castanet, near the Canal 
du Midi ; Castelnau, on the road firom Paria to Toulousv ; 
Fronton, Montastruc, Verfeil, and Lavignac. 



GAR 



82 



GAR 



owti expression, * a wet blanket ' over bim. In the same 
year he was put into the commission of the peace. 

At Christmas, 177B, while on a visit to Lord Spenoer, at 
AUhorpe, he had a severe fit, from which he only recovered 
suHiciently to enable him to return to town, and expired 
January 20th, 1779, at his own house in the Adolphi. 
having nearly .completed his 63rd year. He was buried 
with great pomp in Westminster Abbey on the Ist of 
February. 

As an actor Mr. GarricVs merits may be considered as 
summed up in the forcible words of Pope to lord Orrery on 
witnessing the performance of Richard — ' That young man 
never baa his equal as an actor, and will never have a 
ri\'al.* As yet the prophecv is unshaken. Garrick was an 
excellent husband, a kind master, and a matchless com- 
panion. The charge of avarice so frequently made against 
nim is disproved by a careful examination of his life. His 
latest biographer justly sajrs, ' He loved al^uence for its in- 
dependence, and the power it bestowed of obliging the 
great and relieving the humble.* He was one of the most 
a<*complished men of his day, and although his literary 
reputation is merged in the splendour of his nistrionic fame, 
his rank as a writer of prologues and epilogues, and in the 
lighter kinds of verse, must be generally acknowledged 
as considerable. His alterations and adaptations of popular 
English and French plays were numerous and successful, 
and with the addition of his original contributions to the 
drama, exceed forty. The best known to the present 
generation of play-goers is the farce of • The Lying Valet,' 
and the comedy of ' The Clandestine Marriage,' of which 
latter he was joint author with the elder Colman. 

Mrs. Garrick survived her husband forty>three years, and 
expired suddenly in her chair after a short indisposition, at 
her house in the Adelphi, on the 16th of October, 1822, in 
the ninety-eighth year of her age, having retained her facul- 
ties to the last. She was btiried October 25tb, in the same 
grave with her husband, near the cenotaph of Shakspeare. 

Garrick*s private correspondence, with a new biogra- 
phical memoir, was published in two volumes, 4to., London, 
1831. 

GARROW HILLS. [Hindustan.] 

GA'RRULUS. [CoRViDJB, vol. viii., p. 69.] 

GARRY A'CEiS, a very small natiural order of Exogens 
with the habit of a Viburnum and apetalous unisexual 
flowers, succeeded by succulent fruit, disposed in catkin- 
like racemes. One species only is known, the Garrya 
elliptica, figured and described in the ' Botanical Register,' 
vol. 20, plate 1686. 

GARTER, ORDER OF THE, one of the most ancient 
and illustrious of the military orders of knighthood in Eu- 
rope, was founded by King Edward lU. The precise year 
of its institution has been disputed, though all authorities 
agree that it was established at Windsor after the celebra- 
tion of a tournament Walsingbam and Fabyan give 1344 
as its date ; Stowe, who. according to Ashmole, is corrobo- 
rated by the statutes of the Order says 1350. The precise 
cause of the origin or formation of the Order is likewise not 
distinctly known. The common story respecting the fall 
of the Countess of Salisbury's garter at a ball, which was 
picked up by the king, and his retort to those who smiled at 
the action, Honi soit qui mal y pense, which afterwards be- 
came the motto of the order, is not entirely given up as 
fable. A tradition certainly obtained as far back as the time 
of Henry VI. that this Oitler received its origin from the 
fair sex. Ashmole*s opinion was, that the Garter was se- 
.ectcd at once as a symbol of union and a compUment to 
the ladies. 

This Order was founded in honour of the Holy Trinity, 
the Virgin Mary, St. George, and St. Edward the Confessor. 
St. GeorgCt who had become the tutelary saint of England, 
was considered as its especial patron and protector. It was 
original I V composed of twenty-five knights, and the sove- 
reign (who nominates the other knights), twenty-six in all. 
This number received no alteration till the reign of 
Geor{;e lU., when it was directed that princes of the royal 
family and illustrious foreigners on whom the honour might* 
be conferred should not be included. The number of these 
extra-knights was fourteen in 1834. The military knights 
of Windsor are also considered as an adjunct of the Order 
of the Garter. 

The otilcers of the Order are a prelate, who is always the 
bishop of Winchester ; a chancellor, who till 1837 was the 
bishoD of Salisbury, but is now the bishop of Oxford, in con- 



sequence of Berkshire, and of course Windsor, being tran<* 
ferred to that diocese; a registrar, who is the dean (.>• 
Windsor ; garter principal king-at-arms of the Order ; and a 
gentleman usher of the black rod. The chapter ought t.> 
meet every year on St George^s day (April 23rd), in St« 
George's chapel, Windsor, where the installations of the 
Order are held, and in which the bannen of the several 
kniehts are suspended. 

The original dress of the Knights of the Garter was a 
mantle, tunic, and capuchin or hood, of {be &shion of the 
time, all of blue doth; those of the knights compani<'i.«, 
differing only from the sovereign's bv the tunic being lineal 
with miniver instead of ermine. All the three garments 
were embroidered with garters of blue and gold, tl^ mantle 
having one larger thansul the rest on the left shoulder. The 
dress underwent various changes. Henry VHI. remodolU'<i 
both it and the statutes of the Order, and gave the knights 
the collar, and the greater and leaser George, as at pretwit 
worn. The last alteration in the dress took place in the* 
reign of Charles II. : the principal parts of it consist of a 
mantle of dark blue velvet, with a hood of crimson velvet ; 
a cap or hat with an ostrich and heron plume ; the stocking 4 
are of white silk, and the garter, which is of dark blue vel- 
vet, having the motto embroidered in gold letters, is worn 
under the left knee. The badge is a gold medallion repre- 
senting St. George and the dragon, which ia worn sus- 
pended by a blue ribbon ; hence itj is a form of speech to 
say, when an individual has been appointed a knight of the 
garter, that he has received the blue ribbon. There is als«> 
a star worn on the left breast. The fashion of wearing the 
blue ribbon suspended from the left shoulder was adoptcl 
in the latter part of the reign of Charles II. 

It is not generally known, that from the first institution 
of the Order of the Garter to at least as late as the reign of 
Edward IV., ladies were admitted to a participation in the 
honours of the fraternity. The queen, someof^the knights- 
companions* wives, and other great ladies, bad robe& ojkI 
hoods of the gift of the sovereign, the former garnished \i ii h 
little embroidered garters. Tne ensign of Uie garter wu* 
also delivered to them, and they were expressly termed 
Dames de la fratemiie de SL George. The splendid ap- 
pearance of Queen Philippa at the first grand feast of tlu 
Order is noticed by Froissart Two monuments also arc 
still existing which bear figures of ladies wearing the frar- 
ter ; the Duchess of Sufiblk's, at Ewelme, in Oxibrdshin*. 
of the time of Henry VI., represents her wearing it on thu 
wrist, in the manner of a bracelet ; Lady Harcourt, at St.*in- 
ton Harcourt, in Oxfordshire, of the time of Edward IV., 
wears the garter on her left arm. 

Ashmole, writing on the habit and ensigns of the Order 
(Htet. qfihe Order of the Garter, fol. Lend. 1672, p. 21»». 
says, ' After a long disuse of these robes bv the queens of 
England and knights-companions* ladies, there was at the 
feast of St George, celebrated an. 14 Cha. I., endeavour 
used to have them restored ; for the then deputy* chancellor 
moved the sovereign in chapter (held the 22nd May), that 
the ladies of the knights-coinpanions might have the ph\ i- 
lege to wear a garter of the Order about (heir arms, and an 
upper robe, at festival times, according to ancient usage, 
u pon which motion the sovereign gave order that the queen 
should be acquainted therewith and her pleasure known, 
and the affair left to the ladies* particular suit The luth 
of October in the following year (1639), the feast of St 
George being then also kept at Windsor, the deputy-chan- 
cellor reported to the sovereign in chapter the answer which 
the queen was pleased to give him to the aforesaid ordtT, 
whereupon it was then left to a chapter to be called by t.io 
knights-companions to consider of every circumstance, h j«» 
it were fittest to be done for the honour of the Order, which 
was appointed to be held at London about Alhollantide afier : 
but what was then or after done doth not appear ; and the 
unhappy war coming on, this matter wholly slept* 

When Queen Anne attended the thanksgiving at St 
Paul's in 1 702, and again in 1 704, she wore Uie garter K't 
with diamonds, as sovereign of the Order, tied round her 
left arm. 

GARTH, SAMUEL, eminent as a physician and a wit 
during the reigns of William UL and Ajane, was descended 
of a good Yorkshire family, received his academical educa- 
tion at Peterhouse, Cambridge, and graduated as M.D. in 
1691. Having settled in London, he rendered himself di>- 
tinguished by his conversational powers, whieh recom- 
mended and set off his professional akillt and sooft aoqttirad 



GAS 



84 



GAS 



There are some other properties which |^a«es possess in 
common, though they vary in dopi'ee. There is however 
one circumstance in which they all agree, whether they are 
elementary or compound, and whatever may be the differ- 
ence of their specific gravity: — they arc subject to suffer the 
same increase of volume, when subjected to the same in- 
crease of temperature. 

According to Dalton, when 100 volumes of air are heated 
from 32** to 2l2^ they become 132*5 volumes; by Gay- 
Lussac's experiments they increase to 137*5 volumes; by 
Cricfaton*s to 137*48: the expansion therefore of each vo- 
lume, according to Dalton is ^ to Gay-Lussac ,{9, and to 
Crichton ^Jl,,^, for one degree of Fahrenheit's thermometer. 

The discovery of this law has supplied chemists with a 
simple rule for determining what the known bulk of a gas 
at any temperature will be at any other temperature. Sup- 
pose, for example, it is desired to know what the bulk of 
1 00 cubic inches of air at 32"* will be at 60° : subtract 32 
from 480, the remainder is 448 ; to which add the degrees 
above zero indicating the temperature of the air, these are 
32'' and 60^ making 4H0 and 508. Then say 480 : 508 : : 
100 : 105-832, the volume of the air at 60^ 

It is well known that air suffers diminution of volume in 
proportion to the pressure to which it is subjected, and the 
Rame law holds ^ood with all the more incondensible gases. 
In chemical analyses it is often requisite to make corrections 
for variations of barometric pressure, as well as of tempera- 
ture in estimating the quantity of gaseous products. The 
following ai*e the rules for this purpose, given by Professor 
Faraday in his wurk on Chemical Manipulation :— ' A pres- 
sure of 30 inches of mercury, as observed by an accurate 
barometer, has been assumed as the mean height or baro- 
metric pressure, and volumes of goa ob*er\ed at any other 
pressure frequently require to be corrected to what they 
would be at thi^ point. Kor this purpose it is only necessary 
to compare the observed height with the mean height, or 
30 inches, and increase or diminish the obser>'ed volume 
inversely in the same proportion. Thus, as the mean height 
of the barometer is to Uie observed height, so is the observed 
volume to the volume required. As an instance, suppose 
that 100 cubic inches of gas have been observed when the 
barometer stood at 30* 7 inches : then, as 30 inches, or mean 
height, is to 30*7 inches, or observed height, so is 100, or 
the observed volume to a fourth proportional, obtained by 
multiplying the second and third terms, and dividing by 
the first: thus, 30*7 X 100 = 3070. which divided by 30 = 
102*333 cubic inches ; this would be the volume of the gas 
at 30 inches of barometric pressure. Again, suppose a 
quantity of gas amounting to 20 cubic inches standing over 
mercury in a jar, the level of the metal within being 3 
inches above that without, and the barometer at 29*4 
inches. Then the column of 3 inches mercury within the 
jar, counterbalancing 3 inches of barometric pressure, in- 
stead of being 29 ' 4, the latter is effectively only 26 ' 4, and 
the correction will be, as 30 inches is to 26*4 mchcs, so is 
the 20 cubic inches observed to 17*6 cubic inches, the vo- 
lume which the gas would really occupy if the mercury 
were level within and without the jar, and the barometer 
were 30 inches.' 

It is very commonly requisite to make corrections both 
for temperature and pressure in the same volume of gas, 
and it is of no consequence which is made first. 

In chemical analyses various other considerations arise in 
ascertaining the quantities of gaseous products ; aa for ex- 
ample, the separation of or making the requisite allowances 
for the moisture which they contain : for these, as well aa 
for the various modes of collecting, transferring, and pre- 
serving varioug fi;ases, we must refer to the very excellent 
work just Quoted. 

The soluDility of gases in water is extremely various. Dr. 
Henry ascertained that the volume of each gas absorbed by 
water is the same, whatever be the pressure to which the 
gas is previously subjected. If the weight of carbonic acid 
gas be doubled by subjecting it to the pressure of two at- 
mospheres, water will still absorb its own volume of it. The 
following table exhibits the volumes of each gas absorbed 
by 100 volumes of water, supposing the temperature and 
pressure to be the same in all cases : — 

Ab«orptk>n la Volumn. 

Cyanogen • . 450 . 

Sulphuretted hydrogen 366*6 
Chlorine . « 200 

Carbonic acid • .106 • 



Authority. 

Gay-Lussac 

Thomson 

Berthollet 

Cavendish 



Abwrplioii in VolamM* 

Nitrous oxide *• • 76 • 

Olefiant gas . • 15*3 • 

Phosphuretted hydrogen 5 • 

Nitric oxide . • 3*7 • 

Oxygen . . 3*7 • 

Carburetted hydrogen • 3*7 • 

Azote . • • 2*5 • 

Carbonic oxide • 2' 01 • 

Hydrogen . • 2 . 



Atttboftfy* 

Saussure 

Saus^uro 

Thomson 

Dalton 

Henry 

Dalton 

Dalton 

Henry 

Dalton 



It may be observed, that in general the more easily a gas 
is condensable b^ cold and pressure, the more soluble it u 
in water: this will appear by comparing the above state- 
ments with that containing the pressure at which Faraday 
liquefied various gases. 

A curious property of gases, and possessed by them in 
very different degrees, is that of their condensation by 

Sorous bodies, and especially by charcoal. Accord ing^ lo 
iaussure, one volume of charcoal, made red-hot, r<>o]<-d 
under mercury, and exposed to the under-mentioned gaso-s 
absorbed the volumes annexed; the absorption was cutn- 

gleted in twenty-four hours, and when the charcoal whK li 
ad been saturated with one gas was removed to another, a 
portion of the first was expelled, and replaced by a portion 
of the second : — 



Ammonia 


. 90 


Olefiant gas . 35 


Hydrochloric acid 


. 85 


Oxide of carbon . 9 ' 1 J 


Sulnhurous acid 
Hyarosulphuric acid 


. 65 


Oxygen . . O'jj 


. 55 


Azote . 7 * 60 


Nitrous oxide . 


40 


Carburetted hydrogen 5 


Carbonic acid 


35 


Hydrogen . . 1 * 7 j 



It is extremely probable that different kinds of charcoal 
absorb different portions of the same gas ; for it was found 
by Messrs. Allen and Pepys, that they absorbed very dif- 
ferent quantities, chiefly o^ moisture, by exposure to the 
air. 

A curious fact with respect to mixtures of gases was di^ 
covered by Dr. Priestley, which he thus states : — * Different 
kinds of air that have no affinity do not, when mixed to- 
gether, separate spontaneously, but continue diffused through 
each other.' This he proved to be the case by several 
experiments; and more especiallv by one, in which he 
found that he was able to explode hydrogen and oxvgen 
gases, which had long remained together, and which be 
justly argues must have been mixeo, or he could not have 
fired them by an electric spark, in a vessel, the wires of which 
were at the top. He adduces this experiment to illustrate 
the fact that toe gases which constitute the atmosphere do 
not separate according to their respective gravities, though 
they do not combine. (Priestley's Ejrperimenis, &c., vol. > l 
p. 391.) 

These experiments were repeated by Dr. Dalton, and he 
inferred from them that the particles of one gas. though 
repulsive to each other, do not repel those of a different 
kind ; and that one gas acts as a vacuum with respect (o 
another. If therefore a vessel full of carbonic acid be mide 
to communicate with another of hydrogen, the particle^ of 
each gas insinuate themselves between the particles of ca^h 
other till they are equally diffused through both vesself. 
This theory accounts not only for the mixture of gases, but 
for the equable diffusion of vapours through gases and 
through each other. 

Another observation made by Dr. Priestley, and related 
with others of a similar kind (American PhiL Trtjms. 
vol. v.), appears to have been entirely overlooked. He 
found that though a glass vessel was perfectly air-tight, yet 
if it had been broken, and the pieces joined with paint or ce- 
ment, hvdrogen gas contained in it would be changed for the 
external air. I)obereiner has since remarked the escape of 
hydrogen gas by a fissure or crack in glass receivers. Pro- 
fessor Graham, in an elaborate paper on this subject, has 
shown that gases diffuse mto atmospheric air and inio each 
other, with different degrees of ease and rapidity, the lighter 
ones escaping most readily, so much indeed, that hydrogen 
escapes five times more quickly than carbonic acid gas, 
which is about 22 times heavier. 

To Dr. Priestley also we are indebted for the important 
discoverv that gases can pass through membranes which 
are perfectly air-tight, and bv this action he explained that 
of the atmosphere upon the blood in the lungs. In thr 
memoir above alluded to he has also shown, that when a 
bladder containing hydrogen is pat into a vessel of oxygen. 



GAS 



86 



GAS 



being fired,* saye the account, ' it has now been burning two 
jean and nine months, without any sign of decrca)$e.* Large 
oladders were filled in a few seconds from the end of the 
tube, and carried away by persons, who fitted little pipes to 
them and burned the gas at their own convenience. We 
do not learn what became of this copious supply ; it pro- 
bably diminished as the coal-bed was exhausted. 

Soon after the middle of the last centurv Dr. Watson made 
many experiments on coal gas, which he details in his ' Che- 
mical Essays:' he distilled the coal, passed the gas through 
water, oonveyed it through pipes from one place to another, 
and did so much that we are only surprised he did not in- 
troduce it into general use. 

But although the pronerties of coal gas were known to so 
many persons, no one thought of applying it to a useful 
object until the year 1 792, when Mr. Murdoch, an engineer, 
residing at Redruth in Cornwall, erected a little gasometer 
and apparatus, which produced eas enough to light his own 
house and offices. Mr. Murdocn appears to have had no 
imitators, but he was not discouraged, and in 1797 he 
erected a similar apparatus in Ayrshire, where he then re- 
sided. In the following year he was engaged to put up a 
fas-work at the manufactory of Boulton and Watt, at Sono. 
his was the first application of gas in the large way ; but, 
excepting in manufactories or among scientific men, it ex- 
cited little attention until the year 1 802, when the front of the 
great Soho manufactory was brilliantly illuminated with it 
on the occasion of the public rejoicings at the peace. Ac- 
customed as we are to the common use of gas, we cannot 
even now but be struck with such a display on a large 
scale : but tlie superiority of the new light over the dingy 
oil lamps used at that day, when thus brought into public 
view, produced an astonishing effect. All Birmingham 
poured forth to view the spectacle, and strangers carried to 
every part of the country an account of what they had seen. 
It was spread about everywhere by the newspapers, easy 
modes of making gas were described, and coal was distilled in 
tobacco-pipes at the fire-side all over the kingdom. Soon 
after this several manufacturers, whose works required light 
and heat, adopted the use of gas : a button manufactory at 
Birmingham used it largely for soldering ; Halifax, Man- 
chester, and other towns followed. A single cotton-mill in 
Manchester used above 900 burners, and had several miles 
of pipe laid down to supply them ; the quantity made aver- 
aged 1250 cubic feet per hour, producing a light equal to 
that of 2600 candles. Mr. Murdoch, who erected the appa- 
ratus used in this mill, sent a detailed account of his opera- 
tions to the Royal Society in 180b, for which he received 
their gold medal. 

But although the use of gas was thus spreading in the 
manufacturing towns, it made little progress in London. 
This may bo accounted fjr, in some measure, by the cir- 
cumstance that no means had as yot been found out for 
purifying it. It was dirty, it had a disagreeable smell, and 
it caused headache when used in close rooms, besides spoil- 
ing delicate furniture. This was of little consequence in a 
manufactory, where there is generally ventilation enough 
to carry off unpleasant vapours, and rarely very delicate 
organs or fiue furniture to suffer from their influence. But 
these defects were fatal to its general introduction in 
London, and until they could be removed there was small 
hope of success; though attempts were made, lectures 
delivered, and a number of interesting experiments made 
by a Gertnan named Winsor, whose perseverance and san- 
guine temper were very cfiicieut in making the matter 
known to the public. But Winsor was deficient in chemical 
knowled;re and mechanical skill, while he largely overrated 
the powers of the new instrument which he was zealously 
endeavouring to introduce. He took out a patent in 1804 : 
and issued a Ihiming prospectus of a National Light and 
Heat Company, promising to subscribers of 5/. a fortune of 
at lea.->t 57U/. per annum, with a prospect of ten times as 
much. A sub>^criptiun was soon raised, it is said, of jO,000/. 
which was allex)iended in experiments without profit to the 
subscribers. Winsor however gained experience, and is 
said, we know not how truly, to have introduced the im- 
portant measure of purifying gas by lime. In 1607 he 
lighted up Pull Mall, which continued for some years to be 
the only street in London in which gas was used. In 1809 
the National Light and Heat Company applied to Parlia- 
ment for a charter, but they were opposed by Mr. Murdoch 
un the score of prior discovery, and the charter was rehised. 
It was however granted on a subsequent application, and 



the operations of the company became more extensiTe. But 
their profits had not yet begun, and increase of business n a % 
only increase of expense. The subscribers began to bo 
alarmed at the exhaustion of their funds, and cafied loudly 
for a change in the management of their affairs. This w as 
conceded, and the superintendence of their works was en- 
trusted to Mr. Clegg, who had been for some years engaireU 
in the erection of gas apparatus in Birmingham. Affairs 
now began to wear a better face; other parts of London 
applied for light, and new stations were erected. The busi- 
ness of the company steadily increased, and in the }var 
1823, in the course of a parliamentary investigation, it was 
shown that this company alone consumed annually 20,6 7 *< 
chaldrons of coals, which produced on an average 680. Ot U 
cubic feet of gas every night ; this was distributed by means 
of 122 miles of pipe, which supplied more than 30,0 «-o 
burners, giving a light equal to as many uounds of tailo\/ 
candles. The other companies then established made alt o- 
gether about the same quantity; and such has been tlio 
increase of gas-lighting since that time, that at one of their 
stations only, the chartered company are now makin.: 
1.200,000 cubic feet every twenty-four hours, and averauo 
about a million all the year round. We believe it mav be 
asserted, that every street and alley in London is nowlightcl 
with gas, and the consumption of the metropolis may l»e 
stated at eight millions and a half of cubic feet e^'ery twen t} - 
four hours. 

The great success which attended gas-light in Lon<Inn 
has extended itself throughout Great Britain. Every lar%re 
town has long had gas; the smdier towns have follow cvl. 
and there is now scarcely a place in the kingdom without 
it. The continental nations have slowly followed our ex- 
ample ; Paris for some years, and more recently the tow us 
of Lyon, Marseille, Bordeaux, Nantes, Caen, Boulogne. 
Amiens, and several others, have adopted it. It is in u*-e 
in many parts of Germany and Belgmm, and St. Peterj.- 
burg has a small establishment, which is rapidly increasing 
under the superintendence of a gentleman from one of tiio 
London works. The larger towns in the United Stntts 
also burn gas; and even in the remote colony of New 
South Wales, the town of Sydney has introduced this % a- 
luable invention, which we have no doubt will be found 
there, as it has been in London, as useful in preventing 
nocturnal outrage as an army of watchmen. 

It will not be necessary to say much abont oil gas: the 
light it produces is, it is true, much greater than that gi> en 
out by an equal quantity of coal gas; but although it wai 
introduced with success in some places where coal was dear, 
it has always yielded to coal wherever the two came iiu.i 
competition. The process of manufacture is exceediiiL-iv 
simple, and the machinery is much cheaper. But the v.^^t 
of the od itself is the great objection, ana we fear it will !•«• 
found insuperable. Oil gas was for some time renden-l 
portable; it was forced into strong vessels with a po>\t-r 
cqual to 450 lbs. upon the square inch, and, thus confin..<i, 
could be carried about and placed upon a table. As eacl) 
vessel contained about thirty times as much compressed |!:i^ 
as it would hold in its natural state, one of the capaciiv of 
a quarter of a foot would give light for several hours iBut 
even such a size as this was very clumsy, and the process 
seems to be declining. 

Some other substances have been proposed for c>l^- 
making, such as rosin, wood, and peat. Kosin has iMtn 
tried at more than one establishment, but it has not bi* u 
found to produce a gas much better than coal gas, while ;i c 
cost is much greater. An American, some years ago, ttKik. 
out a patent for making gas from cotton seeds, which aie. 
it appears, of very little value in America ; but whether ur 
not he has reaped any advantage from the suggestion, \«v^ 
are not informed. The superior cheapness of coal, in tbu>c 
places where it can be procured, will probably always put 
It above any other material that could be proposed fur il^- 
manufacture of gas. 

Afanv/acture.^Although in the large way there are many 
practical difficulties to be surmount^ in the manufaciui'- 
of coal gas, the operation is easily understood; it is menli 
a process of distillation. A quantity of ooal is put itit 1 1 
retort, which is well closed^ and placed upon the firv ; the 
temperature is raised to redness, which decomposes tli.< 
coaL and drives the gas resulting from the decumpu»iti- :. 
through a pipe leading from the retort to the receptacle pr.- 
pared for it. Amassof coke remains, of greater bulk, thou., i 
less weight, than the coal first put in. Thisookemustbetaicu 



GAS 



8S 



CAS 



thtf last purifying vessel, and to put a card dipped in the 
solution in ftont of the small stream of gas which then 
issues out If l-20,000th part only of the bulk of gas 
should be sulphuretted hvdrogen, it will produce a brown 
spot on the card; and as the whole of the gas, after under- 
going this scrutiny, passes through the Inst purifier, it may 
now be considered quite pure. When the card shows any 
impurity, the fresh cream is admitted more freely, and the 
spoiled lime drawn away from the lowest vessel. This stuff, 
which has a nauseous smell, used to be allowed to run to 
waste, to the great annoyance of the public ; but it is now 
usually dried, and employed as cement to lute the covers 
to the retorts. 

In the mant^acture of oil gai all the processes of filling 
and emptying retorts, condensing, and purifying, are 
avoided. It is only necessary to project a small stream of 
oil into a red-hot retort, in which pieces of brick or coke 
are inclosed ; the gas immediately passes off through ano- 
ther pipe, and may be at once received into the gasometer. 
The only purification necessary, if it can be called so, is to 
allow the gas to pass through some cool vessel, which may 
receive any undecomposed oil that may have been carried 
off, to prevent its being wasted in the gasometer. 




y^ 



T© 



A 



Ir^ 



U 



The gasometer a is a very large cylindrical vessel from 
30 to 60 leet in diameter, closed at the top and open at 
bottom; it is suspended by a rope and weight e in a 
tank filled with water, in which it rises and falls freely, be- 
ing kept in its place by the guide-wheels //. Two tubes 
cc pass under and through the water, reaching above its 
surface into the hollow of the gasometer ; one of them comes 
from the purifiers to admit the gas into the gasometer, the 
other carries it off when wanted for use. The action of this 
part of the apparatus is simple ; in the figure the gasometer 
is near the top of the water, and full of gas, which has no 
communication with the air, because the edge of the gaso- 
meter is under water. If now it be pressed downwards* 
which is effected by lessening the weight e, the gas will be 
forced through the pipe which is to convey the gas out, and 
which must oe left open for the purpose. When the gaso- 
meter reaches the bottom it will be full of water, and ready 
to receive gas again, which is admitted through the other 
tube ; the gasometer then rises to the top as the gas goes in, 
and may be pressed down again. In this way it is alter- 
nately filled and emptied. In most establi^thments there 
aro many gasometers, some filling, and others emptying. As 
it is a most unwieldy part of the apparatus, and takes up an 
enormous deal of room, many attempts have been made to 
lessen its bulk. The only contrivance which has succeeded 
in diminishing the inconvenience is termed the telescooe 
gaiometer, which has recently been adopted in several of the 
metropolitan esUblishmento. In this plan, two gasometers, 
one inside the other, are placed in a single tank ; they are 
ahown in the figure as when drawn up and full of gas, but 
without any of the necessary appendages. When the gas is 
let in, the smaller gasometer rises first, and when it reaches 
the top of the water, its lower riin, which is turned up, and 
full of^water, catches the upper rim of the larger gasometer, 
which is turned down over it ; the two then become one, 
and the water which runs round the rim prevents the gas 
from getting out between them. This gasometer is not in 
reality less bulkv than the old one, but as the increased 
apace it Ukes up is in height, and not breadth, nearly one 
balf of tho trot » faTed; aad th«ce leema to bo no roMOO 



11 



til 



<t_. 



■t 



3) 



why three or more cylinders should not be placed in otie 
tank in a similar way. 

Many other contrivances are used before thegas iscarrii d 
to its destination: a meter, to measure it; a governor, to 
equalize the flow ; a pressure-gauge, to indicate the retii*<»t- 
ance offered to its passage; a tell-tale, to show the quantify 
manufactured during every hour: but the description of 
these would exceed our limits. 

The tubes which convey the gas are of course larger or 
smaller according to the number of burners which they sup- 
ply. The largest in use are about eighteen inches in dia- 
meter, the smallest about a quarter of an inclu A pipe of 
one inch in diameter is large enough to supply gas produc- 
ing a light equal to that of 100 mould candles, each con- 
suming 175 grains of tallow per hour; and the quantity 
supplied by larger tubes is more than nroportionably larf^r, 
a tour-inch pipe equalling 2000 canales, instead of 16O0. 
This augmentation arises from the diminished friction in 
large tubes. In laying the pipes caro is taken to place 
them sufficiently deep under the surface of the ground 
to be safe from injury by carriages rolling over, and tbvy 
are disposed in straight lines so far as is practic^able. Th<% 
are also laid in slightly inclined planes, and a vessel i» 
placed at the bottom of each descent to receive and carT\ 
off any deposition which would otherwise clog the pipe^. 
They are cast with a socket at one end, in which the smaller 
end of the adjoining pipe is inserted, and the two are joined 
by running lead between the joints, which is driven in hard 
by a punch. 

The burners are of many different forms, and each ha% its 
technical name. The argand burner is like the lamp of that 
name. The fan is a spreading semicircle of small jeta. The 
cock-spur, a head witn three jets only. The batswing ia a tbm 
sheet of gas produced by its passing through a fine aaw-cut 
in a hollow globe. The argand and the batswing are said to 
give the best light with a given quantity of gaa, but this 
seems to be very uncertain. 

The gas is turned off from the burners by a stop-cock, 
and some curious inventions have been produced to make 
the stop-cock close of itself by the cooling of the burner 
when the light is firom any cause extinguished. A patent 
has recently been taken out for a stop-cock which appears 
less likely to get out of order than those commonly used. 
In this invention the gas is stopped off by a piece of leather 
which is pressed against a portion of the tube where the gas 
passes, by means of a brass screw wording in a hole at the 
side of the tube. The gas does not come in contact with 
the brass-work, so that no corrosion takes place, and a fre- 
quent cause of escape is thereby obviated. 

Experiment has shown that every burner should have tts 
fhll supply of gas, as a greater light wiU thus be obtained 
without a proportionate increase of consumption. The ex- 
periment was tried with an argand burner of tbree-quartei^ 
of an inch in diameter ; a sufficient quantitv of gas was turned 
on to give a light equal to that of a mould candle ; the con- 
sumption in tbis case was a foot and a half per hour. Tlio 
light was then increased until it equalled four candles, bu t 
notwithstanding the light was quadrupled, Uie consumption 
of eas was not even doubled ; it was only two feet per ho..r. 
or half a foot per candle ; while in the first trial, the light ot 
one candle consumed a foot and a half, or three times as 
much. The Ibllowing statement shows the result of the 
whole experiment, which was continued aa long as the 
bunMioonsumediil the gas that WM admitted; waentbat 



GAS 



90 



GAS 



th« cathedral of Disise, wbere be was admitted to the de- 
gree of doctor in amnity, and appointed prevOt of the 
church. This new situation, which enabled nim to Tacate 
the chair at Aix, allowed to Gassendi the undisturbed dis- 
position of his time, which he devoted to the diligent prose- 
cution and advancement of astronomv and anatomy, and to 
the study of classical literature, ana of the works of the 
ancient philosophers. As the result of his anatomical 
researches, he composed a treatise to prove that man was 
intended to live upon vegetables, and tnat animal food, as 
contrary to the human constitution, is baneful and un- 
wholesome. In 1629 a second volume of his ' Exercitationes* 
appeared, tiie object of which was to expose the futility of 
the Aristotelian scholastic log;ic. At the same time five 
more volumes, in ftirther consideration of the same subject, 
were announced ; but in consequence of the bitter hostility 
which his attacks upon the favorite system had awakened 
in its advocates^ Gassendi deemed it prudent to abandon 
the design. 

In 1628 Gassendi visited Holland with a view to gain and 
to cultivate an acquaintance with the philosophers of that 
country. During liis residence there ne composed, at the 
instance of his friend Mersenne, the work entitled ' Examen 
Philosophicum Rob*** Fludd,* in answer to the dissertation 
of our countryman on the subject of the Mosaic philosophy. 
Upon his return to Digne, Gassendi applied himself with 
great diligence to astronomical studies, for which his fond- 
ness had grown with his years, and he had the good fortune, 
on the 7th November, 1631, to be the first to observe a 
transit of the planet Mercury over the sun's disc which had 
been previously calculated by Kepler. 

In the year 1641, being called to Paris by a law-suit 
arising out of the affairs oi the chapter, his amiable dispo- 
sition and brilliaut talents obtained for Gassendi the regard 
and esteem of the most distinguished persons of the metro- 
polis of France, and the friendship of the Cardinal Richelieu 
and of bis brother the Cardinal du Plessis, archbishop of 
Lyon. At this period Des Cartes, with whom Gassendi had 
loDg maintained a close and friendly intercourse, was work- 
ing a reform in philosop{iv, and by the publication of his 
' Meditationes* had openai for it a new and more useful 
career. In this work however Gassendi discovered much 
that was objectionable, and forthwith attacked the philoso- 

Khical system of his friend in a work entitled ' Disquisitio 
Ietapbysica« seu Dubitationes ad Meditationcs Cartesii,' 
which was put into the hands of Des Cartes by their mutual 
friend Mersenne. Des Cartes wrote an answer, which he 
published together with the ' Doubts,* under the head, 
' Sixth Objection to the Meditations.' In 1643 Gassendi 
imposed the * Instantise ' in reply, and circulated them in 
lis. in Paris before he sent tliem to M. Sorbicro to be 
printed at Amsterdam. The latter circumstance tended to 
confirm and widen the difference which, in the course of the 
controversy, had grown up between the two friends, who 
however entertained a sincere respect for each other, and 
were eventually reconciled by the kindly offices of a com- 
mon friend, the Abb£ d'Estr^s. Baillet, the biographer of 
Des Cartes, ascribes the publication of the 'Doubts' to 
secret jealousy of the growing fame of the author of the 
Meditations, and to chagrin on the part of Gassendi at the 
omission in Des Cartes's Treatise of Meteors of his Disserta- 
tion upon the singular phenomenon of two parhelia which 
had been observ^ at Rome. But the mind of Gassendi 
seems to have been superior to the influence of such paltry 
motives, and the origin of the work in question may more 
juNily be referred to the love of truth, which to Gassendi was 
dearer than friendship itself. Moreover, there was much 
in their respective characters that was calculated to lead to 
difference of opinion upon speculative matters. Carried 
away by a lively imagination, Des Cartes thought it suffici- 
ent to draw from his own mind and his individual consci- 
ousness the materials for constructing a new system of 
philusophv ; whereas Gassendi, a man of immense learning, 
and the oticlarad enemy of whatever had the appearance of 
novelty, was strongly biassed in favour of antiquity. Chi- 
msara for chimsra, he preferred that which had at least the 
prescription of 2000 years in its favour. From Democritus 
and Epicurus, whose opinions were above all others most 
ea<«ily reeoucileable with his own scientific information, 
Gas^ndi drew whatever was well-founded and rational in 
their system to form the basis of his own physiology. 
Uavioff restored the doctrine of Atoms and a Void with 
—<«h sught nodifleation that at most perhaps he did but 



lend to it a modem style and language, his phflosophy ha4 
the gloty of dividing with Des Du'tes the empire of the 
French philosophical world. 

In 1645 Gassendi was appointed profisssor of mathematics 
in the College Royal of Paris, upon the nomination and l-v 
the influence of Cardinal du Plessis. As this instituiion 
was intended principally for the advancement of astronomy, 
he read lectures upon that science to a crowded and dis- 
tinguished audience, by which he increased the reputa- 
tion he had previously acquired, and quickly became the 
focus of the literary activity of France, so fiir as it w^^ 
directed to his favourite sciences of mathematics and as- 
tronomy. 

But the intensity of his studies had undermined the con- 
stitution of Grassendi, and a severe cold having occasioned 
inflammation of the lungs, he was forced to retire to Dig no 
for the restoration of his health. In this retirement how- 
ever he was fkr from idle. In 1647 he published his prin- 
cipal work, 'De Vitil et Moribus Epicuri,' in whicfi be 
clears the character of this philosopher from the mist of 
prejudice with which it had been invested and unfairly 
handed down to posterity. The ' Syntagma Philosophic 
EpicuresB,* which followed in 1649, is an attempt to recon- 
struct the system of Epicurus out of the extant fragment n 
and to give a complete and connected exposition of liii 
theory. Notwithstanding the express refutation, whirh 
Crassendi subjoined, of the errors, both physical and moral, 
of this philosopher, and despite the purity of his own moral 
character and the exactitude of his religious obser>'anc«-9. 
the sincerity of ^his religious belief was doubted by thf >v.* 
who were constrained to admit the learning and critir:il 
acuteness which the work displayed; eventuallv howe\««r 
the injustice of the calumny redounded to the disgrace (»f 
his envious traducers. 

His native air having produced a eonsiderable ame- 
lioration in his strength, Gassendi was able to return t<i 
Paris in 1653, and the next year he published 'Tychoin^ 
Brahaei, Copernici, Peurbachii, &c. Vit®,' a work whicb 
was not confined to the biography of these great men, but 
also contained a brief sketch of antient and modern a&tri- 
nomy down to his own day. The resumption of his li lib- 
rary labours auickly brought on a return of his foraitT 
disorder, and ne died on the 14th October, 1655, in the 
sixty-third year of his age. His valuable collection uf 
books and his astronomit^al and philosophical appamtn^ 
were purchased by the Emperor Ferdinand III., ar.d 
deposited in the Imperial library at Vienna. 

Tho philosophical reserve and moderation of Gassen^li 
have led Bayle to designate him as a sceptic, which how- 
ever, to judee it least from his writings, is little in accord- 
ance with the spirit of his philosophy; for although ho 
often complains of the weakness of human reason, wlurh 
even in the sphere of physical investigations is constant! v 
at fault, and therefore admits the insufficiency of his o\\ fi 
discoveries to satisfy either himself or others, this circurn- 
stance, while it rendered him patient in controversy ami 
unwilling to enforce his own conclusions upon others, on;* 
proves at most that his dogmatism was not as one-sidt'-l 
and immoderate as that of other dogmatists, and that e\ t n 
while he insisted upon the possibility of establishing positi% c 
results, he was yet seeptical enough to doubt the final it v 
of his own positions. 

By the philosophical cast of his mind and the variety of 
his acquirements, as well as by the amiable moderation of 
his character, Grassendi was one of the brightest omam>.nts 
of his age. Bayle has justly styled him the greatest phi! - 
sopher among scholars, and the greatest scholar am.*!.^ 
philosophers. He may have been surpassed by some of !::« 
contemporaries in particular departments of inquiiy, as, f.»r 
instance, by Des Cartes, in the higher branches of nut he- 
matics, yet none came near to him in reach and universal!! \ 
of ganiuM. Varied as was his erudition, it did not oxir- 
power the clearness of his intellect, the too common rc«;Jt 
of great learning; on the contrary, his works are di>ti:i- 
guished for the perspicuous arrangement of the idc.», 
the justice of the reasoning, the acuteness of the m;.- 
cism, and the pre-eminent lucidness of the 6t>le an • 
diction. 

The works of Gassendi were collected bv Montmort nr. ■ 
SorbiSre, 6 vols., foU Lyon, 1658 ; and by Averrani, f» \... - 
fol., Firenze, 1728. There is a life of Gassendi by Sorb.o. . , 
prefixed to the collected works, and one by BougereL F^n [ 
1737. J ^ ^ 



Q A S 



01 



GAS 



GASTSnOTODA,* tfae third dass of IfolbiakB^ accord- 
ing to the system of Cuvier, who remarks that it is very 
numerous, and that an idea may he formed of it from the 
slugs and shell-snails. Before we proceed to the sections, 
or rather orders, into which Cuvier has subdivided this ex- 
tensive congregation, it will be necessary to put the reader 
in possession of his views of the conformation necessary to 
bring a molluscous animal within the class of Gastropods. 

These moliusks* then, according to the great French zoo- 
logist, generally creep upon a fleshy disk placed under the 
belly ; but which sometimes takes the form of a furrow or 
that of a vertical plale. The back is furnished with a 
mantle, which is more or less extensive, presents diversities 
of form, and, in the greatest number of 8;enera, produces a 
shell. The head, ph&ced in front, shows itself more or less, 
according to its greater or less retirement under the mantle, 
and is furnished with small tentacles, which are above the 
mouth, and never surround it. Their number ranges from 
two to six, and they are sometimes altogether wanting. 
Their proper use is only for touching, and, at the most, for 
smelling. The eyes are very small, sometimes adhering to 
the head ; sometimes at the base, or at the side, or at the 
point of the tentacle; and sometimes these organs are 
altogether wanting. The position, the structure, and the 
nature of the respiratory organs vary, and afford grounds 
for dividing the animals into many families ; but they never 
have any other than a single aortic heart, that is to say, 
placed between the pulmonary vein and the aorta. The 
site of the apertures by which the organs of generation 
come out and that of the vent vary ; but they are nearly 
always on the right side of the body. 

Many of the Gastropods are absolutely naked; others 
have only a concealed shell ; but the greater number carry 
a shell, which is capable of receiving and sheltering them. 

These shells are produced in the tMckness of the mantle ; 
some of them are symmetrical, consisting of more pieces 
than one ; others are symmetrical, but formed of a single 
piece ; and there are also some non-symmetrical, which in 
species where they are very concave, and where they grow 
a long time, necessarily produce an oblique spire. If the 
reader will imagine an oblique cone in which other cones 
are successively placed, always larger in a certain direction 
than in the others, it will follow that the whole rolls itself 
upon the side which is least. The i)art on which the cone 
4^ rolled is called the Columella, or Pillar : this is sometimes 
solid, and sometimes hollow. When it is hollow, the open 
end of it is named the Umbilicus, The whorls of the shell 
may remain nearly on the same plane, or may extend 
towards the base of the columella. In the last case, 
the preceding whorls are raised one above the other, and 
form what is called the Spire ^ which is pointed in propor- 
tion to the more rapid aescent and small enlargement of 
the whorls. Those shells with an elon^ted or projecting 
spire are termed Turbinated Shells. When, on the con- 
trary, the whorls remain nearly on the same plane, and are 
not enveloped one within another, the spire is flat or even 
concave. These are called Discoid Shells. When the 
upper part of each whorl envelops tlie preceding ones, the 
spire is said to be concealed. Tnat part of the shell from 
which the animal comes forth is termed the Aperture* 
When tho whorls remain nearly on the same plane, the 
animal, when it creeps, carries its shell disposed vertically, 
the columella lying across the posterior part of the back ; 
and its head passes under the border of the aperture op- 
posed to the columella. When the spire is elongated, it is 
directed obliquely to the right in almost .all the soecies : a 
small number only have it directed to the left when they 
creep ; these shells are called Reversed or L^-handed Shells. 
The heart is always on the side opposite to that where the 
spire is directed. It is therefore ordinarily on the left side ; 
in the reversed or left-handed shells it is on the right The 
contrary of this disposition holds good with regard to the 
or^ns of generation. 

The organs of respiration, which are always situated in the 
last whorl of the sneU, receive the ambient element under 
its edge, sometimes by means of the mantle being entirely 
detached from the boay aloiuz the whole length of this edge, 
sometimes in consequence of its being merely pierced by a 

• Otuferopod^ TraehsUjOoda, and Hcteropods, of Lamaxtk; nmeephcUaphora 
and Potyplau^hon. of ue BkdoTille; imrt of the a^d&ngamjdkaa ot Owen. 
The nenroa« syatcm of the HeterogangbnU (AeephaUns or Conchifen. Oas. 
trovods. and C^^alopoda) con^la of MrroQs Slamelita and ganglioDa for the 
moal pert inrefoWly or nuymmetrioeUy (fifpoied, The {TaterofiwjMfeoB- 
prise aU the^ jToOaMi of Cavkr, with the «i0eptto« of Uie Orrvtclii. ^ 



hole. The border of the mantle is sometimfls proloogedl 
into a canal, so that the animal can advance to seek the 
surrounding fluid without exposing either its head or foot 
beyond the shell. For this purpose the shell, in such cases^ 
has also on its edge, near to that end of the columella (the 
base) which is opposed to that whereto the spire tends (ihe 
apex), a notch or a canal for the lodgment of that of the 
mantle. The canal is consequently on the left in the ordi- 
nary species, and on the right in the reversed sheila. The 
animal being very flexible, is able to vary the direction of 
its shell, and most frequently when there is a notch or a 
canal, it is directed forwards ; the spire is thus behind, the 
columella on the left, and the opposite border, or extemcd 
lip, as it is termed by some conchologists, on the right. A 
directly contrary disposition is manifested in the Reversed 
Shells, and these, in consequence of this contrary disposi- 
tion, turn towards the left mstead of turning towards the 
right, as in the normal structure. It follows as a conse- 
quence that the aperture of the shell, which is formed prin- 
cipally bv the last whorl, is more or less large in proportion 
to the other whorls, accordingly as the head or foot of the 
animal, which is to be constantly protruded therefrom and 
retracted thereunto, is more or less voluminous compared 
with the mass of the visoera which remain fixed within the 
shell. The aperture is moreover wider or narrower inpro- 
portion as the same parts are more or less thick. Tnere 
are shells whose aperture is narrow and long ; the foot, in 
such cases, is delicate and doubles together for the purpose 
of re-admission. The greater number of aquatic Grastropods 
with a spiral shell have an operculum, or separate piece, 
which is sometimes homy, sometimes calcareous, attached 
on the posterior part of the foot, and which shuts the shell 
when the animal has re-entered it and is entirely retracted 
within. 

Such is Cuvier's description of the shell which covers the 
testaceous Gastropods. The organization and general struc- 
ture of Shell will be treated of under the proper head, and 
will be illustrated with explanatory figures. ^Shell ; Pearl.] 
As far as this work has already proceeded, the reader will 
find examples of some of the forms of the shells of Gastropoda 
under the articles Auricula, vol. iii., p. 109; Bulinui, 
vol. vi., p. 7; BuLLADiB, vol. vi., p. 12; Cervicorran- 
CHiATA, vol. vi., p. 440; Chismobrakchiata, vol. vii., p. 
93 ; Chitons, vol. vii., p. 94 ; Conus, vol. vii., p. 484 ; Cy- 
PRjsiDiS, vol. viii., p. 254 ; Entomostomata, vol. ix., p. 4M, 
&c. 

Cuvier, in continuation, remarks that there are Gastro* 
pods with the sexes separate, and others which are hermor- 
phrodites : of these last some have the power of reproduc- 
tion without the aid of a second individual, while the others 
require a reciprocal copulation for the continuation of the 
species. He adds that the organs of digestion present as 
many differences as those of respiration, and he divides the 
class into the following orders. 

1. Les Pulmonis, Pulmonifera. (Pulmobranchiata of De 

Blainville.) 

This order is distinguished from the moUusks inasmuch aa 
they respire the elastic atmospheric air by means of a hole 
opened under the border of their mantle, and which they 
dilate or contract at their pleasure. They have conse- 
quently no branchiae, or gills, but only a net-work of pul- 
monary vessels, which creep around the walls and princi- 
pally upon the plafond of their respii-atory cavity. Some 
are terrestrial, others aquatic ; but these last are obliged to 
come to the surface of the water from time to time, in order 
to open the orifice of their pectoral cavity for the purpose of 
respiration. 

The Terrestrial pulmoniferous moUusks have all Ibur 
tentacles ; two or three only, of very small dimensions, have 
not uermitted the observer to see the lower pair. They are 
divided into those which are naked, and those which are 
protected bv a shell. They are all hermaphrodites. 

Those which have no apparent shell fonned the great 
genus Limax of Linmeus; and of these every one may find 
examples in the common slugs. [Liicax.] ParmaetUa and 
Testacella lead the way to 

Those which have a complete and apparent shell, the 
borders of whose aperture, in the majority of instances, are 
reflected into a Uttle roll (bourreletj when the animal is 
adult. These were placMsd by Linnsus under his great 
genus Helix. The shell vanes much in form ; being, ftor iii« 
atance» subglobular or subdiscoid^ as in manj of the shells 

■N2 



GAS 



92 



GAS 



•ntilt; or elongated and pyramidal* as in Buhnui, &c. 

[HsLtCIDA.] 

The AquaHc pulmotttferout molkuki have only two ten- 
laeula, and always come to the surface to breathe ; they do 
tot therefore inhabit deep waters, but live for the most part 
Si the firei^ waters or salt lakeB» or at least near the sides 
and mouths of rivers. 

Cuvier goes on to give Onchiekum, Buchanan, {Peronia of 
De Blainville) [Cyclobrancriata, vol. viii. p. 249] as an 
example of the Aquatic pulmoniferous mollusks without 
•hells. 

Those with shells, which are sometimes discoid as in 
Ptanorbii, or elongated and pyramidal, as in Limfuta, &c., 
he illustrates by the genera Physa, Scaralkmis, Auricula^ 
and Conovuba, 

2. Nudibranchiata. (Polybranchiata, — ^Tritonia, Sec, of 

De Blainville.) 

The mollusks composing this order have no shell, nor 
any pulmonary cavity ; but their branchiie are naked, and 
placed upon some part of the back. They ore all herma- 
phrodites and marine. They often swim reversed, with the 
foot concave Uko a boat, at the surface, aiding their pro- 
gression with their mantle and tentacles as with oars. A 
notice of Doris, Folycera, and Onchidoris, three of the 
genera placed by Cuvier under this order, will be found 
under the article Cyclobranchiata, vol. viii. p. 249. 

3. Inferobranchiata. 

This order presents nearly the same form and organiza- 
tion as the Dorides and Tritonup : but their branchisB, in- 
stead of being placed upon their backs, are arranged in two 
long rows of leaflet-like appendages on each side of the 
body under the projecting border of the mantle. Phyllidia 
and DiphyUidiot Cuv., belong to the Inferobranchiata, 

4. Tectibranchiata. (Monopleurobranchiata of De 

Blainville.) 

This order has the branchia attached either along the 
right side or upon the back, in the form of leaflets, which 
•re more or less divided, but not symmetrical. The mantle 
covers the branchiie more or less, and almost always con- 
tains in its thickness a small shell. The Tectibranchiata 
approach the PecHnibranchiata in the form of the organs of 
respiration, and live like them in the sea ; but the Tectibran- 
ditata are all hermaphrodites, like the Nudibranchiata and 
Pulmonifera, The genera Pleurobranchtu, Cuv., Piettro- 
bronchia, Meckel, Pleurobranchidium, De Blainville ; 
Apfuiia, Linn. ; DolabeUa, Lam. ; Noiarchus, Cuv. ; Bur- 
sateUoj Blainv. ; Akerc^ Miill. ; Bulleea, Lam. ; part of 
Bulla, Linn. ; Gasteroptera, Meek. ; Umbrella, I^m. ; Gas- 
iroolext Blainv. ;— belong to this order. The reader will 
Una a notice of Bursatella under that head, vol. vi. p. 47 ; 
and of Akera, Bulkea, Bulla, and Gasieroptera, under the 
title BuLLADiK, vol. vi. p. 11 . Tlte Aflysiaeea, including 
Dolabella, Notarchus, &c., will be noticed under the title 
Tbctibramchiata ; and Umbrella, under that of Patsl- 

LOIOBA. 

These four orders are united by M. de Blainville under 
the name of Paracephalophora Monoica, 

5. Heteropoda, Lam. (Nectopoda, Blainv.) 
Distinguished from all the others, inasmuch as their foot, 
instead of forming a horizontal disk, is compressed into a 
muscular vertical plate, which series them as a fin, and at 
the edge of which, in many species, a dilatation, in form of a 
hollow cone, represents the disk of the other orders. Their 
branchisD, formed of feathery lobes, are situated on the poste- 
rior part and left side of the back, directed forwards ; and im- 
mediately behind them are the heart and a liver of no great 
aiBe, with a part of the viscera and the internal organs of 
generation. Their body, lined with a muscular coat, is 
elongated, terminating most frequently bv a compressed 
tail. Their mouth is formed by a muscular mass, and is 
ftimished with a tongue beset with small hooks. The 
osophagus is very long, the stomach delicate in texture, 
and two tubes at the right side of the packet of viscera 
give exit to the excrements and to the ova or to the prolific 
lluid. They generally swim vnth the back downwards and 
the foot above, and they can swell out their bodies by 
filling them with water by means which are not as yet well 
understood. 

To this descrintion Cuvier adds, that the method of 
awimming above aescribed having induced Peron to believe 
that the natatory plate was on the back, and the heart and I 



brancbin under the belly, has ^ven rise to many errofs as to 
the proper place of these ammals, Cuvier adds, that the 
examination of (heir nervous system led him to the opinion 
expressed in his memoir on the Mollusea, that they werv 
anal4)gous to the Gastropods. A more complete dissection, 
he observes, made since, and that given by Poli, in his third 
volume, have completely confirmed this conjecture, and he 
states that the fact is that the Heteropoda difier but little 
from the Teeiibranchiaia, M. Laurillard believes that the 
sexes are always separate. Cuvier also remarks, that M. 
de Blainville makes of his (Cuvier's) Heteropoda a family 
which he names Nectopoda, and unites them with another 
family which he names Pteropoda, and which comprehends 
none of Cuvier's Pteropoda, except Limacina. Tb this, 
Cuvier observes, M. de Blainville refers Argonauta, upon 
what conjecture Cuvier knows not. 

Forskal places all the Heteropoda of Cuvier under his 
genus Pterotraehea. 

In this work, the type of the family, Carinakia, is des- 
cribed and figured under that title, vol. vL p. 294, and 
Atlanta is noticed and figured in vol. iii. p. 24. The other 
genera will be fotmd under the article Hbtsropoda. 

6. Pectinibranchiata. (Paracephalophora Dioica, Blainv.) 

This order is by far the most numerous division of the 
Gastropods, for it embraces nearly all those which have 
spiral univalve shells, and many of those whose shells are 
simply conical. Their branchis. composed of numerous 
leaflets or fringes (lanieres) ranged in parallel order like 
the teeth of a comb (whence their name), are attached upon 
one, two, or three lines, according to the genus, to the 
plafond of the pulmonary cavity, which occupies the last 
whorl of the shell, and which forms a large opening between 
the border of the mantle and the body. Two genera only 
(Cydostoma and Helicina) have, in the place of branchi». 
a vascidar net covering the pkfond of a cavitjr similar in 
other respects : these are the only genera which breathe 
air ; all the others respire water. 

All the Pectinibranchiata have two tentacula and two 
eyes sometimes carried on their proper peduncles, a mouth 
in form of a proboscis, which is more or less elongated, and 
the sexes separate. The intromissive organ of the male, 
which is attached to the side of the neck, cannot ordinarily 
be retracted into the body, but is reflected in the branchial 
cavity, and is sometimes very large, as may be seen in the 
fieure otBuccinum ti»t<ia^uin(£NTOMOSTOMATA, vol. ix. p. 454 )f 
wnich will give a general idea of the form of a marine 
Pectinibranchiale testaceous mollusk, with a turbinated 
shell. Paludina indeed can cause this organ to re-enter 
the body by an orifice nierced at its right tentacle. The 
rectum and oviduct of tne female creep also along the right 
side of the branchial cavity, and between them and the 
branchiie is a particular organ composed of cellules con- 
taining a very viscous liquor, serving to form a common 
envelopment or case, which includes the egn, and which 
the animal deposits with them. Several of these depo- 
sited ovaries present very complicated and singular formn, 
and may be ohen found on the sea-beach. 

The tongue of the Pectinibranchiata is armed with small 
hooks, and files down the hardest bodies by slow and re- 
peated friction. 

The greatest difierence among these animals consists in 
the presence or absence of the canal formed by a prolonga- 
tion of the border of the pulmonary cavity of the left side, 
and which passes by means of a similar canal, or by a notch 
in the shell, so as to enable the animal to respire without 
leaving the shelter of its shelL Some of the genera again 
ore without an operculum ; and the species al»o exliibit dif- 
ferences in the filaments, fringes, and other ornaments ex- 
hibited on their head, their foot, or their mantle. These 
mollusks are arranged under many ftunilies^ according to 
the form of their shells, which, generally speaking, present 
a suflRcientlv constant relation to the form of the animal. 
But the student should remember that this is not a rule with- 
out exception, as Mr. Gray has pointed out in his interesting 
paper in the ' Philosophical Transactions.' 

xhe reader will find the numerous genera — ^the leading 
ones at least— of this most extensive order, principally 
under the titles of the dififerent fiimilies into which they 
have been separated by loologists ; and sometimes under 
their generic appellations. 

7. Tubulibrancihiata. 

Cuvier considexa that this oidei: should be detacbid ftnm 



GAS 



93 



GAS 



the Peetinibranchiaia, to which they nevertheleas hear 
great resemhlanoe, hecause their shell (which is in the form 
of a tuhe more or less inregular, the commencement of 
which only is turbinated or spiral) is fixed to different 
foreign bodies: they have inconsequence no true copula- 
tive organs, and fecundate themselves. Vermetus, Magilus, 
and Si'liqu(sria (all marine) belong to this order. 

8. Scutibranchiata. (Paracephalophora Hermaphroditica, 
with exception of the Chitons, De Blainv.) 

This order consists of Giastropods whict^bear a near rela- 
tionship to the Pectinibranchiata in the shape and position 
of the branchisBt as well as in the general form of the body, 
but which have the sexes united in the same individual. 
The shells of this order are always without an operculum, 
very wide in the opening (some of them may be said to be 
almost all aperture), and many of them have shells without 
any turbination, so that they cover the animal, and espe- 
cially its branchlsB, like a shield. The heart is traversed 
by the rectum, and receives the blood by two auricles, as in 
the generality of Bivalves. UnJer this order Cuvier, in his 
last edition of the ' Regno Animal* places the HalioticUe 
(Ear-shells), Stomatia, Pissurella, Emarginula, and Par- 
mophorus. The reader will find FissurellOy Emarginula, 
and Parmophorus treated of in the article Cervicobran- 
CHiATA, vol. vL p. 443. 

9. Cydobranchiata.* (Cervicobranchiata, Blainv.) 

BranchisB in form of small leaflets or little pyramids, 
attached in a cordon more or less complete under the 
borders of the mantle, nearly as in the In/erobrachiatci, from 
which the Cyelobranchiata are distinguished by their her- 
maphroditism ; for they have no organs of copulation, and 
can reproduce the spfecies without having recourse to a se- 
cond individual, llie heart does not embrace the rectum, 
but it varies in situation. 

The genera Patella and Chiton, the only forms admitted 
by Cuvier to belong to his Cydobranchians, are treated of 
under the articles Gkrticobiiancbiata and Chitons. 

Such is Cuvier's arrangement ; and, based as it is on 
anatomical investigation, there can be no doubt that, as a 
whole, it rests on a sure foundation, however necessary it 
may be for the more ready classification of the forms to 
have recourse to arbitrary methods. M. Rang adopts it, 
adding as orders De Blainville's Nucleobranckiata for 
Lamarck's Heteropoda, and De Blainville*s Cirrhobran- 
chiata for the genus Dentalium. [Dentalium, vol. viii., p. 
404.] 

Fossil Gasteropoda. 

A class which comprehends so great a number of ani- 
mated organised beings, having the most extensive geogra- 
phical range — ^a class embracing an immense mass of mol- 
lusks, multitudes of which are littoral, many terrestrial 
and inhabitants of the fresh waters, and a considerable num- 
ber pelagic, for the most part protected by hard calcareous 
shells, presents materials, in a fossil state, of the greatest 
consequence to the geologbt for decyphering the mineral 
structure of the earth. 

Mr. Dillon, as is noticed by Dr. Buckland in his ' Bridge- 
water Treatise,' asserts that every fossil turbinated univalve 
of the older beds, from the transition lime to the lias, be- 
longs to tbe herbivorous genera ; and that the herbivorous 
class extends through every stratum in the entire series of 
geological formations, and still retains its place among the 
inhabitants of our existing seas. On the other hand the 
shells of marine carnivorous univalves are very abundant 
in the tertiary strata above the chalk, but are rare in the 
secondary strata from the chalk downwards to the inferior 
ooUte ; beneath which no trace of them has yet been found. 
Br. Buckland further seems to be of opinion that, in the 
economy of sub-marine life, the great family of carnivorous 
tracheUpods performed the same necessary office during 
the tertiary period which is allotted to them in the present 
ocean, and 1^ alludes to the evidence showing that in times 
anterior to and during the deposition of the chalk, the 
same important functions were consigned to other carni- 
vorous mollusks (the testaceous cephalopods), which are of 
comparatively rare occurrence in the tertiary strata in our 

* The (kfOAranekiaia are, in CaTier'i I«rt edition of the ' Regne Animal.* 
hnded ' HniUime ordre dee OMieiopodes,' and they are ciled aa the 8th in the 
•ftidet CniTiconBAircHiATA, toL tI. p. 440, and Ctci.obbamchiata, toL 




pnbliahed ^ 

^Mi t^ npeciUOB h« nay hare taleicnlatsd, 



prat 



modern seas; but threughout the secondary and transi- 
tion formations, where carnivorous trachelipods are either 
wholy wanting or extremely scarce, there occur abundant 
remains of carnivorous cephalopods, consisting of the cham- 
bered shells of nautili and ammonites, and many kindred 
extinct genera of polythalamous shells. Their sudden and 
nearly total disappearance, as Dr. Buckland remarks, would 
have allowed the herbivorous tribes to increase to an excess 
that would ultimately have been destructive of marine 
vegetation, as well as of themselves, had they not been 
replaced by a different order of carnivorous creatures 
destined to perform in another manner the office executed 
by the various extinct genera of testaceous cephalopods. 
' From that time onwards,' continues Dr. Buckland, * we 
have evidence of the abundance of carnivorous trachelipods, 
and we see good reason to adopt the conclusion of Mr. 
Dillwyn, that in the formations above the chalk the vast 
and sudden decrease of one predaceous tribe has been pro- 
vided for by the creation of many new genera and species, 
possessed of similar appetencies, and yet formed for obtain- 
ing their prey by habits entirely different from those of the 
cephalopods.' 

The reader will find the fossil Gastropods noticed more in 
detail under the titles of the different families and genera. 

GASTERO'PTERA. [Bulladje, vol. vl, p. 13.] 

GASTERO'STEUS. [Stickleback.] 

GASTRIC JUICE. This term is applied to the fluid, 
secreted from the interior of the stomach, which is the prin- 
cipal agent in digestion. The gastric juice is a transparent 
slightly viscid liquid, which, wnen obtained from the sto- 
mach of an animal while fasting, possesses neither acid nor 
alkaline re-action, but has a saline taste. During the pro- 
cess of digestion, on the contrary, it is distinctly acid. 
Gastric juice possesses strong antiseptic properties, sus- 
pending putrefaction, and restoring the freshness of tainted 
meat : it also coagulates milk, which property is inde- 
pendent of the presence of anv acid. But the most remark- 
able quality of the secretion of the stomach is its solvent effect, 
which will even act on nutritive substances out of the 
body. This power of solution cannot be explained satisfac- 
torily on chemical principles, as there appears to be little 
connection beti^een the properties and composition of this 
fluid. Titidemann and Gmelin have ascribed its solvent 
qualities to the action of muriatic and acetic acids, which 
they say are always secreted during the digestive process ; 
hut they have not shown that, when in its neutral state, it 
is devoid of the solvent action, which proof is necessary to 
determine that the presence of the acid is indispensable. 
The chemical composition of gastric juice is involved in 
much obscurity from the difficulty of obtaining this fluid 
in a pure state, but it does not differ materially nrom that of 
some other animal fluids, as saliva, or from the secretions of 
mucous membrane generally : it consists of a large propor- 
tion of water, with some mucus, and certain salts in small 
quantities, the most plentiful of which is muriate of soda. 
The free muriatic acid which is sometimes found should 
rather be considered as developed during the process of diges- 
tion, and not as entering into the regular constitution of the 
fluid. With regard to the origin of the gastric juice, it is 
secreted by numerous small glands situated beneath the 
mucous membrane, and opening into the stomach by many 
minute apertures, from the orifices of which the fluid may 
be seen with a microscope to distil. These glands of the 
stomach are single, and vary in diameter from ' 02 to ' 08 
of an inch ; the largest are situated towards the fundus of 
the organ, the smaller towards the pylorus. The use of the 
gastric juice is to act on the food as a chemical solvent, and 
Uius perform the first process of digestion ; the office of the 
stomach being to convert the nutritive materials of food into 
a uniform semifluid mass, called chyme ; which change is 
wrought, as many experiments have shown, through the 
exclusive influence of Uie fluids of the stomach. [Diobs- 
tion.] 

GASTROCHiE^A, a genus of Acephalous Mollusks or 
Conchifers, established by Spongier. Lamarek places it be- 
tween Phoku and SoUn, and Cuvier between Fistulana 
and Teredina. M. Deshayes, in his edition of the '^jitt- 
maux sans vertebreSf says that it is evident that Lamarck 
came to very erroneous conclusions as to this genus. The 
animal, observes M. Deshayes, has two posterior very 
short siphons when it is contracted ; the lobes of the niantle 
are united up to the gape of the valves and even a little higher ; 
this gaping of the valves, aa well as tbe divarication of tho 



^ 



6 A S 



84 



GAT 



lobes of the nitDtle,KJ*^M pu3«Ke to a gratt ihoTt cyUndricftl 
foot, like tb&t of theFftoladti ; !>ut thii opening is not at all 
dealincd for Ihe passage of tlio siphons,a8 Lamarck Bupposoil. 

Mr. G. B. Sowerby (' Genera of Recent and Fossil Shells') 
remarks, lliat the gunora Pholai, Mya, Afylilus, and Cluima, 
have by lurns sorted as a receptacle of the shclU of tbia 
genus. He observei, that Lamarck baa adopted Spengter's 
name, but lias placed it next to Pholat, apparently not baving 
known that tbe animal fbrms ita own testaceous tube, either 
as a lininR; to the boUow ithas pret'iously perforated, or as a 
coverin^for its sbetl in those initancesin wliirh it has not per- 
forated at oil, but inwhichithaitakenup its abode, as it fre- 
qucnily docs, within some spiral univalve. Mr. Sowerby is 
further of opinion, that thefactof the shell being enclosed in 
a testaceous tulie of its own depositing, renders it proper to 
remove it into Lamarck's family of Tabiaatts, to which 
indee<l it appears to Mr. Sowerby to be more nearly related, 
though be notices a very considerable analogy between tbe 
shelly tuba of Lamarck's Tubieolee, and the coriaceous epi- 
dermis, which tiot only in a ^at measure coiers the shell, 
but also encloses the tubes of tbe animal of Lamarck'n 
Ptioladacea, and Mr. Sowerby consequently thinks that tba 
two families might very properly bo united. 

Mr. Owen, in his paper on ClavageUa, remarks how 
closely Iliat form follows the modifications which have been 
observed in Gattroc/uena. [Olavaoella, vol. vii., p. 244.] 

Cuvier says that it appears that the Gastrociiana con- 
stantly have a calcareous tube, and quotes Dr. TurLuu, M. 
Dehbaycs and M. Audouui as having observed it. 

M. Rang sayis that aU the Gaitroekance have not a cal- 
careous tube, though all oF them burrow in stones after tbe 
manner of Pholadet. If this is to bo taken literally, it does 
not exactly accord with tho &ct ; for, somctimoa, the animal 
does not burrow at all, at others (and very frequently) it 
burrows in madrepores. M. Rang adds that two of the 
(pecies which belonged to the genus Fittidana of Lamarck 
are now arranged in this, and that this arrangement is due 
to M. do Blainville. These two species, he says, are Fiitu- 
Uma elaoa and F. AmpuUaria. Of these, Fitttdana cfoivi is 
referred, among tho synonymcs, to Gatlroduena, by La- 
marck, and Fistulanaampuilaria is declared by M. Deshayes 
to bo a true Fi*tulana, but remarkable in this, that, accord- 
ing to circumstaiioes, it forms a free tubo sunk in the 
taud, or perforates calcareous bodies, and its tube serres as 
a lining to the cavity which it inhabits ; this species there- 
fore, he observes, would belong to tho Fislulaaiie in the 
first case, and to the genus Gattrocfuena in the second; if 
indeed that genus be preserved. 

M. Rang slates that M.Charles Des Houlins,w1ioaloiig 
time ago, and before tbe obseivatii>ns made upon this sub- 
ject. Lad discovered the existence of a tube in the Gattro- 
e/itrn<p, had shown him tliis tube, not only in the livinfc spe* 
riua on the French coast, but in the fossil at Heiignac. 
Following De Blainville, M. Rang would divide the genus 
Ciulnich^na into the two following groups. 

Species whose shell is smooth and without a distinct tubo. 

Example. Gattroehima eunetformi4, &c. 
& 
Species whoM shell is tiriated from the umbo to the baae, 
and contained in a distinct tube. 

Example. Gtalrochiena clofo. 

M. de Blainville states that the animal of Gaitroe/uma 
has evidently the greafeit relationsliip lo that of Saxicava ; 
but ai it is not ectirely contained in its shell, it often sup- 
plies llie deficiency by forming an artificial lube adhering to 
tbe walls of the cavity which it inhabits in calcareous stones. 

This tube, in the opinion of M. do Blainville, offers only 
an accidental character, and would thus make of species, 
or even of individuals which are provided with it, FishUana 
of Lamarck. Thus, he observes, M, Deshayes has pro- 
posed lo suppress the genus Gaxtroehana, but he would 
consider it more convenient not to admit the genus Flitu- 
lana; first, because it is founded upon the presence of a 
tube; and. secondly, because it was established some time 
alUr GtulroeAtena. Ho would however prefer its restric- 
tion as he ha* restricted it in his Malaeologie. In uniting 
tbe species charactonzL-d bv the true shell, whether it have 
■n external tulm or not, tliere exist already, he remarks, 
many species of known GailmcJuFn^, bolb living in the 
seas of wann cjitnatiia and fosfils in his country. M. De- 
france. ho siatef, neverllielcsK quolex ona tirasil species only 
at OiignoD. and an oualuguu ; and be couoluOM bj ob- 



serrins that Goiirochtean elava vould perhaps, if it vetm 
better linown. furm a small distinct genus. 

Mr. G. B. Sowerby (Zool. Proc. 1834) dcscrilM-s five ticvr 
species brought home by Mr. Cuming from South AnioriL j, 
QiiJ the Gallapa;ios and Lord Hood's Islands. 

The following IS M.Rang's definition of the genus:— 
Animal oval, having the mantle closed with a very small 
anterior rounded opening for tbe pussai;a of a small, oonit-al, 
or lingtiiform foot ; tbe tubes elongated and united througb- 

Sheit delicate, oblique, oval, cuneiform, M]uivalva, very- 
inequilateral, gaping extremely at it* antero-mfBrior part ; 
wnhonei well marked; hinge straight and linear williuut 
teeth ; an apophysis often showing itself below the hingo 
in the interior of each valve j ligament external ; mutruliir 
impretsion* distinct, connected by a slightly marked paUial 
impression excavated poeterioriy. 

Sometimes a calcareous tube, empulliform, short, vith a 
rounded aperture, enveloping tbe shell and lining tli« 
cavity of the Stone. 




(Gridnoi . 

a. ft vara fraffiDCDtof ft MftdrtpoR, biolun lotbDW th* xtAtt Eu 

amtn DrGniUuchkUft CUQtitonnu. l.un. ;4Bn(15. L*uiirw>ofllwtwgiALTFm.,r 

O. it. Smul^. BOH (Juurjr. lUt) !■ Uh warn of yMmlim. ud ftlul 

compltw.) 

The depth at which living GoMtrodtanm hxn been fbuad 
ranges &om 3 to 1 7 fathoms. 

Fossil Gastrochxnk. 

Among tho fossil Gattroehana, Gattrochana iorluata 
has been found in the inferior oolite (PhilUps); and l>r. 
Fiitim, in bis Slraligrapliical Table, records Gattmc/urna 
(species doubtful) in tho lower green sand, in the Portland 
stone, in the Portland sand, in the Oxford oolite, and lU 
perfuralions in dicotyledonous (silicified) wood ; — Gauil, coal 
of Folksione. 

GA'STROPLEX. i;Ga*tuu>foda, toI. xi., p. 92 ; P\- 

OATAKER, THOMAS, bom in London in 1574, atu- 
died at Cambridge, where he took his degrees, WU after- 
wards chaphuu to Sir William Cook, and also pr«achi.T to 



text, and wrote several works in illustration of Ibe Old Tea 
tamcnt. Be idso wrote 'Of tbe Nature and Uae of Lots,' 
a treatise historical and theologica], in which ho dutiA- 
guishM between ianoceat and lawful gaimi of dMiK«^ mad 



GAT 



95 



GAT 



those which are unlawful or reprehensible. His arguments 
having been misrejyresented, he had to sustain a polemical 
correspondence in his own justification. In 1611 ho was 
appointed rector of Rotherhithe. In 1624 he wrote a trea- 
tise against Transubstantiation. In 1642 he was chosen to 
sit in the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, where in 
several instances he differed from the majority. He after- 
wards wrote with others the ' Annotations on the Bible,' 
which were published by the same Assembly ; the Notes on 
Isaiah and Jeremiah are by him. In 1648 Gataker, with 
other London clergymen, to the number of forty-seven, re- 
monstrated against the measures taken by the Long Par- 
liament with respect to king Charles, and he became in 
consequence an object of suspicion to the ruling powers, 
but by his mild and open conduct he escaped personal annoy- 
ance. In 1652 he published a Latin translation of M. Au- 
relius" 'Meditations,' with valuable notes, tables of refer- 
ence, and a preliminary discourse on the philosophy of the 
Stoics. In the latter part of his life he nad to sustain a 
controversy against the pretended astrologer William Lilly. 
He died above eighty years of age. His son Charles pub- 
lished his * Opera Critica,' 2 vols., fol,, Utrecht, 1698, wnich 
contain, besides the 'Meditations,' his * Cinnus,' and * Adver- 
saria Miscellanea,' being disquisitions on biblical subjects, 
and • De Novi Testamenti Stylo,' a philological treatise on 
the antient languages. Gataker's leamine has been greatly 
praised by Boyle and other competent juages. 

GATES, HORATIO, a distinguished American general 
of the Revolutionary war, was born in England in 1 728. 
He received his military training in the English army, 
served in the West Indies, and accompanied General Braa- 
dock in his disastrous expedition a^^inst the French set- 
tlements on the Ohio in 1755. [Braddocr.] Being 
wounded in that aflhir, and obliged for a time to retire from 
active service, he purchased an estate in Virginia. He 
took the popular side in the Revolutionary troubles, and 
was appointed adjutant-general on the breaking out of the 
war. In 1776 he was sent to command the army on Lake 
Champlain. His conduct at first was not approved of, in- 
somucn that he was superseded in the spring of 1777; 
but in the following August he was appointed to oppose 
General Burgoyne, who had forced his way from the Cana- 
dian frontier to the Hudson. An indecisive battle was 
fought September 18th, and a second October 8th« in which 
the British were defeated. General Gates then blockaded 
])is adversary at Saratoga, who being disappointed in his 
hope of forming a junction with the Royalist troops on the 
Hudson, and cut off from all supplies, fbund it necessanr 
to capitulate with his whole army. For the terms obtained, 

see BxjRQOYNE*. 

This convention of Saratoga was one of the most im- 
portant successes gained in the whole war : for near 6000 
men surrendered on parole not to serve again, and their 
hrms and artillery were converted to the use of the victors. 
Gates became the popular hero of the day : and attempts 
were made by some intriguing partisans, or misjudging 
friends, to raise him over the head of Washington. Fortu- 
nately for America these attempts came to nothing. In June, 
1780, he was appointed to command the southern army, 
which at that time was in a wretched state of disorganiza- 
tion. It was no wonder therefore that on his first meeting 
with the British troops [Cornwallis] he received, though 
superior in numbers, a total defeat. This took place August 
1 6 th, at Camden, in South Carolina. By great exertion he 
was again in condition to take the field, when he received 
news that he was superseded by General Greene, and that 
Congress had resolved to submit his conduct to a court of 
inquiry. The investigation lasted until after the close of 
the war in 1782 : in the end be was fully and honourably 
acquitted of blame. 

General Gates then retired to his Virginia estate, from 
which, in 1800, he removed to New York; to the freedom 
of which city be was immediately admitted. In 1800 he 
was elected a member of the state legislature. Before his 
departure from Virginia he performed the noblest act of his 
life— the e^i^eipation of his slaves, which he accompanied 
with a provision for those who needed assistance. He 
died April 10, 1806. (American Encyclopadia ; Hist 
Amer. Revolution.) 

GAT£SH£AD, an antient borough and parish in the 
eastern division of Chester ward, in the county palatine of 



*!■ liuiaiiklf tii« pUa of BurfOfiie** cuBpalgB is uuMUiedt 
Ma C«tt4A to iIm Uvdfao>— «ot tm the Booioa to Cuiaiia. 



iMBHChcd 



Durham, 272 miles N. by W. from London^ and 13 miles 
N. by £. from Durham. It is situated on the southern 
side of the river Tyne, opposite to Newcastle^ with which it 
communicates by a handsome stone bridge. The parish is 
about 3) miles in length, its greatest width being somewhat 
more than two. Gateshead is supposed to have once been a 
fortified Roman station, which opinion is supported by the an- 
tiquities discovered here at various times, including coins of 
the emperor Hadrian. Prior to 1 833 it was merely a borough 
by prescription, there being no charter extant, Aough it is 
believed to have been once incorporated. By the Reform 
Act it became a parliamentary borough, and now returns 
one member. As late as 1681 the town was governed by a 
bailiff appointed by the bishops of Durham, since which 
time the government has been vested in two stewards, 
who possess no municipal authority or jurisdiction, and who 
are elected annually by the borough-holders and freemen. 
There are two principal streets ; the one descending towards 
the bridge is so steep as to be almost impassable for car- 
riages during winter ; the other, of recent erection, is of gra- 
dual descent. The church is an antient and spacious edi- 
fice, built in the form of a cross, surmounted by a lofty 
tower. There are two livings ; the rectory of Gateshead 
and that of Gateshead-fell. The annual net income of the 
former, according to the Scclesiastical-re venue Reports, is 
636/., and that of the latter 172/. They are both in the 
archdeaconry and diocese of Durham, and in the patronage 
of the bishop of that see. There are several charitable insti- 
tutions, among which is an almshouse for poor women. On 
the east side of the main street are the ruins of an extensive 
monastery, founded in 1247 by Bishop Famham, and dedi- 
cated to St. Edmund. The town is said to be thriving and 
increasing annually in manufacturing and commercial im- 
portance. It possesses coal-mines, extensively worked, 
situated within the borough, and which employ a con- 
siderable portion of the population of the town. The 
chief manufactories are of elass, cast and wrought iron, and 
whitening; and at Gateshead-fell there is an extensive 
quarry for grindstones, which are exported to most parts of 
tne kingdom. The population of Gateshead and Grateshead- 
fell in 1831 was 15,177. There are several charity schools, 
among which is a free grammar-school founded in 1701 by 
the Rev. Theophilus Pickering, the rector of the parish. 
Besides Greek and Latin, the children are taught arithmetic 
and navigation. The revenue of the borough, arising from 
landed property, is 500/., which is incumbered with a mort- 
gage of 1600/. The annual expenditure is about 200/. The 
amount of assessed taxes levied in 1830 was 2036/., and 
that of the parochial assessments in the following year 
4709/. — (Parliamentary PaperSt &c.) 

GATINE or GASTINE, a district of Bas (or Lower) 
Poitou, in France ; now comprehended in the department 
of Deux Sdvres. 

GATINOIS, LE, a district in France, partly compre- 
hended in the government of lie de France, partly in 
that of Orl^nois ; and distinguished accordingly as Gi- 
tinois Fran9ois and Gatinois OrI6anois. Gitinois was 
bounded on the north by Hurepoix and Brie Fran9ois, on 
the east by Senonois and Bourgogne, on the south by Ni- 
vernois and Berri, and on the west by Orl^anois Proper 
and the districts of Beauce and Chartrain. It extenaed 
from the Seine to the Loire, and was watered by the 
Loire, the Seine, the Loing, the Essonne, and their tri- 
butaries. It is now comprehended in the departments of 
Seine et Olse, Seine et Mame, Loiret, and Yonne. Its 
chief towns were as follows : Le Gitinois Fran9ois— capital 
Nemours, on the Loing (population 3839), Fontainebleau 
(pop. 8104 town, 8122 commune), Moret, on the Loing 
(pop. 1673), Beaumont, Chdteau Laudon, Egreville, Milly 
(pop. 1881 town, 1941 commune), Courtenoy, on the Clery, 
and Cheney, on the Lunain, feeders of the Loing ; Le Gsl- 
tinob Orl^anois — capital, Montargis, on the Loing (pop. 
6781), Chfttillon sur Loing (pop. 1721 town, 2126 com- 
mune), Briare (pop. 2243 town, 2730 commune), Gien 
(pop. 4631 town, 5177 commune), Puiseaux (pop. 1876 
town, 1970 commune), and several others. 

The district La Puisaye, capital, St. Fargeau (pop. 1519 
town, 2132 commune), was a subdivision of Le G&tinois 
Orleanois. 

The population of the towns is from the census of 1831. 

GATSHINA, a rcgulaily-built town on the Ishora 
where it expimds into a lake, about forty miles south of 
St. Petersburg, in the government of which it is situated* 



G A U 



S6 



G A U 



It was a favounto Tmidenoe of Paul the Fint, who eonfeited 
municipal privileges on it in 1796. It contains a Greek 
church, Protestant and Roman CJatholic chapels, a large 
hospital, a free school, an asylum for 800 foundlings, a 
porcelain, a woollen cloth, and a hat manufactory, &c.» and, 
including its dependencies, nas a population of about 6500. 
Between the lake and the hills behind it, and close to 
Gatshina, is a handsome imperial palace, with a theatre, 
riding-house, and chapel, all of freestone, and soacious and 
very picturesque grounds laid out in the English style. 

GATTERKR. JOHANN CHRISTOPH, bom in 1727, 
near Niirnberg, became professor of history at Gottineen, 
where ho published numerous useful works on antient his- 
tory, geography, chronology, genealogy, heraldry, and di- 
plomacy, on all which subjects his information was very 
extensive. His principal publications are: — 1. * Elementa 
artis Diplomatica) Universalis,' 4to., Gottingen, 1765, a work 
of great and curious research, especially concerning the 
graphic part, or the various characters, monograms, and 
symbols used in old diplomacy. 2. 'Handbuch der Uni- 
versal Historic,* 2 vols. 8vo. 1764-5, in which he gives cata- 
logues of numerous writers on the history of the various coun- 
tries of Europe and Asia, according to the order of time. 3. 
•Stammtafeln sur Weltgeschichte.' 4ta, 1790. 4. • Ein- 
feitung in die Synchronistische Universal Historic,' 2 vols. 
8vo., 1771, with chronological tables. 5. • Abriss der Chro- 
nologic,' 1777. 6. ' Handbuch der Neuesten Genealogie,' 
1 772. 7. • Allgemeine Historische Bibliothek,* 1 6 vols. 8vo., 
Halle, 1771. Gatterer died at Gottingen in 1779. 

There was another contemporary professor, Christoph 
"Wilhelm Jacob Gatterer, at Heidelberg, who wrote several 
works on geology and mineralogy. 

GAUBIL, ANTHONY, a learned Jesuit, whose labours 
greatly advanced our knowledge of the literature of eastern 
Asia, was born in Languedoc in 1689. He entered the 
<ociety of the Jesuits in 1 704, and was sent in 1 723 to China, 
Inhere he applied himself to the study of the Chinese and 
\iantchoo languages, in which he made such proficiency that 
'he first Chinese scholars sometimes consulted him about 
obscure and difficult passages in their author:^. Besides the 
above-mentioned literary occupations Gaubil applied himself 
with great success to mathematics, and particularly to astro- 
nomy, without neglecting tlie numerous avocations of his 
ecclesiastical calling. Gaubil arrived in China just after 
the death of the celebrated Emperor Ching-Tsoo, better 
known in Europe under the name of Kang-Hi, who was 
very partial to Europeans, but whose successor was imbued 
with a strong prejudice against the Christian missionaries. 
Notwithstanding this unfavourable circumstance, GaubQ 
succeeded in obtaining the favour of the monarch, and was 
nominated director of the college, where a number of 
Mantchoo youths are instructed in Latin and Russian*. 
He was also employed as interpreter from the Mantchoo 
into Latin, and from Latin into the Mantchoo, for the 
diplomatical correspondence between China and Russia. 
Notwithstanding his multifarious occupations, Gaubil found 
time to write several important works in China, the first of 
which is an 'Historical and Critical Treatise on the Chinese 
Astronomy,' published in the 'Observations Mathematiques, 
Astronomiques, G6ographiques et Physiques tir6os des 
anciens liyres Chinois, ou Faites nouvellement aux Indes 
ou sk la Chine, par les Missionnaires-Jesuites, requeillies par 
le P. Souciet(a Jesuit),' Paris, 1729, 1 vol. 4to. The same 
collection contains the narrative of a 'Voyage from Peking 
to Canton,* by Graubil, which has been likewise inserted by 
Prevot in the 5th vol. of his * History of Travels.' But the 
work which reflects the greatest credit on the abilities of 
Graubil is his translation into French of the 'Choo<king,' 
which contains the earliest traditions respecting the history 
of China. It was published after his death by Desguignes, 
in 1771, at Paris. Gaubil published also a 'History of 
Genghis Khan and his Dynasty' (1739, Paris), which alone, 

* Aeeording to the treaty of 17S8 bctwoeo Romu and Chhia. all tlw diplo- 
natic eorfrtpoBdanca between ihow two eonntrlca b can-ied on In Latin, Hat- 
■iaB, and Maatehoo, and vtexj deapatdi moat ba wxttlen in tk«M threa laa- 
IfOMgn, A ipadal lebool was aaUbliahed at Peking, in ordar to taaeh Rmaian 
to twenty yvtrng Maatehooa. wIm are afterwaida placed cltRer in the office 
fcr lbfei«nallkin,orinottecaoa the ftootier, when a knowledge of the Ru«- 
aian bofoage ia rcqnisita. Bat notwithatanding all the e0bita of the govern- 
ment to annpofft thai achodi. It ia very^r fttaa being in a atate of efficiency ; 
and it ia aakl that ia 1006. when tha Buaaian embaesy eame to Mongolia, the 
Cbinaae governor of that pravinea called for aome tianalatora educated in the 
above-mentioned aehooL. He expected to And in tham able and tnuty inter- 
pretar8,withont belag obliged to apply to the{Rnaaiaae ; bot the flrat interview 
pfDved that ha waa nialakaa. The Mantchoo Inlorprotora eonbeaod that they 
did not nndairtnadswudaT what ths Baailaw wid, asd Ihay wain aanl 
Hack to Faking. 



aoeofding to the celebrated Chinese fcholar Abel Remusst, 
would be sufRcient to establish the reputation of the autitor. 
The other works of Gaubil are a ' Description of Peking.* an< I 
many essays on China and the adjacent countries, wlm U 
are inserted in that celebrated collection published by ii«« 
Jesuits under the title of *Lettres curieuses et ^difiaittc-^. 
which contains the description of the countries where th« > 
exercised their missionary labours. Gaubil died at Pe k 1 1 1 ,; 
in 1759, aged seventy-onct after having resided in Clnna 
thirty-six years. For further particulars the reader m.i% 
consult the 3 1st vol. of the 'Lettrea curieuses et dditiantr^.' 

GAUDAMA, or GAUTAMA. [Buddha, vol. v., p. .527] 

GAUGING is the method of determining by actual mea- 
surement the number ofgallons containtnl in any ves««cl 
intended to hold goods. The greatest use of this art is in 
the collection of the revenue, in which it is nece&san' to 
messure the bulk of vessels without disturbing their con- 
tents. For this purpose a number of rules have been laid 
down by various writers, of whom the reader who is in- 
terested in the subject may consult Leadbetter*s * Treatise 
on Gauging,' John Ward's * Young Mathematician's Guide.' 
or Dr. Mutton's * Mensuration.' The rules laid down were, 
in many cases, of uncertain application ; as for instance, a 
close cask was to be treated eitner as a frustum of a sphcrtml. 
or of a parabolic spindle, or as a double frustum of a para- 
boloid, or else of a double cone, according to its ap]H!aranrc. 
The allowance made for the thickness of a cask whh a 
guess, and the method of using ^mo/Zsliding-rules, to whirh 
supervisors formerly resorted to escape calculation, is a spe- 
cies of estimation which would never have been tolerated in 
money transactions between man and man. The inference 
to be drawn from tlie art as described by early writers i^ 
that, generally speaking, the results of excisemen's mea- 
surements were below me truth: had it been otherwi^r, 
the fact could not but have been known to merchants and 
tradesmen, who can gauge their own vessels after the ctn- 
tents are removed, or who learn their bulk in the remox al. 
If the methods of the excisemen were tolerablv uniform, 
which is perhaps pretty nearly true, if we may judge from 
writers on the subject, no injustice was done by unequal 
taxation ; and the government would probably have fourid 
it as easy to increase the duties, as to raise an adclitioti.il 
revenue from a more correct method of collecting the old one. 

With larger sliding-rules for calculation, and the aid « t 
habit derived from experience, it is possible very accurately 
and easily to measure casks which do not depart murL 
from a given standard of form. This is what is done h\ 
gaugers at the present time ; and their practice has attain*'tl 
considerable accuracy. In a particular instance which h.t* 
come to our knowledge, and in the case of a vat which hci<l 
6500 gallons, the measurement of the exciseman did n<>* 
diflfer more than ten gallons from the truth. This de;::ivc 
of accuracy is entirely modern, and must in a considerablv 
degree arise from similarity of form being very nearly pr«- 
served in the different species of casks. 

The great variety of cases which occur would make a sum • 
mary inconveniently long. Wherever a content is to he 
found, either the figure itself is simple and regular, as ni 
the case of a cylinder, or nearly a simple figure, as in iho 
case of some casks, which may be consider^ as the frusta 
of spheroids [See Barrel as an instance of the apprr)\i- 
mating supposition], or so irre^ilar that the content c<i:i 
only be found by dividing them into a considerable numb»?r 
of sections, and considering each section as a small cyliiidoi 
or frustum of a cone. [Quadratures, Method op.] 

The work on gauging, which is most commonly used, i> 
Svmon's * Practical Uauger,* which has been throuph sovcr.il 
editions. Other works are, those of Leadbetter, ShiricMT.*. 
Moss, Guttcridge, and Iley. The first three are of t))e fir^t 
half of the last century, and that of Shirtcliffc contains the- 
oretical investigations.' Ward's ' Mathematician's Guide.* and 
Hutton's andBonnycastle*s 'Mensuration,* contain small 
treatises on the subject 

GAUL. [France.] 

GAULNA. [Candkish, voL vL, p. 233."" 

GAULS. [Celt^; Frawcb.] 

GAURS. [Guebreb.] 

GAUZE, a light transparent texture, made of fine si'Vcn 
threads. Its name has led to the coniecture that this fabr i * 
was first invented in Gaza, a city of raestine. Spitalfie!«K 
was, some years back, the principal seat of the silk-gau/c 
manufiicture in Great Britain; but of late Paisley and 
Glasgow and their vidnitiea have almost entirely engrossed 



G EB 



98 



G E C 



Carbonic ioid 




• 28*66 


Soda , 




• 20*44 


Lime • 




• 17*70 


Water 




• 32*20 






. !• 



100* 

6AYA. [Baur.] 

GAZA, now called Oasara, a town of Syria, or more pro- 
perly tpMking, of Palestine, on the S.W. frontiers of that 
oountrv, near the borders of the desert which separates it 
from Egypt* It consists of the upper town, with a castle 
situated on a hill, about two miles from the sea, and a lower 
part* or suburb, in the Talley below. The population is be- 
tween 3000 and 4000. It has some manuractories of soap 
and cotton stuffs, and carries on some trade by sea, espch 
cially wiUi Egypt, and also by land through the desert with 
Sues. Gasa is greatly (alien from its antient splendour ; 
but it still exhibits siffns of commercial activity and pros- 
perity. It is repeatedly mentioned in Holy Writ, especially 
in Judges (cxvl), as one of the principal towns of the Phi- 
listines. It was besieged by Alexander the Great, and taken 
after an obstinate defence. It was afterwards destroyed by 
Alexander Jannnus, about 98 b.c., and forty years after was 
rebuilt by Gabinius, the Roman governor of Syria. The town 
was afterwards destroyed by the Jews in one of their revolts 
against the Romans ; in the Acts of the Apostles (viii. 26), 
it is mentioned as being then deserted. It was however 
rebuilt, and is mentioned as a town of some consequence 
nnder Constantino, who ^ve it the name of Constantia. 
At a later period we find it mentioned in the wars of the 
Crusades. The traveller Sandys gives a good description 
of Gasa as it was towards the beginning of tne 17th century, 
when there were still many remains of antient buildings, 
marble and granite pillars, &c. The hill upon which Gaza 
stands is about two miles in circumference at the base, and 
appears to have been once wholly enclosed by walls. The 
town being surrounded by gardens and plantations of olive 
and date trees, above which numerous and elegant minarets 
rise, has a pleasing appearance from a distance. The country 
around, which is hilly, is remarkably fertile. (Jolliffe's 
Letters /rem Meetine; Irby and Mangles* TraveU; 
Richardson.) 

GAZA, THEODORE, a learned Greek scholar, bom at 
Thessalonica in the early part of the 15th century, emigrated 
to Italy, like others of his countrymen, at the time of the 
fall of the Eastern Empire. He found liberal patrons in his 
countryman Cardinal Bessarion, Pope Nicholas V., and 
Kinir Alfonso of Naples. Gaza translated into Latin ' Aris- 
totle^s History of Animals;' the 'History of I'lants,' by 
Theophrastus ; the ' Aphorisms* of Hippocrates, and other 
Greek works. He also wrote a Greek Grammar, which was 
published at Rome in 1495, and was often reprinted. He 
was one of those who contributed powerfully to the revival 
of classical studies in Italy. Although he wrote in praise 
of Aristotle's opinions, and therefore on the same side as 
Georgius of Trebizond, in the then pending controversy 
concerning the comparative merits of Aristotle and Plato 
[Bessakion], yet his mildness and modesty kept him 
within the bounds of decorum, and he thereby became ob- 
noxious to the more violent Georgius, who assailed him 
with invectives. Gaza died at Rome, or, as some say, in Cala- 
bria, at an advanced age. He wrote also a book on the 'Ori- 
gin of the Turks,' and a treatise * De Mensibus Atticis.' 

GAZELLE. [AivTELOPS, vol. ii., p. 63.] Mr. Ogilby 
(1 836) has elevated Gcuselia to the rank of a genus among 
his CapricUr; Type, Gazella Dorcas, Antilope Dorcat of 
authors. [(joat.J 

GAZETTE (gazzetta in Italian, Fae^/a in Spanish) is the 
name i;iven to newspapers in several ports of tne Continent 
The name was, according to Manage and others, derived 
from a small Italian coin, which was the price of the first 
newspaper established in that country. In England the 
London Gazette is an official newspaper, containing the 
pnK'laroaiions, orders in council, promotions, bankrupt- 
cie^, &CC. 

Gnzciteer has been used in England to mean a geogra- 
phical dictionary, such as Brookes' * General Gazetteer,' 
and other similar works. [Dictionary.] 

GEBKRS. [GuEBRKs] 

GEKH ARDI, a German author, bom in 1699 at Bruns- 
wick, died at Liineburg in 1764. His most important 
work is a * Universal Gencalogv,* published in 1730*31, in 
Germau ; it is divided into tnree volumes, each with a 



title ; the first oonUins Iha pedigvse of the sof»» 
reign houses of Europe which existed in 1731 ; the •eootid. 
the pedigrees of the dynastiea that were already extinct at 
that time ; the third, the genealogy of Moliammedan and 
heathen monarchs. This production served as a basis to all 
the g^enealogical works published by the Germans dunns 
the eighteenth century. Gebhardi also wrote * Historicai 
and Genealogical Memoirs,* 3 vols., 8vo. His son pub- 
lished, after his father's death, a collection of materiaU for 
a genealogical history of the reigning families of Germany* 
which was left in manuscript by Gebhardi. 

GEHBIA, GE'BIOS. [Thalassina.] 

GECARCI'NUS, Dr. Leach's generic name for thi»so 
brachyurous decapod crustaceans known fiuniliarly to tb« 
English as Land-crabe, and to the French by the appella- 
tions of Tourlouraux, Crabeecetnte*, or Crabee tioUU^ some 
of these terms being applicable not only to different species, 
but to the same species at different ages, so that thoM 
various names cannot be depended upon as specific desig- 
nations. 

Latreille placed this tribe of crabs immediately after 
Pinnotheret. He seems to admit Plagusia and Oraptu* 
into the same section with the Land-crabs, properly so 
called; and next to Qrapeue come the Orlrieuiata (his 
fourth sectionX containing Coryitee, &o. 

Desmarest places Gecareinue at the head of the Quadn* 
kUhree of Latreille, and arranges all the true Land*craba 
under that generic title, which is preceded by PUumnus^ 
and succeed^ by the Orbiculata of Latreille. 

M. Milne Edwards makes the Gecardniane the second 
tribe of his family of CatametopeM ; and in his arrangement 
they stand between the Thelphtmanst the first tribe, and 
the Pinnotheriam, the second tribe of that &mily. 

According to the last-named author the tribe of Qecarei^ 
nians is one of the most remarkable groups of the class 
Crustacea ; for it is composed of animals breathing hy 
means of branchis, or gills, and yet essentially terrestrial, 
so much so indeed, that they would perish tsook asphyxia 
if submerged for any length of time. They may be distin* 
guished easily from the rest of the fomily by their nearly 
oval carapace, which is much elevated and convex abo«^ 
The branchial regions are in general very distinct, and 
project much below, occupying nearly two-thirds of tha 
surface. The ihint is very nearly as large as the buccal 
fhune {cadre buccal), and strongly curved below. The 
orbits are suboval, moderate, and verv deep. The lateral 
borders of the carapace are very mucn anmed, and gene- 
rally describe a semicircle. The internal antennte are 
lodged under the front, and fold back transversely lu 
narrow and often nearly linear excavations. The disposition 
of the external antenna varies, and so do the jaw -feet 
(pates-mdchoiree) ; sometimes the fourth joint is inserted 
at the external angle of the preceding, and remains ex- 
posed, as in the On/podiane, ^nd sometimes it is entirely 
hidden under its internal surface. The/eet of the first pair 
are long and strong; the succeeding feet are robust and 
long, and very nearly equal^in size, and their tarsus is 

' ral 



pointed and quadrilateral. The abdomen of the male is 
ceived in a deep excavation of the sternal plaeirw, and its 
second articulation reaches nearly always to the base of the 
posterior feet It is in general so long that it comes up 
to the base of the mouth, and the appendages hidden 
beneath it are remarkably large. The branchi» are gen^ 
rally seven in number, viz., five fixed to the vault <^ the 
sides, and two, in a rudimentary state, hidden under the 
base of the preceding, and taking their origin from the 
jaw-feet ; but in some species there are nine on eadi side. 
The respiratory cavity is very large, and is raised into 
a vault highly elevated above the branchi», so that above 
those organs there is a large empty space. Tlie tegumen- 
tary membrane with which it is lined is also very sponfry, 
and sometimes forms a fold along the lower edge of the 
cavity, so as to form a kind of gutter, or longitudinal trough 
for containing water when the animal remains exposed to 
the air. (Milne Edwards.) Observations on this curious 
reservoir were communicated to the Royal Academy of 
Sciences in France by MM. Audouin and Milne Edwards 
some years ago, wherein the authors show that in all the 
Crustacea the branchise are fitted to perform the functions 
of respiratory organs in the air as well as in the water; 
that the more or less rapid death of the aquatio spedee, 
when exposed to the air, depends upon various causes, of 
which one of the most direct is the evaporatioii from tba 



%x B C 



• syif 



GEO 



bi«nnhi», whieh produces their dasiocAtion; that coiue- 
quently one of the conditions necessary to the support of 
lifo in animals which have hranchiie, and live in the air, 
is the having these organs defended against desiccation ; 
and lastly, that these dispositions actually occur in the 
Land-crabs, which all possess various organs destined for 
ab;»orbinf^ and keeping in reserve the quantity of moisture 
necessary for maintaining a suitable degree of moisture in 
the branchiflB.* 

Geographical DUirilmUont Habits, Reproduction^ 4^.— 
The I^nd-crabs, or Gecarcinians, inhabit the warm coun* 
tries of the New and Old World, and Australasia; but as 
far as observation has hitherto gone, America and its 
islands seem to be the places where the form is most highly 
and most numerously developed. Almost every writer on 
the Natural History of the countries last mentioned treats 
largely on the habits of these creatures, and in the works 
of Rocbefort (Histoire Naturelle dee Antilles) t De Feuillee 
iObeervations faitee eur lee Cotes d^Amerique), De Labat 
{Souveau Voyage aux Isles d*Ainerique), Sloane (Natural 
History qf Jamaica), Browne {Citfil and Natural History 
of Jamaica), Hughes {Natural History qf Barbados), 
Catesby {Natural History qf Carolina), &c. &c., will be 
found details more or less ample, and highly interesting, of 
their manners ; though most of the writers do not deter- 
mine the species sufficiently to enable us to judge of what 
particular Land-crab they are writing. All these authors 
uiU however well repay the trouble of consulting them. 

Latreille sums up what he considers the credible parts of 
these narratives thus : — ^The crabs pass the greatest part of 
their life on land, hiding themselves in holes, and not com- 
ing forth till evening. Some keep about cemeteries. Once 
a year, when they would lay their eggs, they assemble in 
numerous hands, and move in the shortest direction to the 
sea, without caring for any obstacles. Aiier they have fin- 
ished their deposit they return much weakened. It is said 
tliat they hlock up their burrows during their moult ; and 
while they are undergoing this operation, and are still soft, 
they are called Boursiers (Purse-crabs), and their flesh is 
then much esteemed, although it is sometimes poisonous. 
This quality is attributed to the fruit of the manchineel, of 
uhich the people think, falsely perhaps, that the crabs have 
eaten. 

The reader will find under the article Birovs some 
extracts giving an account of die moulting of the Land-crabs, 
and showing that they are then called Crabes Boursiires, 
in the attempt to point out that Linnseus was misled in sup- 
poiing the*true Purse-crabs to be inhabitants of the Antilles, 
on the authority of Rochefort (voL iv., p. 433). With regard 
to the alleged want of foundation for the story of the Land- 
crabs being sometimes poisonous, in consequence of what 
they have eaten, there are so many testimonies to the fact, 
that it will he a fault on the right side to be cautious. Thus 
Sloane, who praises (as who does not ?) their delicacy of taste, 
says, • They are thought to bo poysonous when they feed on 
the Mansanilla-tree leaves or fruit, which I suppose may 
come from some of it sticking to their chaps, or lying undi- 
gested in their stomachs, which are not separated before 
eating.' Catesby writes, ' Some are black, some yellow, 
some red, and others variegated with red, white and yel- 
low mixed. Some of these, as well as of the fish of this 
country, are poisonous : of which several people have died, 
particularly of the black kind : the light coloured are rdc- 
Kooed best, and when full in flesh are very well tasted. In 
^me of the sugar islands they are eat without danger, and 
are no small help to the neero slaves, who on many of the 
islands would fare very ill without them. Thev feed on 
'Vegetables.' Hughes, speaking of the ' large white land- 
crab,' and its feeing on grass, &e., remarks, ' They like- 
wise often feed upon manchineel apples, as well as upon 
the leaves or berries of poison-trees. At such times they 
arb dangerous to be eaten, unless very great care be taken 
to wa8h the fiit, as well as the other meat on the inside, with 
lime-juice and water.' He says the same in effect of ' the 
Mulatto Crab.' 

M. Milne Edwards thus gives his summary : — The greater 
number ordinarily haunt humid places, and hide themselves 
io holes which they excavate in the earth, but the localities 
preferred by them vary with the species. Some live in the 
low and marshy lands near the sea, others on the wooded 

* ' IH 1« RMplratloa afrienoe det Cnutaeei, etdcf modificAtiona quo i apva- 
rai bnnchki eprouT* daiM 1m crabos tenwlrei.* 



hills fiir from the shore ; and at certain epochs,' these liat 
quit their habitual dwelling to go to the sea. It is even le- 
ported that then these crustaceans unite in great bands and 
thus make very long journeys without sufiering themselves 
to be stopped by any obstacle, and laying waste everything 
in their route. Their principal food consists of vegetable 
substances, and they are nocturnal or crepuscular in their 
habits. It is more particularly in the rainy season that they 
quit their burrows, and they run with great rapidity. It 
would appear that it is at the time of laying that they go to 
the sea and there deposit their eggs, but we know of no de- 
cidedly positive observation on this point. During their 
moult they remain hidden in their burrows. (Hist, Nat, 
des Crustaces.) 

We select Browne's account of the habits of the ' black 
or mountain crab' (Cancer Ruricola, Linn.), because ho re- 
sided many years in the Island of Jamaica, and seems to 
have lost no opportunity of making personal observations. 
' These creatures are very numerous in some parts of Ja- 
maica, as well as in the neighbouring islands and on the 
coast of the main continent ; they are generally of a dark 
purple colour, but this often varies, and you frequently And 
them spotted, or entirely of another hue. They live chiefly 
on dry land, and at a considerable distance from the sea. 
which however they visit once a year to wash off their spawn, 
and afterwards return to the woods and higher lands, where 
they continue for the remaining part of the season ; nor do 
the young ones ever fail to follow them as soon as they are 
able to crawl. The old crabs generally regain their habi- 
tations in the mountains, which are seldom within less than 
a mile, and not often above three from the shore, by the lat- 
ter end of June, and then provide themselves with conve- 
nient burrows, in which they pass the greatest part of the 
day, going out only at night to feed. In December and 
JaJiuary they begin to be in spawn, and are then very fat 
and delicate, but continue to grow richer until the month of 
May, which is the season for them to wash off their eggs. They 
begin to move down in February, and are very much abroad 
in March and April, which seems to be the time for the im- 
pregnation of their eggs, being then frequently found fixed 
together ; but the males about this time begin to lose their 
flavour and richness of their juices. The eggs are discharged 
from the body through two small round holes situated at 
the sides, and about the middle of the under shell ; these 
are only large enough to admit one at a time, and as they 
pass they are entangled in the branched capillaments, with 
which the under side of the apron is copiously supplied, to 
which they stick by the means of their proper gluten, until 
the creatures reach the surf, where they wash them all off, 
and then they begin to return back again to the mountains. 
It is remarkable that the bag or stomach of this creature 
changes its juices with the state of the body ; and while 
poor is full of a black, bitter, disagreeable fluid, which di- 
minishes as it fattens, and at length acquires a delicate rich 
flavour. About the month of July or August the crabs fat- 
ten again and prepare for mouldering, filling up their bur- 
rows with dry grass, leaves, and abundance of other mate- 
rials: when the proper period comes each retires to his 
hole, shuts up the passage, and remains quite inactive until 
he gets rid of his old shell and is fully provided with a new 
one. How long they continue in this state is uncertain, but 
the shell is observed to burst both at the back and sides to 
give a passage to the body, and it extracts its limbs from all 
the other parts gradually afterward. At this time the fish 
is in the richest state, and oovered only with a tender mem- 
branous skin, variegated with a multitude of reddish veins, 
but this hardens gradually after, and becomes soon a perfect 
shell like the former ; it is however remarkable that during 
this change there are some stony concretions always formed 
in the bag, which waste and dissolve gradually as the crea- 
ture forms and perfects its new crust. A wonderful mechan- 
ism ! This crao runs very fast, and always endeavours to 
get into some hole or crevice on the approach of danger ; 
nor does it wholly depend on its art and swiftness, for while 
it retreats it keeps both claws expanded, ready to catch the 
offender if he should come withm its reach, and if it suc- 
ceeds on these occasions it commonly throws off the claw, 
which continues to squeeze with incredible force for near a 
minute after ; while he, regardless of the loss, endeavours 
to make his escape and to gain a more secure or a more 
lonely covert, contented to renew his limb with his coat at 
the ensuing change ; nor would it l|rudge to lose many of 
the others to preserve the trunk entire, though each comes 



100 



GEO 



4ff with tnore Ubonr and reluctance^ m tbeir numben 

Thiu much of the bRbit* of the Lnnd-crabs of the Nav 
World. Tb« late bishop Heber in liis *NuTative' givM an 
aeoouDt of some Land-ctabt in India, living at a greal dU- 
Unce from tba lea, and obatructed bv R^^al obslaele* in their 
pMMLgeloit. 'The plain of Poonati.'writci the Bishop, 'ii 
very Lara of traei. and though there aro tome gardens im- 
nediatelv around the city, jet a* both lh«w and the cilj 
itself be m a small hollow on the bank* of the river Moota, 
ihejr ara not sufficiently conspicuous to interrupt the ^- 
neral character of nakedness in the pictutc, any more ihan 
the few young treei and ornamented shrubs with which 
the buiigaloivs of the cantonment are intormincled. The 
Drincipal and most pleasing feature is a small insulated 
nill immediately over the town, with a temple of the god- 
dess Parvati on its summit, and a la^e tank (which, when I 
saw it, was nearly dry) at its base. All the gnus-land rounil 
this tank, and generally through the Deckan, swarms wilh 
a smalt laud-crab, which burrows in the ground, and runs 
with considerable swiftness even when encumbered with a 
bundle of food almost as big as itself. This food is grass, 
or the green stalks of rice, and it is amusing to see them 
sitting as it were upright, to cut their hay witli their sharp 
pincers, then waddling off with the sheaf to their holes as 



<mbt, when in season and wall nouriabed. nay'lM nn- 
sidercd as combining the qualities of wlmlesomeness and 
deUcious flavour. We have conversed wilb men of virious 
tastes who have partaken of this luxurious food, and all 
aeree in describing it as exquisiie. ludeiid it appear* that 
wnen aimply cooked in its own juices, in its own Kliell, it 
requires no condiment but a squceie of the fragrant Iimo 
to make it one of the best of dishes. ' Wlioii the blarlc 
crab lGi:cardmii Ruricola) is fot,' says Dr. Patrick Bnrsni-, 
' anil in a perfect stale, it surpasses everything of the surt 
in Havour and delicacy; and frequently joins a little of tliv 
bitter with ita native riilincss, which lenders it not only 
more agreeable in gent^ral, but makes it sit extremely cany 
upon the stomach. They are frwiuemly boile<l and »lti<.i1 
up whole ; but are commonly slewed when sened up 
at the more sumptuous tables.' Land-crabs have bcvn 
brought alive la this country. We saw one or tuu in 
apparently good health, ruiming about in the Zoological 
Gardens in the Regent's Park. They wore, as well us nu 
recollect, of Ihe species last named, and came from the Wi-it 
Indies. The suggestion may be rather hard upon the W<--t 
Indiana ; but why, may we ask, aro not these crabs impuruil 
for our tables as rcj^'ulurly as turtle? Barrels with fro.-^ 
and other vegclables, such as they are generally kept in, 
when there is no better convenience, in their naii\c 
country, would not take much room on deck ; and if tin 



ihe position orPoimah, and road oflhe noighbouiing : 
and tank, we may feel inclined to ask whether the liv 
the tank might not be the eccnc of oripositin)); ; and, he 
adds, ihal it is not improbable that there may be a rai 
)and-OTobk appropriated to continental or even insula 
tualiona out of reach oflhe ocean, and that fresh n-ulcr 
Iw as neceanBry to their reproduction as sea water is tt 
land-ctabs of the West Indies. Such a supposition, he 
thinks, is in unison with the bountil\]l provisions of nature 
for the general diffusion of animal life. {Zoul. Jaumal, 
vol. iv.) 

Mr, Weslwood in his inlorceting paper 'On the supposed 
existence uf Melamorpboscs in the C'ruilacea' (Fkil, 'ti-aru., 
IttSS), notices the abdomens of seveml female crabs having 
the interior surface covered with hundreds of eggs or newly- 
batched young, which wore in the collection of the late 
Rsv. Lansdown Guilding, One of the bottles in which 
of these was deposited vas labelled by the last- mentioned 
contlcman, ' Bggit and young of a Land-crab not undmroing 
Metamorphosis.' From this specimen Mr. Wcstwood ob- 
tained cggi, and young crabs evidently just hatched, and 
others at a rather later slago of ihcir growth. The eggs 
were of a dark-rcddisb colour, showing through the outer 
integument the rudimcntal limbs of a future animal of a 
pnlcr colour. On removing the thin transparent pellicle 
which surrounded one of these eggs, the eyes were must 
conspicuous, the tail was teen extended as a narrow plate, 
nearly reaching to the eyes, and along its sides lay the large 
nulerior cheliforous, and the four following simnle paiis of 
limbs. The existing organs, although perfectly aiscurnible, 
occupied oidy a small portion of one side of the egg, its 
greater part being Riled with hardened matter composed of 
minute molecular grains. The animal was in a sullicienily 
forward stale of development not to allow the least doubt to 
bo entertained as to the uature of those limbs, nor did any 
organs appear answering to the two large split pairs of na- 
tatory oreans of Zo'ea. The branchin, in a tlcshy and un- 
ort^nized slate, were b1m> found at the Iwse of the legs. 
The cRRs were Ij lines in diameter. 

Mr. Westuood gives in his Memoir figures of the egg, 
and of the young crab in progressive stages of growth. His 
reputation as an ohiterver is too well JoundctI to allow a 
duubt of the accuracy of his illustrations and description ; 
and though, it Is true, the Rev. Mr. Guilding dues not slate 
the species, that lamented gentleman's acquirements ate 
too Well known to suppoite it possible that he should have 
misloken the tribe. Itideed, the subject oflhe reproduction 
of Land-crabs was one most likely to attract the attention 
ofa naturalist who devoted so much uf his attention to the 
loology of the Caribean Islands, and resided to long in one 
of them, Mr. Westwood'^j observations, then, anpear to 
embody a conclusive answer to the arguments adduced by 
Mr. Thompson bum the habits of the West IndUn Land- 
crabs ; fur they show that one species, at least, does not un- 
dereo metamorphosis. 

VlUity to man.— At an aitklo of food toiat of the J^aad- 



crabs were collectcl at tho 






lime and allowed • 



itn- 



cicnt moisture and only suflicient to keep them it 

an ordinary voyage would bring them to us, must probably. 

in very fair condition. 

M. Milne Edwards separates the Gecarcinialu into (be 

following genera : — 

Uja. <Lfttre.llo.) 

Generic Charaeter.—Carajmee much wider than it n 
long, of a suboval shapo, and very much elcvalcd. hrnni 
narrower than in the other Gocarcinians, very' much incliiic-l 
and nearly semicircular. OrbiU rather large, and i>|«ii 
externally below their external angle. Anterior /otsrtlf 
suboval. small, and separated by a small triangular prulmi- 
galion from tho epistome. Tho ejUnial antcinu ocruj)..! 
the orbitary internal cualhus. The buccal frame is <>r a 
rhomboidal form. The second ami third joint of the ej/rr- 
nal jaw feet are quadrilateral, nearly of the same siie, and 
terminate on the internal side by a straight border. Tl.u 
fourth joint is inserted at the external an^lc of the nrcou- 
ing, and is applied against it* anterior border. Tbc J'^-I 
present nothing particular, oxccpt that the pincers aio i 
liulo widened at the end and slightly spoon-shaped, and tlijt 
the tarsi are flattened, not spinous, and nearly of the tamu 
form as in Ocvpode. Thorocie bronchia five : tho mem- 
brane which lines tlie vault of tho branchial cvviiv u 
folded below and within, so as to form at its lover pan a 
son of gutter or trough. (M. E.) 

ioco/tiy.— The land. Particulnn of their Manner* oot 

Example, fpo una. (Marcgrave.) M. MUne Edward* 
considers this to be llic Cancer Uca, and Cancer conlii-i^ 
of Linnreus, Cancer cordatua of kerbst, Orypode mriiiin 
of Latreillo lUist. Nat. det Cnitt. el Int.), and {/pa I'liu iif 
tho same author (Encyc. Mitfwd.), and Gccarchiiu L'fn of 



m 




6 E C 



102 



G E C 



f GECKO, QSCKO-FAIOLY. GECKOUDA, anatural 

iamily of Saurians. 

Thair head is wide and flatteaed, with the mouth wide ; 
the nostrils are distinct and lateral ; the eyes large, hardly 
surrounded by short lids, the lower edge of which in the 
greater numUer of species does not project outwards, the 

f»upil sometimes rounded, but most frequently dentilated, 
inear, and lightly fringed ; and the auditory opening bor- 
dered with two folds of the skin. The teeth are small, 
equal, compressed, sharp at the point, entire, and planted 
in the internal edge of tne jaws : there are none on the pa- 
late. The tongue is short, fleshy, capable of but little elon- 
gation, and free at its extremity, which is either rounded or 
flattened, or very slightly notched. 

Their neck is apparently little, in consequence of the 
width of the back part of Uie bead and the squareness of 
the shoulders. Their body is thick and short, depressed, 
and low on the legs, with a belly flat boluw, dragging 
on the ground, and largest in the middle. There is no crest 
on the back. The tail varies, but is not long, and often has 
folds or circular depressions, but never a dorsal crest. 

The feet are shcNrt, nearly equal in length, wide apart, 
and robust ; the toes nearly equally long, most frequently 
flattened below, widened, and furnished with transverse, 
imbricated plates ; the nails vary, but they are ordinarily 
hooked, sharp, and retractile. Tlie conformation of the 
feet enables the Geckos to run with ease on the smoothest 
surfaces in every direction* or to remain stationary on them 
with the back downwards, after the manner of a common 
house-fly. 

The skin is defended by equal granular scales, most fre* 
quently interspersed with other tubercular scales, the 
points blunt or angular. There are femoral pores or pores 
in front of the vent, on the same line in the majority of 
species, and, most frequently, in the males only. The limbs 
and sides are sometimes bordered with fringed membranes. 

Organization. 

Skeleton, — ^The skull of the Geckotidaa is marked by some 
peculiar characters. The bones are well defined, nor do 
the sutures seem to be obliterated by age. In general con- 
tour it approaches the skull of the CrocodilidUe by its width, 
its flatness, and its length ; its particular resemblances to 
the same part in that family are to be found in the disposi- 
tion of the orbits and in the articulation of the jaws. The 
excavations for the eyes are vexv large and apparently in- 
complete, inasmuch as the orbital frame is not entirely bony 
in its back part, nor has it, so to speak, any flooring, so that 
when deprived of the softer parts the cavity communicates 
with the mouth. The articulation of the jaw is quite back- 
wards, and the oequadraium or interarticular bone is wide, 
short, and hollowed on its posterior surface, for the purpose 
of receiving the muscle wnos^ office it is to open the jaws 
and keep them open. The skull differs from that of the 
other lisards generally in the extreme smallness of the jugal 
and temporal bones, and in having the parietal bones oi- 
Tided longitudinally into two. 








Bknfl of Gedu) : a, eraoiom : h, lower kw ; c, a tooth cnUiied. 

(Cut. * Om. Fota/) 

The vertebrs vary in number, and, according to Meckel, 
their body is hollowed into two conical cavities, very nearly 
like those of fishes : the spinal column is without any spi- 
nous processes or projections. The three or four first cervical 
vertebrs only are without false ribs or transverse articulated 
a|)ophyses. These are gradually developed, and go on in- 
creasing in length and curvature to tlie fifth or seventh, 
but none of them are actually joined to the great anterior 



portion of the sternum. Those which follow readi and 

articulated with that bone. They acp aucceeded by tho free 
or abdominal ribs, which nearly equal in number the 
vertebra) which precede the pelvis, at least in the Banded 
Gecko, 

The sternum in the Common Gecko iPltUwiactylits ^Ua- 
tuaot Cuvier ; Gedio verue of Merrem and Uray ) coiuiitots of 
a very solid plate, which receives anteriorly and laterally in 
two angular notrhes the coracoid bones, which are wide and 
delicate, and the clavicles, which are narrow, elongated* and 
flattened, more especially at their sternal extrtimity. '11m- 
rhomboid and backward portion of this sternal platc'affonU 
attachment on the two posterior facings to three pair^ uf 
ribs. From the posterior or abdominal angle of this Ihhk* 
two small parallel bones or sternal prolongations are gi%rn 
off, along which three other pairs of ribs are affixed by liga- 
ments. After these six pairs of sternal ribs come Ht'\ia 
other pairs, which are curved at their free or abdominal ex- 
tremity into an obtuse angle, so that they are at thifi end 
directed forwards without any junction to a mesial line a« 
in the Chameleons. M. Dum6ril says that generally he ha^ 
only counted seventeen ribs, but he observes that there ar>* 
twenty-four in the Banded Gecko {PUUvdactylue vittatw <>t 
Cuvier; Gecko vittatus of authors). Hence M. Dum/'iii 
concludes that the number of ribs varies according to tlf 
species. 

The caudal and pelvic vertebrsB require notice. TIm* ar- 
ticulation of the former is either weak, or the body of* tlu* 
vertebra itself is apt to break in the middle, so that a slt^' lii 
effort separates them, and many individuals conseaucntt;^ 
lose their tails. When these are regenerated, cariuace )> 
generally found in the place of the former bone, and tl..- 
tail then presents a variety of forms. 

The bones of the limbs do not differ from those of tl.c 
other Saurians so as to require any particular de»rriptic»ri. 
with the exception of those of tho feet, and there the dii- 
ference is striking with relation to the greater portiun ui 
the class. In the Geckotids the bones of the feet are «<• 
disposed as to receive the five toes of equal or tiearly rquul 
length, and which radiate as it were irom a centre so as t' 
form a nearly complete circle ; for the external or great ft i 
cannot separate itself from the others to extend itself bsi-k- 
wards. The toes are not always furnished with nails: l»ut 
they are often provided with very remarkable ones, whi< h 
by their mobility and retractility remind the observer of the 
organization of the same parts in the cats {Felida*). 

Muscular System princij ally as relating to Loromottt^t,. 
— ^The muscles of the Geckotida* are highly irritable, a& nii^' !.t 
be expected in such nimble creaturest Their powder of u«l- 
hering to smooth surfaces makes it necessary that the n- 
sistance produced by the adhesion should be instanm- 
neously overcome in case of danger ; and we according! > H nci 
that a Gecko which at one moment is fixed motionU'^ i*. :i 
spot, vanishes as it were in tho next from under the hnvA 
stretched forth to capture it. 

Brain^ Nervous System^ and Senses. — ^The brain and 
nervous system are considerably developed in the Geckotidf, 
and the greater part of the senses are acute. 

Sight-— The orbits, as we have seen, are large and fiiil.- 
out any flooring or base, and as the eye in this faniil> is 
very large in proportion to the size of the animal, the pt*- 
jection of the posterior part of the globe may be seen m 
the inside of the mouth much in the same way as i& <>tt- 
servable in some fishes. There is scarcely any li«l, aii 1 
what there is is so small that an additional appeaniure • i 
prominence is given to the eyeball. This lid is simple, nr- 
cular, and adherent to the globe of the eve by nn intern..! 
fold. There is a nictitating membrane, ilost persons ha>»* 
seen that an epidermic scale which seems to be the extent il 
layer of the cornea comes off in serpents with the re>i 1 1* 
the skin, and in the Geckos also the integument passcb o\i r 
the front of the eyeball. The eye in such animals nc\tr .*»]» 
peers humid. M. Jules Cloquet has shown that in tho 
serpenta the tears probably are diffused between the epMhr- 
mic scale and cornea in order to arrive at the nostriU. TLe 
pupil is sometimes rounded, but most frequentlv pre>ent« 
a Imear slit, the edges of which are fringed, so that the animal 
can at its pleasure dilate or diminish the opening throui^h 
which the light and the images are to be admitted to ih.- 
retina. Like the cats therefore, the Geckos, though said u> 
be nocturnal in their habits, can also see perfectlv well m 
broad daylight. 

/fran'n^.— Tho auditory apertures in this family axe some 



GEO 



104 



6 £ C 



Tlie (CHophagus is very wule, ami M. Dumi^ril notices ui 
cxtranrdiuar}' appearance therein, when it is remembered 
that the part is not exposed to the lic^ht In many species, 
both living and dead, which ho examined, be found the in- 
terior of this canal strongly coloured with different but 
uniform shades, sometimes of an orange-yellow, but prin- 
cipally of a deep black. There is no distinct limit between 
the (Bsophagus and the stomach ; the crop ( jabot) is con- 
tinuous, and the whole forms a kind of longitudinal sac, 
which appears to be suddenly narrowed at the point corres- 
ponding to the pylorus, which is not to be detected except by 
this diminution of diameter and its position on the free and 
lower edge of the liver. The intestine is arranged in sinuous 
folds, and about three times the length of the CBsophaeus 
and ventriculus taken together, it turns to the left, and it 
lost on the side of a true and large ooecum, furnished with 
an appendage, and terminating by a large tube which has 
its opening]; in the cloaca. 

The tnangular liver is placed in the mesial line, but its 
upper angle is so much elongated, that in some species it 
forms a conical point, at least twice as long as ttie base. 
This point lies in ftont of the stomach in the space left by 
the two lungs when they are filled with air. Below, the 
liver enlarges, and is divided into many lobes or indistinct 
strips, with the exception of that on the left, which is longest 
The gall-bladder is situated under the mesial lobe. M. 
Dum6ril states that there does not appear to be a pancreas, 
but he observed in the Common Gecko and in the Fimbri- 
aied Gecko {Ptyodactyliu flmbriatm) a very small spleen 
situated on the left side of the stomach. 

Circtdating System. — ^The shape of the heart varies. In 
the Common Gecko it is large and flat, but has neverthe- 
less a tolerably regul<^r conical form, the point of the cone 
being below, and the base, which is slightly notched, leaning 
on the root of the two lungs. In the Fimbriated Gecko, on 
the contrary, M. Dum^ril states the heart to be propor- 
tionally smaller, and apparently formed of three distinct 
but approximated portions, the two upper rounded and 
pval, resembling auricles, and the other and lower portions 
small and conioal. He acknowledges that he has not fol- 
lowed out the vascular system, but presumes that it re- 
sembles in its distribution that of the other Saurians. 

Respiratory System and Organ qf Voice,— Tha glottis 
consists of a longitudinal slit with two large lips, which 
form a sort of tubercle behind the posterior notched portion 
of the tongue, the movements of which it follows, and can 
consequently bo lifted up and applied to the concavity of 
the palate. The trachea is very large, and the rines, 
which are cartilaginous anteriorly but membranous on the 
sidi; next to the cBsophagus, cause it to be considerably flat- 
tened. The lungs form two sacs, as ih the Salamanders, 
and are nearly equal in volume and length. Their internal 
cavity is simple, but there are polygonal cellides on their 
internal membranous linings, and in the lines forming these 
tlic arterial and venous vessels are ramified. The Gecko- 
tidflo are without anv goitre, and M. Dum^ril is unable to 
account for the proiluction of the voice, but he inquires 
whether the cry which they emit, and which is supposed to 
be in some degree imitated by their names of 'Gecko,* 
' Geitje,* &c., may not be assisted by the movements of the 
tons^uc, and its reception in the concavity of the palate ; 
analogous, we suppose, to the production of the sound with 
which a coachman or groom stimulates his horses by apply- 
ing the tongue to the upper port of the mouth and sud- 
denly withdrawing it. 

Urinary and Genital Organs,— There is no urinary 
bladder, nor do the rounded kidneys, whose ureters are not 
long and open directly into the cloaca, reauire particular 
nonce. Tlie organs of generation in the males (which are 
smaller, more agile, and more brightly coloured than the 
females) are double, and lodged on earn side of the base of 
the tail, which has consequently a swollen appearance. The 
^gg'if which are often deposited between stones, are auite 
round, with a rather solid, slightly rough, calcareous shell, of 
a uniform dirty whiter M. Dumerilhas seen these eggs pro* 
duce the young ones,which were well formed and very nimble* 

Peculiar Secretions,— The author last named states that 
ho has observed in many species some peculiar organs, 
liomettmes double, sometimes united in a single flattened 
elongated mass under the abdominal parietes in front of the 
pubis, in place of a urinary bladder. They appeared to be 
ot n fiiUy nature, and were sustained in one part bv the os 
pubi», oud on iho other possessed vascular or membranous 
single or double pro]ongationS| psitt'^ in tho (bickne^a of I 



the peritoneum as far as tbe liver. Though he knows nol 
the office of these organs, he thinks it probable that tin > 
may be destined to afford nourishment to the animal in u 
state of hybernation. The pores of the thighs, &c. secrete 
a thick humor ; and M. Dum6ril observes that these porvi 
afford no generic character. 

Habits, Foody ^. — ^The Geckotids are none of them 
large in size, and the greatest number feed on small ani- 
mals, such as insects, tneir lan-n and pups, lliese \\m\ 
catch either by lying in ambush or by pursuing their feel do 
prey in the holes and dark crevices to which it retires. TLo 
structure of their feet enables them to run in every direc- 
tion over the smoothest surfaces, and they can e\*en remain 
suspended beneath the large leaves which a luxuriant tr«>- 
pical vegetation so frequently puts forth. The sharp an* I 
retractile naiU with which the feet of the greater nimiUcr 
are armed enable them to cling to and make rapid progn -.« 
on trees with the smoothest bark, to penetrate the nole& uf 
rocks, and to climb walls. Of sombre or varying eoluurv 
adapted generally to the locality where their lot is cast. tl>r> 
will often remain for hours in positions as extraordinar}- a^ 
the flies and insects for which they watch, the wonder ( id 
apparatus with which their feet is furnished enabling tltcm 
to overcome the general law of gravity, and without wlurh 
they would instantly fall to the earth. The hues of their 
skins thus render them less objects of suspicion to the little 
animals for wliich they lie in wait, and also serve to do«lu'o 
even the acute eye of the bird of prey that seeks to desi r<>> 
them. Their eyes, as we have seen, enable them to disrei ii 
objects in tbe dark, and are at the same time capable of 
bearing the rays of a bright sim ; for many insects are n* «- 
turnal or crepuscular, whilo the great mass of them urc 
diurnal. The pursuit of their prey leads them near xUv 
habitations of man, whose dwelling always attracts certain 
kinds of insects, and they sometimes fall victims to th.-.r 
appearance, which frequently inspires terror, ond aVu u 
disgust. A Gecko, confident in his powers of flij^ht, ;i^. 
pears boldly to await his adversary, and his sudden di-;.^. 
pearance at a nearer approach ad'ls to the horror whu.ii tu> 
uncouth form inspires. The poor Geckos too have a 1... 1 
name. They are supposed to poison whatsoever they tot.t h. 
be it animate or inanimate, and their i^aliva is said to vex tlu 
skin of those on whom it falls with foul eruptions. Many •* 
these cuticular irritations, when they have actually exi^u . 
from the intervention of these animals, may liave oii-« 
from the extremely sharp claws of a Gecko running; u\ i .- .. 
sleeping man, or small blisters may liave been raised b % ; i • 
adherent appaiatus at the bottom of its feet. 

Geographical Distribution. — ^The form is found in u"i 
the foiur Quarters of the globe, and is widely distrihii(« I 
in warm climates. In this distribution Europe, as fur :i> 
observation has yet gone, claims by far the fewest nuiulcr. 
Two species only have yet been found in this quarter uf \\ 
globe, and even these are common to the northern coast > , r 
Africa. Tbe Prince of Musignano has noticed them in (1 .» 
* Fauna Italica,* under the names of Ascalabotes Jif^^un- 
tanicus and Hemidactylus triednts. The former is a Pla; \ - 
dactyl us of Dum^ril and others. In Asia tbe grentt.>: 
number are found: thirteen species are recorded as Assiat .*. 
Africa is said to possess twelve, and America eleven siK^rit- «, 
as far as researches have hitherto gone. In Austiala^-.n 
and Polynesia there ore said to have been found tut!\«* 
species. M. Dum^ril, in his Table, gives the follow it..' 
numbers: — In Europe, 2; in Asia, 13; common to ImiiI. 
none. In Africa, 12; in America, 12; common to l>utlt. 
none. In Australasia and Polynesia, 12. Of unknot, 
origin, 4: = 55. In addition to the 13 Asiatic s|)ecies, thcr. 
is another which is also found in South Africa and in t'.<o 
neighbouring islands. Some of the African sperieA arc 
found also in Madagascar, the Mauritius, and the island'* > f 
Seychelles, Tenerine and Madeira. It is not clear that Mr. 
Gny*s genus G^Ayra, which he characterizes from a Geek t 
found in an island of the Pacific Ocean, is included in th <« 
enumeration. Besides the species which Mr. Gray desmlu , 
in the'Zool. Proc' (1834), he aUudes to the probabi}.*> 
of two other species, one in the British Museum, atid an.^ 
ther in the Museum d*Histoire Naturelle, at Paris. 

SvsTXKATic Arrangement, &c. 

There can be little doubt that the ^ k9Kakap^^r^c of Ari^t r * 1 tr 
and of the Greeks generally was a Gecko. Aristopham > 
and Theophrastus, as Gesner has shown, speak of tht^^o 
lizards which the Italians called Tarentola, whose UkIk -» 
)v^r<? short tmd Unck, and which claiiib«|re4 ftbQUt tbe walU 




L PUIyliietflM f>«T«WIUiiiih (DsnfrlL) 



loctilily. llie Seychelles Iilands. 




Loea/ilff. New Holland. 

The siudcnl wlio wishca lo follow out the natuTsI history 
or lliis fumily of Saurians should consult the works of Al- 
'Inivundi. Aristotle. Ilunnimrle (Prince of Musii^nano), 
llruiiKuiarl, Creveldl, Cuvier. Dum^ril. Edwanls, Eicbvald, 
l'i-iii1Ii'v„ Flucourl, GcutTruy. Gesner, Gmelin. Gray, Her- 
inuiiLi. lliuiituvn. Knorr, Kuhl. Lac^pMe. l^trei lie. Lesson, 
Lii'liiuii'.iuiii, Linnmus, tlic Prince uf Neuwlod. Oppel, 
OsLink, PiiUns, I'vrraull, Pisa, Pliny, Ra[lneK|Uc, Risso. 
Kiipiwl. Ruvsch, Schneidi-r, Scliini. Scba. Sparmann, Si>ix, 
nr. -ins. Wnit't-r, Wliiie. Wi.Kmann. and Wormius. 

Oi;i>lJES, ALEXANDER, LL.D.. was born at Arra- 
iIiimI, in lliu parish of Ruthven and county of Banff, in 
-;<-..:l,-iiid. Ill AD, 173r. Hi* parents, who were in humble 
<M'uni 'lances "crc enabled, by the kindness uf ihu laird of 
iLi' mIIu);o. til ijlvu ilieir i-on a resniclnlile education. After 
v'cnditii; seven icars at Scalan, a Roman Catholic Eeminary 
111 ilie Hu'lilandit. he was removed at the agcuflweniy-onc 
lu itie Si-olch ciiUene in Paris, where Le diligently studied 
i)Kvlo(;y. and madu himMlftnasler of moat of the modem 
European lanKuagos. On hurelum to Scotland he resided 
fur«oiDU linio in the houae of the Earl ofTraquairc ; and, 
aflur paying another visit lo Paris, he accepteil, in ITfiO, 
the cliurge uf a Catholic congregation al Auchinhulri^ in 
ihui'ouutyufBanff. where he remained for ton years, beloved 
liy liis people, end nt'cniivc to the duiirs of hni station. Ht 
''"' resolved — in the early yean of liis life lo make a new 



. (Dun, 



no 



translation of the Bible into the English lanpiage, for th- 
use of the Roman Catholics ; but pecuniary diJBcultie8p:c- 
venled him during his residence at Auchinbalrig Arom ob- 
taining the necessary booka. On his removal to L.un<lt'ii. 
in 17j9, he was introduced to Lord Poire, who warmly u)i- 
proved of his purpose, and engaged to allow him HH'/. a- 
vear for his hie, and to procure for him all the works ih.it 
he considered requisite. Thus encouraged he pubtishud, in 
)7HI), a pamphlet under the title of an ' Idea of a new \\i- 
sion of the Holy Bible, for the use of iho EngU=h Calhul..--.- 
in which ha proposed to make the V.ilgate the basis uf li,. 
new translation. This plan being oHerwards ahandonol. |. 
rcHolvcd to miike an entirely new translation from ibc Ilo- 
brew andGrcek;for if he had adopted the former mitln"!. 
he slated ' that he must have been perpetually confrwniinu' 
Ihe Vulgate with the originals, and very often correciiii.: r. 
by them; or presented his readers with a very unfair i<r,.: 
imperfect representation of the sacred text.' In acr>iiLi- 
plishing this work, his first object was directed to oblaim -^ 
an accurate text, and no labour was spared by this indrf.t: 
gable scholar to render the tranidatiun ns complete as )»'• 
Bible. Ho consnlled the most eminent biblical scholars . f 
■be day. amunv whom were Dr. Kcnnicott, and Dr. Loull'. 
the bishop of London, who assisted him with then advi- 1 . 
The I'rospectus, which contained an account of hia plan, u ^i ~ 
pubUaUedinl7tf' ■'-' f-..-_ .. ^ . _ . 



; (his was soon followed by a letter ii 



E L I' 

ono of Ihe mort powrtful of th« Gfenan "eolonle* in 
Sicily, and i-onliiiucd u U Ihe time oTGelim [Gklo^]. who 
n-inured ibe gremlcr put of iU inhlfailmdli to Sjraeuie : 
ktler which it npiiilr lunk in importtrw*. and never again 
obiiined i<» former power. The tnodem town of Terra 
^ww U mppoied to haro beett built npwi i« wte. The Mi- 
noianr on Ibe coin of Oela, below, it ^ntwlical of the origin 
of (he citf . 




CttattOAL 
nrilUh Uirnm. AHulili^ Slim. Wriil>l.3«»llimli 

GRLVRIMUS, a genu of Braehyunius Cnislaceani. 
rOcv?ODi*Ni.] 

GBLA'tilUS I. luweeiled Felix II. a* bishop of Rome, 
A.D. A9i, and carried on tba rontrorerey with the Greek 
cliuri-h which had begun under bii predecessor, but wilhoul 
bringing it to any conciuiion. He died in -lOe, and waa 
■u. CL-c^leil by Anaitaiiu« II. Geianiui wrote screra) (heo- 
luffical works, such ai * De IhiKbui NaturU in Chrialo,' '- 
which Iw exprcBfc* Ktitimenta which are coniidered 
oppotcd 10 Iransubatanlblbn. It a fuuod in the Lyon 
liiUiiithxfa MiiTima Patrum. 

GKLA'SIUS II., aBenedicIinc monk, succeeded PaH-hal 
II.. *.]>. II IB. The popes wen; tlwn al open war with the 
cnijierara of Germany ; and Ihc paniiani of iho Utter 
Roino, headed by Ihe powerful family of Fnuigipani, opposed 
the clcc^lion of Gelatiua, and afieruardg seized him and 
personally ill-lrcatc<l him, unltl he was rescued from their 
hands hy the prvfect of Rome. Soon ndcr, ihe Emperor 
Ileiiry V. came himself with troops, and the pope having 
run away to Gaela, nn anli-pope was eleclcd 1^ the Im- 
perial pnrly, who styled himself Gregory VIII, Gelasius, 
after many wanderings, repaired to France, where he held 
a uiuncil at Rheitns. He died at ibo convent ofCluny, in 
January. 1 1 IU, aDer a short hut stormy poniiflcate, and was 
BUccpedeil liy Calixlus II. 

GELATIN. [FiJOD. vol. s., p. 343 ] 

GELDER ROSE, or rather. GUELDRES ROSE, a 
douklo variety of iho Viburnum Opulua, a marsh shrub, 
common in this country and nil the north of Europe, The 
uama of lliis variety is suppused to iiidirate its nngin in the 
Low Counlriea: it is aUo called the snowball- tree, in 
allusion to its large while balls of llowen. 

OELE'E. CLAUDE. [Clauob Lokbaine.] 

GELLERT, CHRISTIAN FURCIITEGOTT. bom 
nenr C'licinuiti. in Saxony, acquired a ^rcat reputation as a 
vrirer of fiiblos and as a momlist. 'Jlic timplicily of his 
manner*, his canduur, and goudiiuM of heart, contributed to 
render him popular with alli-las^-s. Frederic II. and Prinre 
Henry were very partial to him, notwithstanding his habitual 
shyncia His ' Vaboln und Eriiihlungen' had a prodigiou* 
■ucrcA* in Germany. Ha also wrote ' Sacred Odes and 
N<>ni;ii.' which are much esteemed. His 'Letters' have also 
Ihi'ii publislicd. Tlie cullectiun of his work*. ' Sammtlicbe 
Werke,' form* part of ihe ' KarlsruherDcutseherClassiker.' 
IH'J.1 C. His fables and lolter!i were translated into Frencli, 
S tills. Hvo, with a biographical notice of the aulhor. Gel- 
Icrt died al Leipiig, where he was professor of philosophy, 
in December, 1 7r>'j, and a monument waa raised td him in 
the church of SL John, with a caul uf hit he«d in bronie. 
The boukaeller ^Voiidler. who published his works, aln raised 
a monument to ihe memory uf Gellert in his garden. 

GE'LLIUS. AULUS (or. according lo some writers, 

Aticlliuaj, the aulhorofthe'Noclus Allien),* was bom at Rome 

HI llic early ).urlof the second century, and died at the be- 

L'ititimK iif tlie rcii;n of the Emperor Morbus Aurelius. We 

lijve Im' particulars of his Ufe; we know that be studied 

rhetoric under Curnclius Kmnlo at Rome, and philoeophy 

under I'liavorinus at Athens, and that he was appoinled at 

■u early site lo a judicial office, (Noet. All. ziv. a.) Tlie 

'IJCK* was written, as lie informs ns in the pre- 

uuik, during ll>e winter oveninits in Allies, 

.c^iitdren in their hours of rclasalion. It ap- 

lis own Mcount, lliat be luul been accuslomeo 



C E L 

keep a eommon-plaee book, in whielibettnleredwbalcTf-t- 
he heard in conversation or met with in bis private rcadm _: 
Ibat appeared worthy of roeiOTy. In composing his ' Nwu- ■• 
Atlicw. he seems mcrelv lo have copied the contents of li i* 
common-place book with a little ollention in the langua^-, 
but wilhonl 'any ailempt at claMillcation or arrmngomcni. 
This work contains aneobtes and erKunenls, scraps of hi'*- 
tory and pieces of poetry, and dissertalioiu on various points 
in pfailoaophy. geometry, and grammar. Amidst much tliat i-> 
iriHing and puerile, we obtain information ou manr suUerc> 
relating to aniiquiiv, of which we must otherwise faai'e t><t:ii 
ignorant. It isdivi'ied into twenty books, which are still ex- 
tant, wiih the exception of the eighth and the bcpinning of 
the seventh. He roenlions, in the conclusion of his preface. 



for the first lime atRome. 14(19, and has been frequenily 
reprinted; the most valuable editions are tlieBipont, 2 vuli. 
Bvo. 1 784. the one published by Gronoviua, 4to. I 706, and a 
recentoneby Lion, 2 vols. Svo, Gijllingen, 1824. The work 
bos been translated into Enclisli by Beloo. 3 vol*. Svo., Lon- 
don, Ii9j ; and into French, by Doui£ de Vertcuil, 3 vul^ 
l2roo. Pari-, 1776 — IT;?.' 

GELON. a naiive of Gcla, rose from the Elation 
of a private ciliien to be supreme ruler of Gela *iid 
Siraruse. He was descended from an ancient family, 
which originally came from Telus. an island off ifae rtta-t 
ofCoria, and settled at Gcla when it was first colonizril 
by the Rliodians; at which place hi<> ancestors held tlio 
olUce -of lioredilary minister of the infernal gods (x'^urux 
SiDJ (Herodotus, vii. I.SIl). During Iho time that Hii>[H>- 
rrates rcigned at Gela(B,c. 4'JS — 4'Jl). Gdon was appoiii Itil 
commander of the cavalry, and greatly distinguished him- 
self in the various wars that Hippocralet carried on oigaiiitt 
the Grecian citie> in Kicily. On the death of Hipnocntli",. 
who fell in a batlle against the Siceli, Gelon seiiea the su- 
preme power (H.c. 491 >. Soon afterwards a. more spleiidiJ 
prise fell in his way. The nobles and landholders iya^Af>p< ) 
of Syracuse, who had been expelled from Ihe cily by an 
insurreclion of their slaves supported by (hcrc«t of the pop- 
ple, applied to Gelon for assistance. ThiscrafWprinceiilaiili 
avading himself of the opportunity of exteniling his diiriii- 
nions, marched to Syracuse, into which be was lidmlttcil b; 
Ihe popular party (B.c.4H&).'iihQ had not the means of ic>':M- 
ing so formidable an opponent, (Herodotus, vii. |j4, l j;,| 
Huving thus become mB«IcrofSyraciisc,hespniintcd his Im^ 
tlierHi^ron governor of Gel*, und exerted all his endcavuLr- 
lo promote the prosperity of his new acquisition- In onter lu 
increase the population of Syiacu^ie, he destroyed Camarii. ■. 
and removed all ils inhabitants, together with a great num- 
ber of ihe citizens of Gela, to his favourite city. As lie \> li 
indebted fur his power in Syracuse lo the aristocrain"! 
party, ho took care lo strengthen it against Ifae p<'ii|,l>'. 
Thus when ho conquered the Megarians and Eubcean- i>I 
Sicily, he Irons plan teil to Syracuse all those wlio a>ii.- 
po^iieased of wealth, hut sold 1lie remainder as ularea. <1K'- 
rod. vii. IJG.) Ky his various conquests nnd his gr>'.<! 
abilities he had become a very powerful monarch; o.,! 
therefore, when the Greeks expected Ihe invasion of XerTt-. 
amUisitadors were sent to S)Tiicuse to secure if possible li.< 
assistance in the nar. Gelon promiiied lo send to tlwir a"l 
jOO triremes, au,000 heavy-Brmud troo]>s, SUDD i-avalry, and 
60U0 light-armed trooM, proviiled ibe supreme comma^l 
were given to him. This offer being Indignanlly rvioriil 
hy the Loredamonian and Athenian ambassadors, Geli ii 
sent, according to Herodotus, an individual named Cadmi.i 
to Delphi with great treasures, with orders lo present ib<m 
to Xerxes If he proved victorious in the coming w«r. (He 
rod. vii. 157—164.) This statement however was deni <! 
by ihe Syracusans, who said that Gelon would haieas'i-lol 
the Greeks, if he had not bocn prevented by an invasion . ! 
the Carthaginians with a force amounting lo SOO.OUD nioii 
under the command of Harailcar. This great army was entirrli 
defeated near Himern by Gelon, and Theruii, inonsrch Jl 
Agrigeiitum.on thesameday on which the batlleofSalanii^ 
was fought. (Herod, vii. 161 — 167.) An account of Dns 
expedition is alsogiven by Dioilorus (b. xi.p. S&4, 8lepb-).ali<> 
Slates that the battle between Gelon and the Carlhagiiitaiit 
was fought on the same dav as that of TbermopylB. 
Gelun appears 10 have used with moderation the power wh irh 
he had acquired by violence, and to have endcvvd him-eif 
to Ihu Syracusans by the equity of his government and the 
I eneouragemefli be gan lo ooniDeiM and the fne wt*. 



6 B N 



110 



GEN 



all oTor Wanee; it fternitheB paUob, amsta oriniiiial% 
examines the passports of traveUers, aad contributes to the 
maintenance of good order. Gendarmes are eenerally 
stationed at the barriers or gates of the towns, at the prin- 
cipal inns on the roads, at markets and fairs, and along the 
lines of the frontiers. Thev are divided into foot and hone : 
gendarmeB d pied^ geniarfnti d ckeval. They form a 
distinct corps in the army, under their own superior officers^ 
who are under the orders of the ministers of the interior 
and of police ; but in case of war, they may be called into 
active service like the other corps of the army. The gend* 
armerie is mostly recruited from old and deserving soldiers 
of other regiments, who consider it as a promotion, as they 
have better pav and enjoy greater liberty. This explains 
why the gendarmes, generally speaking, are remarkably 
well behaved and truster men, who, while strictly executing 
their duties, behave with considerable civilitv towards un- 
offending people, such as travellers, and especially foreigners. 
The same description of troops exists in the Italian states, 
where they are called Carabineers. 

GENDER is a grammatical principle entering into the 
structure of nearly every language, according to which 
nouns are distributed into classes. There are, strictly 
speaking, but two genders, masctUin$ and feminine ; those 
which belong to neither of those classes were said to be 
neuiriue generie, of neither gender: this third class are 
called somewhat incorrectly neuters, and hence by a second 
irregularity it is the ordinary practice of grammarians to 
speak of three genders. 

That sexual distinction was the fountain from whence 
the doctrine of grammatical gender was derived cannot be 
reasonably disputed. As a consequence of this the principle 
must have been confined originally to living beings, and 
among these it must have been stiU further limited to those 
animals where the distinction of the sex was readily per- 
ceived, as in the mane of the lion, the plumage of the pea- 
cock, or the magnitude of the bull. In the smaller animals 
it would be often difficult to ascertain the sex, and useless 
to denote it. But utility and truth are not the sole govern- 
ing principles of language ; they are often sacrificed to tha 
love of imagery and personification. Thus the beautiful 
and pleasing absurdity which characterises the language of 
fable recommends itself to the infant mind whether of the 
savage or the child. The rose, the lily, (he sun, the moon, 
are all endowed with the faculty of speech, and it then be- 
comes almost necessary to add the distinction of sex. Here 
the choice roust depend upon the association of ideas. Ac- 
tion, freedom, strength, magnitude, and violence, are the 
marked attributes of the male ; sufferance, subjection, timi- 
dity, together with pregnancy, of the female. In the appli- 
cation of these notions, the realities of nature are often neg- 
lected. The domestic animals, having lost all the violence 
of the natural state, convey to the mind the idea of some- 
thing feminine. Thus among the Romans even the dog 
was in ordinary language considered to be of that gender ; 
while the English, contrasting that noble and powerful 
animal with the clean and delicate but irritable cat, have 
allotted the masculine gender to the dog, to the other the 
feminine. The feather^ creation again, by their small size, 
their weakness, and the delicacy of their plumage, are na- 
turally associated with the tender sex, with the exception 
commonly of the eagle, kite, hawk, &c. 

In the meanwhile the neuter is employed to denote that 
the notion of gender is not entertained ; it is therefore, as 
Grimm has well observed, the proper grammatical form for 
the young of animals where the sexual distinctions are im- 
perfectly developed. Thus in the greater part of the Teu- 
tonic languages, the terms for /ocU, calf, lamb, child, &c., 
arc of the neuter gender ; and in the Greek there occur 
many similar forms, as rcrvov, /Spc^Ci &c. Hence by an 
easy connexion the diminutives generally in the Greek and 
Teutonic languages are of the same gender. In the further 
extension of the idea of gender, first to material objects 
without life, and then to abstract terms and mental notions, 
the directing associations are weaker, and the mind is in a 
state of oscillation. It may be observed however that ab- 
stract nouns, or to speak more correctly, general terms, are 
usually included among the feminines, perhaps from a 
notion of pregnancy, the one term including a large aggre- 
gate of concrete ideas. There arc indeed exceptions to this 
principle ; for instance, in the large family of Latin words 
which have the suffix or {honor, pudor, &c.), but this 
y u probably to be explained by the similarity of tlia 



I* 



It 



termination to the maseuline suflix ior. The French lan- 
guage has corrected this anomaly in la jmdeur, &c. 

Tlie mode of denoting gender is also deserving of c« »uh' •! <• r- 
ation. One of the most direct methods would appear to W • > 
assign names absolutely different to the male and female 1 1 ..ii 
is, in tliose cases where the terms are used in their natui .il, 
not their metaphorical sense. Thus we have in our o .. n 
language boiy and girU horse and mare, bull and cote. k<-. 
Ghie of the defects of such a principle would be the want «.f 
a general rule by which to aenote the gender in any r« « 
instance, and the consequent multiplication of terms. But 
independently of the advantages and disadvantages of ;l.:^ 
notation, there are good reasons for believing tliat in Urt 
the distinction «of sex was not originally denoted b> ...i 
absolute difference of term. 

The word mant for instance, in the oldest Teutonic laiu « : jc 
had the general meaning of a human being, like ii.. 
Greek ay^pn^iroc, or Latin homo, and only gained the cx« lu- 
sive notion of a male when its derivative moftntAr., i.r 
mensche was formed to express the general idea. 'II*" 
German term^ou again is now confined to the female. I t 
there is found in nearly all the older dialects of tliv (m r- 
man a masculine so nearly identical {frauha, Gothic; ^ «. 
old high German; froho, old Saxon; frea, Anjrlo-Sax ii.i 
that the notion of the female can scarcelv have lieen \xn c- 
rent in the word. Similar results would be ^iven h) a:i 
examination of the English word maid, the Latm fnur, h^--. 
In the animal kingdom the same confusion prevaiU. Ti . 
Latin ovis is commonly feminine; and in fact our En^'i. b 
term ewe may be indisputably proved to be the same w^tl . 
still, in the earlier form of the Latin language, the««.iii 
was also applied in the sense of ariee* It occurs, for .t 
stance, in the name of the sacrifice Suovetaurilia^ ulkn 
the word taurus leads us to expect the idea of a ram . 
ovis, and of a boar in sue; and in fact antient reliefa pr.^u 
that the animals sacrificed at this festival were uncas>irn:>»i 
males. Tlie word siu, corresponding in ordinary si(^niti< :)- 
tion, as also in form, to the English sow, is a parallel i-<^«'. 
Indeed the Greek language exhibits this very word as n* ; 
confined to either sex. A long enumeration of similar in- 
stances, with the necessary proofi^ would be out of p!j e 
here. It will be sufficient to notice that the English tenui 
mare and hen appear in other branches of the Teuu i.. ' 
language as representatives of the male. Lastly, those w i.^ 
attribute to these monosyllabic forms a distinct notu n • f 
gender will find it difficult to avoid the inference tli..: ..' 
gallus, for example, originally meant a cock, and ii<u u^ 
is here maintained, a/ou?/ generally, £^a//t>ia included t:.c 
notion of both sexes, ^/emale cock, A more simple in< <I . i 
denoting gender is by the addition ofas})ecial suffix. Thu^ ii e 
Latin termination on, like the Italian one, appears to ba\e r.^r- 
ried with it the idea of magnitude, as in the familiar cu. - 
mina Nason, Caption, &c. It was therefore well a(la)> • <. tj 
denote the male gender, which is commonly accompunici: . ^ 
superior magnitude. Thus leon, a lion, is in reality foru).*! 
of two words, le or Ii, the simple name of the animal, ual 
ort, great. The form Ii (nom. Xi^) occurs in the Gre«k ].ir,- 
guageas well as Xfwv; and moreover, if the name of tic 
animal was thus monosyllabic, it is seen at once how luiu- 
ral it was to adopt it, as was in fact the case, for the hu-:> - 
glyph ical symbol, or at any rate for the Hebrew character >t' 
the letter 2. The addition of the feminine suffix t»a it 
aina to the same root le gave the female leaena; and in- 
deed the same suffix appears in gallina, regina, the Gn « k 
fiaeiXiwa, the German kbniginn, &c. O? the male ^• !i \ 
other examples maybe seen in centurion, coupon, /al- ". 
pavon,^o»\ the last of which maybe compared with \Uk 
Greek rao^^c* and the English pea-cock. The mo»t fi*- 
quent suffix in the Greek language to denote the U tw- 
niiie is the syllable «a, as in rhnnissa, Kiltssa, and : 
participles tuptont-sa, the parent of iuptuusattui'hfhfnt a i, 
afterwards tuphtheisa. The same suffix is founa ui the (* '- 
thic, as gait'Sa, cajira ; and in German, as/arr^» a hull. /< ' ' ' 
a cow. Our own language too is familiar wiih what v* y •• 
bably the same suffix in seamstr-ess, laundress (from /.i« • - 
der-ess). In the Greek language this sufhx appears at in - 
to have lo^t its sibilant, as was so common in that lanci •.:>'. 
Hence the forms /3a<riXf-ia, otfia, rtrv^vta, fur rcri^ar ..*. 
Thus, at last, the vowel a appeared to be the charin' • ' 
istic of the feminine gender; and it would ap|}ear t.« !•• 
result of error rather than of principle, that in the Li . 
language the first declension got connected with in.-i 
gender. The forms seribOp uicom, &c., with the numervui 



6 £ N 



111 



(J fe N 



proper names, Oinna, SuHa, &c., prove that the notion of 
the female was not inherent in this declension ; and proba- 
bly the fact was that there c^^existed in Italy two dialects, 
one preferring a, the other o (precisely as in our own island, 
there are the two forms two and two, who and wha, one and 
ane) ; and secondly, that by a false refinement in language, 
an arbitrary distinction of gender was set up between them. 
Tlie ^ame argument of course applies to the Greek form 
nya9o-c and ayaOa or ayaOtf, in which it must be caredilly 
recollected that the sibilant at the end of oyaBo^ has nothing 
to do with the question, as it is simpiy the representative of 
the noTiiinative case. It should also be recollected that the 
older Greek language abounds in the common adjectives, 
such as 6 and 17 adavaroc. Moreover the advocates of an 
ori<;inal distinction of gender in the two first declensions 
have to explain the anomalies of such forms as ^ oSoq, &c, 
and the Latin manust /agu9, &c. Again, that the Latin 
forms bono and bona were originally but dialectic varieties 
appears to be established by the consideration that nearly 
all derivatives ftom the second declension take an a, as 
aibare, aurare, &c., a strange consequence of which is, 
that the Latin language is almost wholly deprived of a con- 
jugation of verbs in corresponding to the Greek ^ovXo^ta, 
It is a strange hct too, that in Gothic the forms in a are 
masculine, those in o feminine. 

On this subject it may be permitted to quote a passage 
containing a similar argument from Coleridge s 'Table Talk,* 
i. 119:— • Oricjnally, I apprehend, in the • Platt-Deutsch * 
of the north of Germany there were only two definite arti- 
cles, die for the masculine and feminine, and da9 for the 
neuter. Then it was die sonne in a masculine sense, as 
wte say the sun. Luther, in constructing tiie Hoch-DetUsch 
(for really his miraculous and providential translation of the 
Bible was the fundamental act of construction of the lite- 
rary German), took for his masculine article the der of the 
Ober-Deutsch, and thus constituted the three articles (^ the 
present high German, devj die, das* 

Lastly, every language has the power of denoting gender 
oy the addition 0$ a distinct wora, as in jack-snipe, cock- 
sfHzrrow, tom-cat. This use of the names of men is seen 
in other languages besides our own. Thus the Anglo- 
Saxon employs carl for this purpose ; and the suffix erick, 
or erich, or erock, would also appear to have been originally 
a proper name, though attachea to the names of male birds, 
as taub-erich, gdnserich, &c., in German. Violent cor- 
ruptions of this form exist in our owp tongue in lark, abbre- 
viated from laverock, a term still used in Scotland ; and 
drake from andrake^ itself a corruption from anat-erock. 

Many suffixes which denote simply an agent are erro- 
neously supposed to include the idea of gender. Thus the 
word spinster is in modern use solely significant of a female ; 
but this arises from the accident that in the olden time the 
duty of spinning was confined to the female. The same 
termination ster is seen in the old words brewsier, Webster, 
bm^ster, now more commonly expressed, at least in England, 
by breicer, tteaver, baker ; and these certainly belong not 
exclusively to the female. 

Nothing has been said of sufl^xes to denote the neuter 
g»*iider ; simply because there exist, strictly speaking, no 
such suffixes. There are indeed appearances of such 
aflilttions ; first, in the Greek neuters ayaOov and the Latin 
bonum; secondly, in the neuter pronouns of the Latin 
language terminating with a d, which correspond to an s in 
Gcrmuu and a / in English ; as quod, uhis, what; id, es^ it, 
&c. Oi the first class it is enough perhaps to throw out a 
su5picion that the letter n is merely an outgrowth from the 
preceding vowel 0. [See O.] As to the second, if the 
letter had been really representative of the neuter gender, 
it ought to have run through the genitives and datives as 
well as the nominatives and accusatives ; so that the Latin 
language, for instance, should have given us the forms idius 
T(ir, not eius ei for the neuter. The English form its is no 
answer to this objection, as it is well known that this little 
word has been but a short time naturalized. In the age of 
Shakspcare the only form for the neuter genitive was his, 
0^ appears in the original editions. But in fact it would be 
ridiculous to have a suffix to denote a negation. 

GENDRE, LE. [Leoendre.] 

GENEALOGY. [Pedigree.] 

GE'NERA. in ancient Greek music, were of three kmds, 
-^the Diatonic, Chromatic, and Enharmonic [Diatonic: 
Cheoxatic; Enharmonic] These were subdivided into 
Q^aay species, which are enumerated by Gaudentiua and 



Aristoxetius. ' Indeed,* says Bir J. Hawkins, ^ the repre* 
sentations of the genera and their species, as well by dia- 
grams as in words, are almost as numerous as the writers 
on music' To that erudite historian of music we refer the 
reader who wishes for more information on a subject in 
Which so few now take the slightest interest. The modem 
diatonic and chromatic genera, or scales, are probably much 
the same as, or nearly allied to, those of antiquity. Our En- 
harmonic is, practically — ^at least on most instruments — but 
a convenient evasion, the mere bestowal of two names on 
one and the same sound. 

GENERAL, a title conferred on military men above the 
rank of field-officers. In all the states of Europe it indi> 
cates the commander-in-chief of the forces of the nation ; 
the commander of an army or grand division, and also those 
whob under the latter, exercise his functions, with the 
particular designations of lieutenant-general and major- 
general. 

The origin of the tiUe appears in the history of France, 
in which country it seems to have been conferred on the 
commander of the royal army about the middle of the fif- 
teenth century, when something like a regular military 
force was first established in Europe. The kings were then 
considered as holding the chief command of the army in 
virtue of their birth ; and, on appointing persons under tlicm 
to exercise a general superintendence of the forces, they 
gave to such otficers the title of lieutenant-general, in order 
to designate at the same time the extent of their duties 
and their dependence on the sovereign whom they repre- 
sented. By a decree made in the year 1450, in the reign of 
Charles VII., John, count of Dunois, was so qualified; and 
the 'title of lieutenant-general, denoting the immediate 
commander-in-chief of an army, was long retained in the 
French service. In the course of time, by an abbreviation 
in language, the prefix of the title was omitted, and the 
term general alone was applied to persons holding such 
command. 

Previously to the epoch above mentioned the title ot 
Grand S6nechal of France appears to have conferred the 
right of commanding the royal armies ; but the dignity 
being hereditary in the counts of Anjou, when that pro- 
vince passed to the crown of England m the reign of Henry 
II., the right ceased, and the kings of France delegated 
their authority to noblemen chosen at pleasure. In 1218 
Philip Augustus conferred the command on Mathieu de 
Montmorenci, the constable of France ; and the successors 
of that high officer held it till the re-formation of the army 
in the reign of Charies VII. 

It must be remarked, however, that at a period more early 
than that of the creation of lieutenant-generals under the 
sovereign, the title of captain-general had been conferred 
on certain officers with military jurisdiction over particular 
districts. This species of command is supposed to have 
been first instituted in 1349 by Philip of Valois, who placed 
Guy de NSle, already Mar^chal de France, over the district 
of Aaintonge; within which he was authorised to inspect 
the castles and fortified towns, and to superintend all the 
mQitary affiiirs. Tlie nature of the duty therefore seems to 
have resembled that of the 'inspecting field oflicGrs now 
appointed to particular divisions of this country and the 
colonies. But in 1635, that is, about eight years after the 
suppression of the post of constable of France, Louis XIII. 
gave the title of captain-general, for the army of Italy, to 
the duke of Savoy; and this appointment was precisely 
that of commander-in-chief, since it placed the duke above 
the mar^chal de Cr^ui, who was previously at the head of 
the army. 

It is about this time that the term lieutenant-general, in 
the sense which it now bears, first appears. For, according 
to Pdre Daniel, who quotes the history of Cardinal Riche- 
lieu for the fact, when the prince of Cond6 was made com- 
mander-in-chief of the army destined against Spain, the 
Marquis de la Force was appointed his lieutenant-general, 
and M. de Feuquidres held the same rank under the Due 
de Longueville, who was to act with an army in Franche- 
Compte. We have here but one lieutenaal-general for 
each army: but the writer above mentioned observes that, 
during the reign of Louis XIV., the armies of France being 
much more numerous than before, the officers were also 
greatly multiplied ; and adds that, in 1 704, there were moro 
than sixty who had the title of lieutenant-general. 

The title of captain-general above mentioned must not bu 
confounded with that which was created by Cardinal Richo- 



GEN 



U2 



G K N 



lieu, in 1656, in (kvoor of the IfitrqQis de Gastelnwit: this 
officer was placed above the Iteutenant-grneralfl of the 
army, but wa^ subordinate to the marshal of France, who 
rommaniled in chief: and it appears that some of the 
former having retired fh>m the service in disgust, in con&e- 
queuce of the new appointment, the cardinal was obliged to 
create others in their places. 

In the reign of Francis I. the title of rx>1onelgcneral 
was instituted ; and it was first in 1544 conferred on M. de 
Taix, with the command of all the infantry of the nation. 
The title existed however only to the time of Louis XIV., 
by whom it was abolished. 

' The English nation has nearly followed the practice of 
France in matters appertaining to the military service. 
Thus the lord-high-constablo and the lord-marshal of Eng- 
land, in former times, were at the head of tho military 
establishments of the country ; and, when the first office 
was suppressed by Henry Vlll. in 1521, the title of cap- 
tain-general appears to nave been adopted for the com- 
mnnder-in-chief. This title occurs in the list of the army 
which served at St. Quintin in 1557, of which list a copy is 
given by Grose from a MS. in the British Museum. From 
iho same list it appears that a lieutenant-general for the 
whole army was immediately subordinate to the former; 
and that under the last was a general of horse, a captain- 
general of foot, with his lieutenant, and a sergeant-major 
(corresponding to a present major-general). But the title 
of captain-general probably did not loni; remain in use ; 
for, in the list of the army raised by Elizabeth in 1588, 
the highest officer is styled lieutenant-general, the queen 
herself being probably considered as the commander-in- 
chief. In the army which, in 1620, it was proposed to 
raise fur the recovery of the Palatinate, and, in that raised 
by Charles Lin 1639, the commander is entitled the lord- 
general ; a lieutenant-general appears as the second in 
command, and the third is designated serjcant-major-gcne- 
rul. It was probably soon after this time that the last offi- 
cer was called simply major-general ; for we find that in 
1656 Cromwell appointed twelve officers under that title to 
have civil and military jurisdiction over the counties of Eng- 
land. (Clarendon, b. 15.) 

It is evident, from the histories of the northern states, 
that the armies in that part of Europe have always been 
commanded nearly in the same manner as those of France 
and England. Sir James Turner, who wrote his 'Military 
Essaves' in 1670, states that in Germany, Denmark, and 
Sweden, the commander-in-chief was designated feld- 
marshal, and that he had under him lieutenant-generals of 
the whole anny, besides generals and major-generals of 
horse and foot. With respect to the first title, ho considers 
it to have been granted, as a more honourable distinction 
than that of lieutenant-general, only within about fifty 
years from his time; and he appears to ascribe the intro- 
duction of it to the kini> of Sweden (Gustavus Adolphus), 
who, when he invaded Poland, thought fit to gratify some 
of his generals by designating them lieutenant-feld- 
marshals. {FaUoi Armetta, ch. 13.) From that time, both 
in Germany and Great Britain, such title, omitting the 
word lieutenant, has been considered the highest in the 
army. 

In France, dnrino; the reign of I>ouis XIV., and perhaps 
at an earlier time, the naval commander immediately below 
the rank of vice-admiral was entitled lieutenant-general. 
A similar designation seems to have been early employed 
in the EnglisH service, for in the time of Queen Elizabeth 
the commander of a squadron was called the gefiercd ; and, 
as late as the time of the Commonwealth, a joint commission 
of admiral and geneml was ^iven to Blake and Mountague, 
though the expedition on which the fleet was sent was con- 
fined to an object purely naval. 

The admmistration of military affairs in the great na- 
tions of Europe becoming highly complicated during the 
eighteenth century, the commanders-in-chief, even when 
not actually on the field of battle, found themselves frilly 
occupied with the higher departments of the serA'ice ; and 
it became indispensable that the number of subordinate 
generals should be increased, in order that all the steps 
which were to be taken for the immediate security of the 
armies, and for the acquisition of the necessary supplies, 
might be duly superintended by responsible officers. The 
division of an army, for the purpose of occupying important 
positions or of obtaining subsistence, led also to the appoint- 
ment of several distinct oomniuidersi each of whom re- 



quired his own particular staff; and this cirettinstanc*, 
added to the necess»ity of having a number of officers pre- 
pared at once to assume the command of troops when cir- 
cumstances should require it, will explain uby military 
men holding the rank of general app<^ar now to be i»o nu- 
merous. 

In the British service there are about 75 full gcnrrals, 
and about 360 lieutenant and major-generals; but of tin* 
number many command particular regiments as c<;1i»ikI<s 
or hold militarv governments in the country and ouluuii « ; 
many of them have only local rank ; and many have reUrttl 
from the scrA'ice, retaining the title, but without rccciM> .; 
the pay or being quaUfled for obtaining any pn»g re «-»..<' 
promotion. 

The staf of the whole military force of Great Bn<.iin 
consists of the general commanding'-in-chief, the adjuiiiui- 
gencral, and the quartermaster-general. 

The duty of the adjutant-general falls partly under tli.it 
of the sergcant-major-gcneral in the sixteenth centurv : in 
the field he nM:eive:i the ordcis from the general (ifli<-rr ..f 
the day, and communicates them to the generals «•!' tm- 
gades; he makes a daily re{x>rt of the situations of nli i.:< 
posts placed for the security of the army; and, in a m« .* . 
ne ins^Hicta the guards of the trenches. 

The quartcrmaster-gcncral corresponds in part tu (l.«* 
harbinger of the army in the sixteenth century. Ih.i 
officer has the charge of recounoitring the country )<r>*- 
viously to any change being made in the position of \\\" 
army; he reports concerning the ground which may U* 
favourable for the site of a new encampment, and upon tl»'> 
practicability of the roads in the direction of the int<Mi'! • 1 
lines of route. He also superintends the formation of t' c 
encampment and the disposition of the troops m their v^n 
tonments. 

The first notice of a commander of the artillery o<^curs .n 
the time of Richard III.: this officer was de<^i);nn'> 1 
simply master of the ordnance till 1GU3, when the earl rt 
Devon was dignified with the title of general. Tho he.ifl ••! 
this department is now styled master-general uf Ua 
ordnance. 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE CHURCH OK 
SCOTLAND. This is the Scottish ecclesiostical pHii.i 
ment ; it is a representative, legislative, and judieial L*-i« 
which differs essentially in its constitution from the C'tM > 
cation of the English church [ConvocationJ in Ui..; 
compoi^ed of representatives of the laity, as well as ^f n 
clergy ; and, therefore (like the British Hou>e of Conim.<'.". 
may be considered as a delegation from its const ituonc), iL ■ 
church. [Chitrch.I The following is the compositi m <. t 
the General Assemoly:— 

Eighty presbyteries, each of which consists of a r«Ttr..'\ 
number of parishes, varying from six to thirty-six, scnA \ . 
the Assembly 218 ministers and 94 elders; tho c\\\ *A 
Edinburgh sends 2 elders, and 65 other royal biu^lis % .: i 
each one elder; the four universities send each a rrprc^i-;.- 
tative, andan additional one U sent from Marischall cu!). ^.. 
Aberdeen — these five maybe either ministers or cM« ; 
one minister and one elder represent the churches iu Ir. .u 
in connexion with the church of Scotland. Tho kua ui 
Scotland has 1023 porishes, with 105U minibters. 

The General Assembly meets annually, in the month f 
May, in Edinburgh. Tlie session la^ts only ten days ; b t 
special business not decided within the period of ihc ^t-s^. .i 
may be referred to a commission, which is, in fact, ww 
Assembly under another name ; the commission can h< > 
quarterly meetings. The speaker, or president of ii.<7 
assembly, is called moderator; he is chosen annualU, a. 1 
is, in modern times, a clergyman, it being a rule that ilic 
moderator should preach a sermon before the opening < ( 
the Assembly; but laymen have occasionally filled t^'. 
choir. [Buchanan. Gk'orob.] 

Each parish in Scotland has its kirk session, composed • f 
the minister and lay eldera of the parish, which maudg**^ 
the parochial business. From the decision of the k.r^ 
session there is an appeal to the presbytery in which i::c 
parish lies. Each presbytery is composed of the ministers 
and eldera of a certain number of parishes ; but the pro 
byteries vary considerably in the number of parishes of 
which they are formed. A higher court, culled a svn^ML > 
composed of two or more presbyteries. From the (icci-: > 
of m synod an appeal lies to the General Assembly, «ho<«' 
decision is final. The functions of the Assembly are ana 
logous to a combinstion of the functions of both bouses uf 



GEN 



113 



G fi N 



IwrliftineDt. lU memben speak mnd vote; it judges all 
matters connected with the ii^vemment of the church; and 
it can proceed judicial^ against any member of the chuich, 
clerical or laical, ibr alleged impropriety or ineonsisteney of 
condact or doetr Jie. 

The connexion of the Church of Scotland with the State 
is indicated in tae General Assembly by the presence of a 
fiinctionafy.who, under the title of lord-hi^h-commissioner, 
represents the king or queen. The Scottish church how- 
erer does not recognise the king or queen as head of the 
church, but as head of the state, with which the church is 
allied, for purposes of protection and civil authority. The 
lord-high-commissioner has no voice in the assembly ; busi- 
ness is not necessarily interrupted by his absence ; and his 
presence merely implies the sanction of the civil authority. 
On the conclusion of the session of the General Assembly, 
the moderator, after mentioning the day in the following 
year on which the Assembly meets again, dissolves the 
meeting in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, the head of 
the church (sometimes the words ' the only head ' are used), 
and then the lord-high-commissioner add[s the sanction of 
the civil authority by appointing in the name of the king or 
queen the Assembly to meet on the day named by the 
moderator. 

GENERALISSIMO, the commaMer-in-chief of an army 
which consists of two or more grand divisions under sepa- 
rate commanders. The title is said by Balzac to have been 
first assumed by Cardinal Richelieu, when he led a French 
army into Italy, and it has been since occasionally given to 
officers at the head of armies on the Continent, but it has 
never been adopted in this country. 

GENERATING FUNCTIONS. The term generating 
/unction is a name given by Laplace to any function of x, 
considered with reference to the coefficients of its expansion 
in powers of x, as follows : if 

then ^ is the generating function of ifnL Thus the gene- 
rating function of n is x-t- (1 -x)*, since the coefficient of 
X" in the expansion of the preceding is n. 

The theory of Generating Functions was investigated by 
Laplace, and it maybe found in his'Th^orie des Proba- 
bilit^s,* or in Lacroix, 'Treatise on the Differential Calculus' 
(in the third volume of the quarto edition), or in the Ap- 
pendix to the Cambridge translation of Lacroix. Its prin- 
cipal use is in the solution of equations of differences, and 
in the deduction of theorems connected with that sub- 
ject. 

GE'NESIS, THE BOOK OF, is the first of the five books 
of Moses, and derives its name from the principal event 
recorded in it, namely, the creation of the world and the 
human race, which in the Septuagint Greek translation is 
expressed by the word Geneiis {Vkvunc) ' creation' or ' pro- 
duction.' In the original Hebrew it is named, according to 
the usual custom, from the first word in the book, Bereshith 
irWtXyXi * In the beginning ;' it is not un frequently cited 
by the Rabbins as Sepher Yezirah (HTS^ "^BO) * The 
tiook of the Creation ;' and Josephus in his treatise against 
Apion (i. 8) called it * Uie account of the creation of man,' 
(i| r^c av^pMiroyoviac icttpa^ofno). 

It has been thought by many critics that the Book of 
Genesis was not written by Moses. There are some passa^^es 
in it which evidently could not have been the composition 
of Moses, since they refer to events which happened after 
his death. See c. xiiL 18, c. xxiiL 2, and c. xiv. 14, where 
Hebron and Dan are mentioned, which, we learn from other 
parts of the Bible, had different names in the time of Moses. 
See also Gen. xxxvi. 31, where an allusion is made to the 
kings of Israel* and a list is given (31 — 43) of the princes 
of Edom which is the same as the list given in Chronicles, 
I., c. i. 43 — 54. But these and similar passages might 
easily have been inserted in later times. Dr. Graves in his 
Lecture* on the Pentateuch, and Faber in bis Hor^e Mosaicw, 
vol. i. p. 305--336, show that there is no other period in the 
history of the Jews to which its composition can be so well 
referred. The preface to the first volume of the last edition 
of RosenmuUei^s Scholia contains a fair view of the contro- 
versy ; in which he gives many reasons for relinquishing 
the opinion he formerly held, that the book of Genesis was 
not written by Moses. 

Supposing Moses to have been the author, it becomes an 
interesting question to ascertain in what manner Moses was 
enabled to give a faithful history of eveqts which happened so 
P. a. No. 672. 



many oenlunes before his own age. The book miiit have beea 
composed in one of three ways : Ist, by immediate revelation 
of every circumstance from God ; 2nd, bv a collection of 
antient traditions; or 3rd, from former doouments. The 
first supposition is generally abandoned in the present day 
by all theologians, with the exception of those who believe 
in the verbal inspiration of the Scriptures. The second, which 
is a common opinion amongst theologians in this oountrv, 
would not ii\)ure the credibility of the book ; since Lamech, 
the fiither of Noah was oontemporarv with Adam, Sbem the 
son of Noah lived in the time of Abraham, his son Isaae 
was contemporary with Joseph, and some of the contempo- 
raries of Joseph might have known Moses ; so that few per- 
sons were required for the transmission of the traditions. 
The third oninion is the one generally received by the 
German theologians of the present day, and was maintained 
by many former writers. (See Carpzov., IrUrod^ part i. p. 67 ; 
Yitringa, Obgerv, Sacr^ 1. L, dissert, i, c 4. ; Le Clerc, Pro- 
leg^ dissert., iiL p. 30 ; Calmet, Commentaire Litteral, vol. 
i., part i., p. 13.) Astruc believed that this book of Moses 
was composed from twelve such documents. (Conjecturee 
eur lee Memoiree Originaux dont il paroit que Moue e^eet 
servi pour eompoeer le Livre de Gencse, 1753.) Ilgen 
reduced the number to three {Die Urkunden dee ereten 
Buche von Moeee in ihren Urgeetaltt 1798) ; and Eichhom 
in his ' Introduction to the Old Testament,* vol. iii., p. 
42 — 135, maintains there were only two. There is how- 
ever considerable difficulty in assigning the number, though 
there are strong reasons for believing that the general 
hypothesis is correct. Our limits will only permit us to 
give two examples. It is supposed that the first three 
chapters were composed from two separate documents ; one 
containing the first chapter and the first four verses of the 
second, the other the remainder of the second chapter and 
the whole of the third. The second document, which begins 
with the words, ' These are the generations of the heavens 
and the earth,' contains another account of the creation, 
which would hardly have been given again after the full 
account of the same event in the first chapter, if all three 
had been written by one person. In addition to this, the 
name of the Deity is different in the two documents ; in 
the first he is invariablv called £/oAtm (D^ni7M)t and ii) 
the second Jehovah Elokim iU*rfX?H nVT). The frequent 
repetition of the same cLroumstancea in the history of the 
Deluge have induced critics to believe that it was composed 
from two documents. Compare vL 5, with vi. 1 2 ; vi 9, with 
vii. 1 ; vi. 19, 20, with vii. 2, 3; vi. 17, with vii 4 ; vL 22, 
with vii. 5 ; vii. 6 — 9, with viL 1 1 — 16 ; vii. 18, with vii. 19 ; 
vii. 21, 22, with viL 23; viii. 21, 22, with ix. 8—11. The 
whole of the book of Grenesis is divided by Eichhom, in his 
'Introduction to the Old Testament,' and by Jahn, in his 
* Hebrew Bible,' (Vienna, 1806), into the original documents 
from which thev believed it was compiled. Dr. Lamb, ic 
his work on ' Hebrew Letters taken from Hieroglyphics,' 
supposes, without a shadow of reason, that Moses copied the 
first eleven chapters from hieroglyphics. 

The book of Genesis may be divided into two parts ; the 
first extending firom the beginning of the book to the 9th 
verse of the 11th chapter, and the second containing the 
remaining chapters. The object of the author was to give 
the history of the Jews from the earliest times ; and the 
first part, which contains the histoiy of the world from the 
creation to the birth of Abraham, is merely introductory. 
The real history commences with his birth, preceded by a 
genealogical table of his pedigree. 

I. The first part (i. — xi. 1'9,> gives an acconnt of the 
creation ana of the institution ol the Sabbath (i. iL 1—3) ; 
of the fall of man and his expulsion from Paradise (iu 4 — 
25, iii.) ; of the history of Adam and his descendants till 
the Deluge (iv. v.) ; of the Deluge (vi. vii.) ; of the restora- 
tion of the world (viiL) ; of the history of Noah and his sons 
(ix.) ; of thp peopling of the world by his descendants (x.) ; 
and of the confusion of tongues and dispersion of mankind 
(ix. 1—9). Many theologians, from a supposed difficulty in 
the literal interpretation of the fint three cnaptera, have sup- 
posed them to be mythicaL The arguments tor such a mode 
of interpretation may be seen in Seller's Biblical Herme- 
neutice, transl. by Dr. Wrieht, p. 163 — 169. To this it is 
replied that the style is purdy historical, that the difficultiea 
are imaginary, and that the writera of the * New Testament' 
refer to the events contained in the first three chaptera as 
real transactions. (Mat. xix. 4; JohnviiL 44; 1 Tim. ii. 
13, 14 ; 2 Cor. 3^i» 3 ; I John, iii 8.) ^^ ^^ 

Vol. XI.« 



GEN 



114 



GEN 



The poBitiTe entAtments of the ptttriuchal leligioa were 
few and were all retained in the lawi of Moms, They 
related to the Sabbath (iL 3 ; viiL 10 — 12Kto tacriftcet(iT. 3, 
4 ). and to abatinence ftom the tlesh of animala with the 
blojd in it (ix. 3, 4). 

11. The leoond part (xL 9, to the end of the book) givea 
4n account of the family of Abraham and hia journeys into 
Canaan and Egypt Cxi. 10 — ^32, xiu) ; of the wanderings of 
Lot and Abraham in Canaan (xiiL) ; of the defeat of the four 
kings by Abraham (xiv.) ; of«the promise of God to Abraham 
(XV.) ; of the birth and early life of Ishmael (xvL) ; of the 
institution of circumcision and the renewal of the promise 
(xviL) ; of the deatruction of Bodom and Gomorrah (xviii^ 
xix.) ; of the sojourning of Abraham at Qerar and the birth 
of Isaac (xx^ xxi.) ; of the trial of Abraham (xxii.) ; of the 
death of Sarah (xxiiL) ; of the marriage of Isaac (xxiv.) ; of 
the birth of Bsau and Jacob (xxv.) ; of the history of Isaac 
(xxvi., xxviL) ; of the departure of Jacob to Padan-Aram, 
and of his return to Canaan (xxviiL — xxxiii.); of the 
cruelty of Simeon and Levi to the Shechemites (xxxiv.) $ 
of the death of Isaac (xxxt.) ; of the history of Esau and 
hia descendants (xxxyl) ; of the selling of Joseph into 
Egypt (xxxvii.); of the incest ofTamar (xxxviii.); of the 
history of Joseph in Egypt (xxxix.^xly.) ; of the descent 
of Jacob into Egypt, and his settlement thero with his 
ikmily (xlvi. — xlix.) ; and of the death of Jacob and 
Joseph (1.). 

The chronology of the book of Grenesis has occasioned 
fcreat difficulty. This arises from the difiference of the 
Hebrew text from the Septuagint. According to the 
Hebrew text the deluge happened a.m. 1666, according to 
the Septuagint a.m. 2262 ; the former giving b.c. 4004, 
and the latter b.c. 541 1, as the epoch of the creation. Dr. 
Hales, with many other critics, considers the dates of the 
Septuagint to be more in accordance with profane history 
and with the various events related in the first chapters of 
Genesis. Our limits prevent us from giving an account of 
the controversy ; we can only refer to the arguments in I^. 
Hales* Anaiyma of Ckronoiofry, vol. L 273 — 303, and Clin- 
ton's FhHi Hellemci, vol. l, p. 283--301; the latter of 
whom defends the chronology of the Hebrew text, and 
observes with much justice that there does not appear any 
sufficient reason for inducing the Jews to change the num- 
bers, while the translatora of the Septua^nt were naturally 
anxious to make the epoch of the creation more conform- 
able with the high pretensions of the Egyptians and Chal- 
dflsans. From the Deluge to the common date of the birth 
of Abraham, the Hebrew text gives 292 years, the Septua- 
gint 1072. This date is given on the authority of Gen. xi. 
26, * And Zerah lived 70 years, and begat Abram, Nahor, 
and Haran.* But there is sufficient reason for believine 
that Abraham was not bom till 60 years afterwards, ana 
that his name is only placed first on the catalogue on 
account of his celebrity, not because he was the first-born. 
Adding 60 years to the former numbers we obtain the birth 
of Abraham, according to the Hebrew text a-m. 2008 or 
B.C 1996 ; aocording to the Septuagint, as corrected by Dr. 
Hales and Mr. Clinton, a-m. 3258 or b.c. 2153. Having 
obtained tbe birth of Abraham, there is no great difficulty 
in asceruining the dates of the principal events that follow. 
The following Uble is abridged fVom Clinton's ' Fasti Hel- 
lemci;* the dales are reckoned from the birth of Abra- 
ham: 

Birth of Abraham in 130th year of SSerah. GreO. zl 32, 
xii. 3 — 5, compared with Acts viL 4. 
10. Birth of Sarah* ten years younger than Abraham. 

Gen. xvii. 17. 
75. The call of Abraham. Gen. xiL 1—4. 
86. Birth of Ishmael. Gen. xvi. 16. 
100. Birth of Isaac. Gen. xvii. 17. 
137. Death of Sarah, at the age of 127. Gen. xxiii. 1, 2. 
140. Martiage of Isaac, at the age of 40. Gen. xxv. 20. 
160. Birth uf Esau and Jacob. Gen. xxv. 26. 
176. Death of Abraham. Gen. xxv. 7, 8. 
237. Jacob goes to Haran at the age of 77. 
257. Jacob returns to Canaan. Gen. xxxi. 41. 
268. Joseph, at the age of 1 7, sold into Egypt. Gen. xxxviL 2. 
2»0. Death of Isaac, at the age of 1 80. Qen. xxxv. 28. 
281. Joseph, at the age of 30, governor of Egypt Gen. 

xli. 46. 
290. Jacob, at the age of 130, goes into Egypt Gen. xlvii. 9. 
307. Death of Jacob, at the age of 147. Gen. xlvii. 29. 
360. Death of Joseph, at th« ageof HO. Gen. L 86. ^ 



The following parages aw suppoaed by moal Christian 
divines to be propheciea rehtting to Ghriat:—!!!. 15; xii 3; 
xvitL 18; xxii 18; xkvl 4; xxviil 14; xlix. 10. 

(Eichhnm'a EMeitung in» ALU Te$iameni^ vol. iai. p. 
18—176; Augusti's Grundriu einer hutorueh-kritiscken 
MifMiung in*9 AUe T^tamMt.^. 157—162; Fabers Horte 
Moioicm ; Graves Qit th$ Pentateuch; RosenmuUrr's 
Sckoiia ; Holden's DueertatUM on the FM €f Man ; 
Home's Jntroduetion to the Seriptmree, toL iv. p. 3— 

».) 

GENBSSEB. [NxwYowc] 

GENETTA (Zoology), Oennet [ViTBBftn>«.] 

GBNE'VA. GENE'VB (Gaff/* in Germsn, Ginerra 
in Italian), a town and canton of the Helvetic Confederauon, 
situated at the south-west extremity of Switxerland. ts 
bounded on the north by the canton of Yaud and the 
Leman Lake, on the east and south br Savoy, and on tbe 
west by the French department De I Ain. It consists ot 
the territory of the old republic of Greneva, of the disuict 
of Versoix ceded bv France, and of the districts of Carouge, 
Hermanoe, and otWs, ceded by the king of Sardinia by 
the treaties of Paris, 1814, and of Turin, 1816. The area 
of the canton is reckoned at about 93 souare milea, it being 
the smallest canton in Switzerland, though by no means 
one of the lowest, either in population, industrv, wreaUl)« 
or political importance. The population of the canton 
amounted, accoraing to the census of 1834, to 56,655 in- 
habitants, of whom 27,177 were in the town of Geneva. 
Of the inhabitants of the town about 17,000 were Geneves 
by birth, 5000 were Swiss of other cantons, and tbe rest 
were natives of France, Savoy, Itidy, Germanv, and other 
countries, among whom were two or three hundred Engl 121 h. 
The greatest length of the canton is about 17 mile*, from 
Hermance, on tlie extreme north-east frontier, towards the 
Chablais, to Chancy, a commune on the left bank of tbe 
Rhdne, south-west of Geneva, near the Fort de l^clu»e, 
which is a French military outpost on that side. 

The territory of Geneva extends along both banks of the 
lake and the valley of the Rhdne, beine confined on the W(*»t 
by the lower offsets of the Jura, and on Uie east and south-csu 
by the mountains of Voirons and Saldve, which are sbout 
4000 feet above the sea. These mountains however are 
out of the territory of Geneva, which contains only »>rDe 
hills, the highest of which are not 400 feet above the U-iel 
of the lake. The territory of the canton is divided into 
three districts:—! . The district north of the RhOne, including 
a strip of land along the west bank of the lake as fttr as the 
borders of the canton of Vaud, beyond Versoix. 2. The 
district south of the Rh6ne, and between it and the left 
bank of tbe Arve, which includes Carouge, a neat well-buiU 
town, with 4000 inhabitants, about one mile south of Genctm. 
3. The district north of the Arve, and between it and the 
east bank of the lake, along which it c^xtends in a narrvv 
strip as fkr as Hermance. l^e principal place of this la>t 
district is Chesne, consisting of two large villages adjoin uig 
each other, which reckon together about 2000 inhabiisbt«. 
Numerous other villages are scattered about the whole 
territory ; and the immediate neighbourhood of Gt^nerx 
both along the banks of the lake and in the direction of 
the principal avenues leading to the town, exhibits extensire 
lines and groups of country-houses, which fbrm handmime 
suburbs. 

The territory of Geneva, though not naturally fertile, is 
rendered productive by the industry of the inhabitants: 
about one-tlurd of it is sown with com, another third 11 
pasture-land, a much smaller proportion is planted w.th 
vines, which yield an indifferent sort of wine ; the re4 
consists of woods, orchards, and gardens. In 1835 thm; 
were about 7650 head of cattle. The deficiency in curn. 
cattle, and wine, for the consumption of the town of Geuevs, 
is supplied by the neighbouring countries. 

Manufactures, and the employment of capital tn foreign 
fhnds, banking and exchange, and commercial speculationi, 
form tbe principal sources of wealth of the Gene%-ese. 
There are among them many capitalists ; and Geneva, n hich 
is the most nopulous town of Switzerland, is also tb^ 
wealthiest, witn the exception perhaps of Basel. Industry, 
calculation, and economy are characteristics of the |io*|'Ie 
in general. Watches and jewellery are now the prinrpi*. 
manu&ctures: about 100,000 watches are made annu^.lti 
and exported to France, Italv, the Levant, and o:l«'r ^ 
countries. This branch of industry employs nearly '2i*''0 ' 
2^As_ij.._._ ^^ jewelleiy naarly 1000 more. There' ve m 



CE« 



115 



CE N 



fhd town about 1600 tmdespeopla, and about 8500 servants, 
of whom 1600 are foreigners, chiefly from Savoy and the 
canton Do Vaud. 

Three-fifths of the population are of the Reformed or CSal- 
▼inifit communion ; the rest are Gktholies, the number of 
whom, formerly consisting chiefly of foreign residents, has 
mueh increased since 1814 by the incorporation of the ceded 
districts of France and Savor. The toWn of Geneva is 
divided into 14 parishes, and the old territory of the repub- 
lic, which is mostly inhabited by Protestants, into 14 more. 
The Cktholic rural districts contain 28 parishes, which are 
included in the diocese of Freyburg, whose bishop styles 
himself bishop of Lausanne and Geneva. In the town of 
Geneva there is a Catholic church, the curate of whicii 
superintends the Catholic fitmilies scattered about the 
town. The Jews have a syna^gue at Carouge, but they 
bave not the freedom of the city of Geneva. 

The roads of the canton are kept in very good order by the 
State Government, at the annual expense of 136,000 torins 
(the Geneva florin is about 4^), The other principalheads 
of expenditure are- administrative and judicial depart- 
ments, 310,000 florins; support of the Protestant clergy, 
135,000 ; ditto of Catholic clergy, 92,000 ; public instruc- 
tion, 230.000 ; military, 525,000 , police and prisons, 
200,000 ; pensions, 30,000 ; emoluments of the deputies to 
the Diet and other expenses fbr federal objects, 30,000; 
public works, 90,000 florins. The revenue of the canton 
amounts to about 2,000,000 florins, derived from the fol- 
lowing sources: land and house-tax, 204,000 florins; 
stamps, registry of sales, and deeds and mortgages, and 
legacy duty, 950,000; income tax* called tax &s gardes, 
189,000; post-office, 169,000; customs, 144,000; monopoly 
of salt, 214,000; tax upon servants, 45,000; patents and 
licenses, 35,000 ; tolls at the gates, 39,000. All this is 
exclusive of the municipal taxes of the city of Geneva. 

There are 41 elementary schools in the various com- 
munes of the canton, attended by about 3860 children. For 
administrative purposes the canton, exclusive of the capital, 
is divided into 37 communes, of which 15 belong to the old 
territory of the republic, 16 have been dismen£ered from 
Savoy, and 6 ceded by France. Ineverv commune there is 
a municipal council, elected by the inhabitants ahove 21 
years of a^e, and who pay at least two florins of direct taxes. 
The council is presidea by the maire, who is appointed by 
the council of state. 

The canton is bound to funiish to the Swiss Confedera- 
tion, when summoned by the Diet, a contingent, of 2 batta- 
lions of infantry, 3 companies of artillery, and a company 
of cavalry; in all, 1760 men. The militia of the canton, 
including all citizens from 20 to 45 vears of age, and 
amounting to about 5500 men, is exercised and reviewed every 
year. Besides these tjiere is for the service of the towh and 
the police a garrison of 120 salaried artillery-men, and 80 
gendarmes, almost all foroigners. The arsenals of the 
canton contain 79 pieces of artillery, and 3900 muskets. 

Geneva is one of the oldest sites in Western Europe. It 
is mentioned in the Gallic War of Csesar (1.7). 

The republic of Geneva originated in the municipal go- 
vernment of the town, to which Charlemagne granted cer- 
tain privileges and franchises, subordinate however to the 
bishop, who was sWled Prince of Geneva and was an imme- 
diate feudatory of me empire. Frequent dissensions occurred 
between the citizens and the bishop on one side, and the 
counts of Genevois, ' Comites Gehennenses,' or * Geneven- 
sium,' a feudal dynasty grown out of the wreck of the old 
kingdom of Burgundy, and whicli ruled the adjoining pro- 
vince of Savoy, which is still caUed Genevois or Genevese, 
and of which Annecy is the capital. These counts claimed 
jurisdiction over the town of Geneva. The line of the 
counts of Genevois becoming extinct in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, their inheritance escheated to the bouse of Savoy, 
who obtained the investiture of it from the Emperor Bigis- 
mund in 1422 ; and hence are derived the claims of the dukes 
of Savoy over Geneva, claims however never completely 
enforced. At the Reformation the bishop quitted Geneva, 
and retired to Annecy, and from that epoch the town go- 
verned itself as an independent municipality, and fbrmed 
an alliance with the Swiss cantons of Bern and Freyburg, 
and afterwards Zurich. The dukes of Savoy, after several 
fruitless attempts to reduce Geneva by force or surprise, 
acknowledged its indepen^ce hy the treaty of St Julian 
in 1603. 
In the eighteenth oentory Geneva was distrseied by interior 



feuds between the popular party, or reprtontans, and the 
aristocratic fiimilies, or n^gatlfs. [Dsluc] These troubles 
furnished the FVench Directoiy with a pretence for seizing 
it by force, and incorporating it with France in April, 1 798. 
It then became the head town of the new department 
' Du L6man.' In 1814 it was occupied b^ the Ausirians, 
and was restored by the allied powers to its independence 
as a canton of the Swiss Qon/ederation, to ihe great satisfrte- 

I' tion of its inhabitants. 
The town of Geneva is built on two hills divided by the 
Rhdne, where it issues out of the Leman lake, the higher 
of which, oil the south bank of the river, is about 100 
feet above the lake. The larger part of the town lies on 
that side. The river fbrms an island within the town, which 
is also built unon and is a separate district, joined to the two 
banks by bridges. The district on the north bank is called 
St. Grervais. A smaller island, at the very point where the 
Rhdne issues from the lake, is planted with trees and forms 
a public promenade, which is adorned with the statue of 
Rousseau. A handsome suspension-bridge has been lately 
thrown across the river to connect both banks and the 
island. A handsome quay with fine buildings has also been 
constructed along the south bank of the river. The streets 
in the old part of the town, or cit£, as it is called, ai*e narrow 
and steep, the houses high, and the appearance of the streets 
rather gloomy. The most remarkable buildings are, 1, the 
church of St. Peter, the handsome front and portico of 
which were restored in the 18th century; 2, the Hdtel de 
Ville, which is a very old and massive building; 3, the 
hospital ; 4, the Mus6e Rath, which has some good paint- 
ings ; 5, the College, with a library of 50,000 volumes ; 6, 
the Botanic Garden; 7, the Observatory ; 8, the new H6tei 
des Bergues, one of the largest and finest in Europe ; 9, the 
Penitentiary, where a strict discipline ii enforced ; the con- 
victs work together in silence, and are separated for the 
night. The iUiterate are taught to read and write There 
is another prison fbr individuals waiting for trial, or con- 
demned for misdemeanors b^ the correctional police. The 
town is re^larly fortified with ramparts, ditches, and bas- 
tions, but IS commanded by the nills of La Batie and 
St. Jean, which makes it unfit to stand a regular siege. 
There are three gates, two on the Savoy or south side, and 
one on the French or Swiss side. * 

The municipal expenditure of the town amounts to about 
half a million of florins annually, the revenue being derived 
chiefly fkom the octroi, or duty on provisions levied at the 
^tes. Geneva abounds with means of instruction. There 
IS the Academy or University, with four faculties — theology, 
law, sciences, and belles lettres, with forty professors ; the 
schools of drawing and architecture, mechanic schools 
(^les industrielles) where they teach mathematics, physics, 
and chemistry, applied to the arts ; a school for music ; a 
school of gymnastics ; a school for watchmakers* appren- 
tices ; besides elementary schools, infant schools, ana other 
schools both public and private. There are also societies of 
arts, of medicine, of physics, and natural history, a mecha- 
nics' society, a military society, and a reading society, which 
has a library of 30,000 volumes, receives foreign journals 
and papers, and has about 300 subscribers; a museum of 
natural historv, which is very rich ; a cabinet of medals, a 
botanical garden, under the direction of Professor De Can- 
dolle, and other scientific institutions. 

It would be difficult to name a town of equal size which 
has produced so many illustrious men as Greneva. The 
most distinguished names are those of Turretin, Diodati, 
Tronchin, Burlamaqui, Godefroi, Leclerc, Bonnet, Saussure 
Deluc, Pictet, Odier, Tirembley, S^nebier, Delolme, Dumont, 
Say, Mallet, Rousseau, Madame de Stael. Am mg the 
living are Sismondi, Lullin de Chdteauvieux, De Candolle, 
Huber, the engineer Dufour, Prevost, &c 

The social and moral state of Geneva bears still, after a 
lapse of three centuries, marks of the strong impression 
which John Calvin stamped upon it. He found a society 
disjointed, disorderly, ignorant, and licentious; and left it at 
his death orderly, religious, moral, and patriotic A mere 
speck on the map of Europe, exposed to the politioal and 
religious antipathies of its powerful neighbours of France, 
Savoy, and (he Spanish government of Lombardy, an object 
of the fixed hostility of tbe Court of Rome, Geneva with- 
stood all attecks through the pubhe spirit of its citizens and 
the wisdom and policy of its councils. Henij IV. ^ France 
protected it It was assisted by Bern and Zurich against the 

Dukes of Savoy ; and the States of Holland, the Protestant 

Q2 



GEN 



116 



G£N 



pitnces of Germany, and the government of Great Britain 
interested themselves in its favour, B^ these means Geneva 
maintained its political and religious mdependenoe, and was 
iouked upon as tne rallying point of the Reformed communion 
in western Europe, so as to he styled hy some the ' Rome of 
the Protestants. It supplied the Reformed churches of 
France with pastors aua teachers, and when Louis XIV. 
persecuted his Reformed suhjects, manv of them found an 
nospitable asylum within its Vails. Religious emigrants 
from Italv came also to swell the number of its citisens. 
Even to this day it is considered as a sort of metropolis by the 
Reformed or Calvinist churches of the Continent. Religious 
di^sent however has broken out within its own hosom. A 
party of zealous religionists have arisen, who seem to charee 
the rosjurity of the clergy of Geneva with having forsaken tne 
tenets of their Reformer. This party have their chapels, their 
own school of theology, and they form an association known 
by the name of the Evangelical Society. Much has been 
written upon this controversy, and the clergy of Geneva 
have bad a defender in the Rev. J. L. Pons: 'xhe Doctrine 
of the Church of Geneva, illustrated in a series of Sermons 
preached by the modem Divines of that City,' 2 vols. Svo., 
1 83*2 The clergy of Geneva are under the discipline of a 
synod, called La Compagnie des Pasteurs, presided by a 
moderator who is changed annually. 

By the present constitution of Geneva the council of 
state, or executive of twenty*four members, has alone the 
initiative of laws. The projects of laws are laid hefore 
the representative council, consisting of 274 members, 
which accepts or refuses, and may make amendments, with 
certain restrictions. The members of the representative 
council are elected for nine years hy all the citizens, that 
is to say, all the natives of either town or territory above 
twenty-five years of age, who pay seven tlorins of direct 
taxes, and who are neither paupers, bankrupts, nor ser- 
vants, and have not heen condemned in any criminal process. 
The representative council names the members of the 
council of state for eight years ; it also fixes the annual 
budget of the canton, and iXio the municipal budget of the 
town, and appoints the judges and magistrates. The sit- 
tings of the representative council are public. The liberty 
of the press is guaranteed. (Leresche, Dictionnaire Ge<h 
graphique de la Suisse.) 

A good account of the old republic of Geneva, of its 
domestic troubles and external affairs, is given in Berenger, 
Histoire de Gendve, S6nebier has written an account of its 
learned men : Histoire Littiraire de Genive, Cox, in bis 
* Travels,' has given a sketch of its antient constitution, and 
numerous other travellers have described the peculiarities 
of this little state. 

Geneva is 33 miles south-west of Lausanne, and 80 miles 
south-west of Berne. 

GENEVA, LAKE. TLeman, Lake.] 

GENEVA, a spirituous liquor, which is frecjuently con- 
founded with gin. It is however a fermented liquor, which 
hears the same relation to gin as wine does to any distilled 
spirit It is procured by the fermentation of the berries of 
the Juniperus communis. These berries consist of a 
peculiar saccharine principle (which exists to the amount 
of about 33 per cent along with acetate of lime), and a 
volatile oil, wnich is contained in ten peculiar cells, which 
lie clo.'ie to the seeds ; as the oil assumes a resinous state 
in old berries, these cells may be easily seen in such spe- 
cimens. The green one-year-old berries contain much 
more volatile oil, and are to be preferred to the ripe berries. 
The oil rarely exceeds 1 per cent. From the quantity of 
sugar which they contain they can easily be caused to fer- 
ment and yield a spirit, or vinegar may be made from them. 
Geneva is a very powerfully stimulating liquor, containing 
a large proportion of alcohoL The volatile oil having a 
special action on the kidnies renders it the most proper 
cordial in cases of dropsy from debility, or even connected 
with diseased heart, when the system reouires support The 
liavour is attempted to he communicatea to English gin, by 
adding oil of turpentine to brandy ; but it is very inferior. 

GENEVRE, MONT. [Alps.] 

GENGIS KHAN was the son of a Mogul chief named 
Piftoucay or Yesoucay, who ruled over thirty or forty thou- 
»and families. He was bom ah. 559 (a.d. 1164), at a 
place called Blun Yuldyck. His original name was Temu- 
mn which he exchanged for that of Gengis Khan, t. e, 
' Khans,' when he hecame the supreme ruler of 
is and Tartars. 



Gengis Khan was early trained to the art of war. His 
&ther died when he was in his fourteenth year ; and the 
neighbouring princes took advantage of hia *'outh to invade 
his dominions. At this early age he marched in penun 
against his enemies, hut was obliged to retreat, and lied fur 
protection to Oungh, the powerful Khan of the Keraites» 
who was known in Europe under the name of Prester John. 
[Prxstxr John.] Gengis Khan remained for many years m 
the ooiurt of Oungh Khan, who gave him his daughter in 
marriage, and advanced him to Uie highest dignities in his 
kingjdom. Gengis Khan at length incurred the suspicions 
of his patron, and orders were given for his arrest lie es- 
caped this danger, and returned to his own dominions, where 
he defeated the troops that were sent against him, and per- 
suaded many of the Mogul hordes that were subject to 
Ouneh Khan, to rebel against his autliority. Oungh Khan 
mardied in person against them, hut was entirely defeated 
by Gengis Khan, a.h. 599 (a.d. 1202), who obtainea 
the dominions of his father-in-law in consequence of thu 
victory. He next conquered the Naimans, and compelled 
the most celebrated of the Mogul and Tartar chiefs to sub- 
mit to his authority. Having thus united the various horde« 
that wander over the steppes of Central Asia, he summoned 
a great council consisting of Mogul and Tartar chiefs, in 
which he was proclaimed Khan of the whole nation, a.h. 
602 (a.d. 1205): In the same assembly he disclosed his 
intention of invading China and Southern Asia, and pre- 
tended to have received from heaven a commission for the 
conquest of the world. With this object in view, be pub- 
lished a code of laws, and introduced stricter discipline into 
the armv, which he divided into bodies of tens, hundreds, 
thousanos, and tens of thousands ; called respectively in 
the Mogul language Dehe, Sede, Hezare, and Toman, Be- 
fore he could carry his projects into effect, he was obliged 
to defend himself against thoHs Mogul chiefs who refuB<;d 
to submit to his sovereignty. These chiefs were subdued in 
the course of five years ; and Gengis Khan was at length 
able to commence his career of coiu|uest. China first ox|ie- 
rienced the devastations of the Moguls, a.h. 607 (a.d. 12 lu i ; 
but a temporary peace was concluded between the tw^i 
countries, and the daughter of the king of China was mar- 
ried to Gengis Khan. Three years afterwards another 
Mogul army invaded the country, and aAer defeating the 
Chinese, took the city of Pekin. The northern provinces of 
China were from this period annexed to the Mogul empiie. 

The most powerful monarch in southern Asia at thu 
time was Mohammed Kothbeddin, king of Carizroe, whosi* 
ancestors had established an independent monarchy on tlii* 
decline of the power of the Seljuke Sultans. [SxLJrKiD&s] 
He ruled over almost all the countries of southern Asia 
from Syria to the Indus, and had demanded of the Abba- 
side Caliph to be idlow^ to reside at Bagdad as Emtr al 
Omara, a dignity which had fbrmerlv belonged to the S«;l- 
juke Sultans. This demand wa^ refused ; and the Caliph 
fearing the power of Mohammed, sent an ambassarlur tt> 
Gen^ Khan to implore his assistance. Gengis Khan did 
not immediately comply with the Caliph*s request ; but 
anxiously waited for some act of hostility on th«> nart of 
Mohammed to justify him in breaking the peace whicL then 
subsisted between them. This was soon given him by the 
murder of some Mosul ambassadors and merchants at 
Otrar, a town on the Jaxartes, in the dominions of Moham- 
merl. Gengis Khan collected all his forces, and with an 
army of 700,000 men, according to Oriental historians, ad- 
vanced to the Jaxartes, a.b. 615 (a.d. 1218). Near thi^ 
river he vras met by Mohammed with an army of 400.0uu 
men, and though the issue of the battle was doubtful, Mo- 
hammed dared not haxard a second contest, but retreatd 
to the south after placing strong garrisons in all the forti- 
fied towns. The conquest of Transoxiaoa was completed 
in two years, and all its cities taken, after an obstinate re- 
sistance. A body of 30,000 men was sent into Khorasan to 
pursue Mohammed, who escaped to an island in the Cas- 
pian Sea« where he died shortly afterwards. 

In A.H. 618 (A.D. 1221) Gengis Khan advanced eastward 
and entered the city of Balkh, whose inhabitants he 
massacred on account of the assistance they had rendered 
to Gelal-eddin, the son of Mohammed. While he was rii- 
gaged in the conquest of the neighbouring countries ho 
sent part of his forces to subdue Khorasan, part to cunqi:vr 
the western nrovinces of Persia, and an army of 80.000 m«ii 
to pursue Gelal-eddin, who had fled into the countries i»c>t 
of the Indies. These expeditions were successful, with the 



GEN 



117 



GB N 



exeeption i^ the last Gelal-eddin» who appears to nare 
been a brave and enterprising prince, defeated the Moguls, 
but was soon afterwaros conquered by Gengis Khan, who 
had marched in person against him. In the two following 
years the lieutenants of Gengis Khan conquered Azerbijan 
and all the other provinces of the Persian empire. In a.h. 
620 (ajx 1224), he again crossed the Jaxartes, and re- 
turned to his capital. Oira-corom, after an absence of seven 
years, during which period he had laid waste the most 
fertile regions of Asia, plundered the cities of Carizme, 
Herat, Balkh, Candahar, Bokhara, Samarcand, and many 
others of leas note, and destroyed, according to the calcula- 
tion of Oriental historians, five millions of human beings. 
His empire now extended from the Volga to the Pacific, and 
from Siberia to the Persian Gulf; but he still meditated new 
conquests, and in the following year led his victorious Mo- 
guls through the desert of Grobi against the King of Tangut, 
whom he defeated and subdued. He then continued his 
march towards the southern provinces of China, but died 
on the borders of that country on the 1 0th of Ramadhan, 
A.H. 624 (24th August, 1227), in the sixty-fourth year of 
his age. He was succeeded by his son OctaL His two 
other sons had the provinces of Transoxiana and Khorasan 
assigned to them. The Mogul princes have always claimed 
descent from the family of Gengis Khan ; but his descend- 
ants lost all real power, though they still retained the title 
of Khan, in the time of Tamerlane. [Tambrlanb.] 

The code of laws published byG«ngis Khan is still known 
in Asia under the title of ha Gengis KhanU 'The Laws of 
Gengis Khan.* An interesting account of them is given 
by M. Langlds in the fifth volume of Notices et Extraiis 
des Manuserits de la Bibliotheque du Roi. 

(Petit de la Croix's History qf Genghizcan the Greaiy. 
Eng. Trans. ; De Guignes, HisUAre des Hunst vol. iii. ; D'Her- 
belot, Bibliotheque OrientcUe, arts. Genghiz Khan, Mo- 
hammed Kothbeddint &&; Gibbon's Decline and Fall, 
c. Uiv.) 



GENII, called in the East Ginn (Arabic ), are sup- 




posed to be a race of beings created from fire, capable of 
assuming any form and becoming invisible at pleasure. All 
Moslems are obliged to believe in their existence, since 
they are said in the Koran (c. vi.) to be created by Gfod. 
It is imagined that they inhabited this world many ages 
before man was created, and were governed by forty succes- 
sive monarchs of the name of Solomon, the last of whom was 
called G&n Ebn Giln, and that from him they derived their 
name. It is also said that thev frequently rebelled against 
God, who at length deprived them of their possessions and 
gave them to man. We learn from the Koran (c. 73) that 
many of these wicked spirits were converted by hearing 
Mobammed reading a portion of it, and that those who 
continue unbelievers (called, in c. 27, Jfrtt) will be con- 
demned to the fires of hell. Thev are believed to take 
great interest in human affairs, and to be the authors of 
much happiness and misery to mankind. (An interesting 
account of the superstitions of the modern Arabs respecting 
Genii is given in Lane's Modem Egyptians^ vol. L 283— 
290; ii. 164—166.) 

GRNITIVE. [Ablative Case.] 

GENIUS, in its original acceptation, denoted the tute- 
lary god or dsBmon which, according to an antient and 
common superstition, was allotted to every individual at his 
birtb, to guide and rule him during life, to preside over his 
fortunes and destiny, and eventually to lead him from ex- 
istence ; and it was supposed that the variety observable in 
the characters and capacities of different men was dependent 
upon the higher or lower nature of their attendant genii. 
Afierwarfls the word came to signify the disposition itself, 
without reference to its supposed cause ; and lastly, in mo- 
dem times it has been employed, in a restricted but pecu- 
liar sense, to designate either that high mental pre-eminence 
which is occasionally found in a raw individuals, or, by a 
metonymy, the person possessed of such rare excellence. 

Like every thing else that is truly beautiful and great. 
Genius has in it a something undefinable ; and hence the 
variety of notions as to its origin and nature, in all of which 
there is and must be something deficient Dr. Johnson's 
definition (' Life of Cowley,*) is this: *The true genius is a 
mind of large general powers accidentally determined in 
8ome particular direction.' Generally it is understood to 
be the perfection of human intelligence. And as this con- 
sists in the highest possible activity of the mental energies, 



genius is esaentxally creative, and aU its productions are in* 
delibly stamped with the impress of ori{];inality and gran* 
deur. It is at once a law and a model to itself; it produces 
what has never before been accomplished, and which all, in 
all ages, are constrained to admire. It receives therefore 
its impulse from enthusiasm, for nothing great can be ac- 
complished without that enthusiasm which is enkindled by 
some dominant idea, to which all else is made subordinate 
and postponed ; and its chief ikculties are the reaspn and the 
imagination, which alone are inventive and productive. 

But according as one or other of these faculties predomi- 
nates, Crenius ^comes either scientific or artistic. In the 
former case it seizes at once those hidden affinities which 
otherwise do not reveal themselves, except to the most pa^ 
tient and rigorous application ; and as it were intuitively re- 
cognising in phenomena the unalterable and eternal, it pro- 
duces truth. In the latter, seeking to exhibit its own ideal 
in due and appropriate forms, it realises the infinite under 
finite types, and so creates the beautiful. 

But even the most eminent genius must duly form and 
develop itself by a carefiil contemplation of the beautiful 
and true which the great geniuses of past time may have 
created and discovert. It is by looking exclusively to this 
circumstance, that those who deny any original inequality 
among men have been led to maintain that what is called 
genius is simply a result of education and culture ; while on 
the other hana an equally partial consideration of those 
extraordinary powers which have occasionally been exhi- 
bited in totally uneducated minds, and under the most 
unfavourable eircumstances, has deceived the zealous par- 
tizans of original genius. 

In active life the grand and ambitious desigpis of suc- 
cessful statesmen and conquerors are often ascribed to 
genius, but they belong more properly to the eneTgy of the 
will than to that of the intellect, to force of character rather 
than to power of mind. 

The pnrase ' universal genius,' in order to be legitimate, 
requires to be limited in one or other of its terms. When 
applied to a Fontenelle we must restrict the signification of 
genius to the power and capacities of the human mind in 
general ; and it is only by confining the term universal to all 
the subordinate branches either of art or science, that it 
is even allowable to ascribe it 'to the genius of a Michael 
Angelo or a Leibnitz. 

Genius and fancy are often confounded : the latter is un- 
deniably a pre-eminent capacity, but it exerts itself rather 
to imitate than to invent, and is devoid of all enthusiasm. 

Consult Sharpe's ' Dissertation on Grenius,' London, 1 755 ; 
Duff's * Essays on Original €h$nius, and its various Modes 
of Exertion in Philosophy and the Fine Arts,' London, 
1767 ; and 'Leolius and Hortensia, or Thoughts on the Na- 
ture and Objects of Taste and Grenius,* Edinburgh, 1782. 

GENLI'S, STEPHANI'E FELICITE' DUCREST DE 
ST. AXJBIN. COUNTESS DE, was born near Autun in 
1746, of a respectable but not rich family. She became at 
an early aee a proficient in music, and her skill as a player 
introduced her to some persons of distinction, in whose 
company she had an opportunity of studying the manners 
and adopting the language of refined society. Her first 
writings exhibited a remarkable elegance and fluency of 
diction, which attracted attention, and excited the interest 
of the count de Genlis, who married her. She was soon 
after entrusted with the education of the children of the 
duke of Orleans, and one of her pupils, Louis Philippe, is 
the present king of the French, in the course of her task, 
to which she brought great assiduity and zeal, she wrote 
several works for the use of her pupils, which were 
afterwards published, namely, * Les Veill6es du Chfiteau,' 
•Les Annales de la Vertu,'*Le Th^tre de TEducation/ 
• Addle et Theodore,' &c. These rank among her best and 
most useful works, and they have had and still have a de- 
served popularity. After the French revolution broke out, 
Madame de Genlis, who had been at first its partizan, 
was obliged to seek safety in flight; she went succes- 
sively to England, Belgium, Switzerland, and lastly to 
Hamburg, followed everywhere by the suspicions which 
her avowed sentiments, her connexions with several lead- 
ing revolutionists (among others with Lord Edward Fitz- 
gerald, who married her adopted daughter Pamela), aiid 
the slander of the royalist emigrants, raised against her. 
At Hamburg she wrote a kind ofpolitical work styled • Les 
Chevaliers du Cygne,* which did not add to her reputation 
either as an author or a moralist. She afterwarda attempted 



PEN 



11» 



GEN 



a justiftoation of h«r own oooduet and soiitimenti, ' Prfeit 
de la Conduite de Madame de Genlia.' She returned to 
France under the oonsulahip of Bonaparte, who had a 
favourable opinion of her talents, and she became one of 
bis admirers and panegyrists. After her return to Paris 
she wrote ' De Tlnfluenoe des Femmea sur la Litt£rature»* 
in which she replied to the attacks of some of the principal 
literary men of Faris, and Gingueni among the rest ; and she 
also assailed some authors of her own sex — among others, 
Madame Cottin. 

The pen of Bfadame de Gtonlis seemed inexhaustible. 
Af^er the Restoration she wrote in defence of monarchy and 
of religion ; her work, ' Les Dtncrs du Baron d'Holbach,' 
which is in a ereat measure historical, and in which she ex- 
poses the weaknesses and the intrigues of the so-called 
philosophers of the eighteenth century, made a great sen* 
sation, and roused the anger of the freethinking party in 
France. It is a work that contains some curious inlbr- 
mation. She also wrote ' Dictionnaire Critique et Rai- 
8onn6 des Etiquettes de la Cour,' 2 vols. 8vo., 1818. When 
she was past eighty years of ase she wrote her memoirs. 
She lived to see the events of July, 1830, and her farmer 
pupil raised to the throne. She died on the 3UI of De- 
cember, 1 830, aged 84. 

Besides the works mentioned aboye, Madame de Genlis 
wrote numerous novels, of which those styled ' LaDuchesse 
de la Valliere,* <Les Battuecas et Zuma,* ou la Decouverte 
du Quinquina,' are the best Her works have been pub- 
lished toother in 84 volumes, 12mo. 

GENNESARBT. [Palxstinb.] 

GE'NOA, GE^OVA, a city of Italy, situated on the 
coast of the Mediterranean, at the foot of the Ligurian 
Apennines, in the recess of a wide gulft which extends m 
the form of a crescent from the frontiers of France to those 
of Tuscany, and which washes the coasts of the territory of 
the old Republic. That territory now forms part of the 
Sardinian monarchy, under the name of Duchy of Geneva, 
and is divided into several administrative provmoes,^ Geneva, 
Chiavari, Novi, Albenga, San Remo, Savona, and Spezia. 
The province of Genoa is bounded to the north by that of 
Novi, east by that of Chiavari, west by that of Savona, and 
south by the sea, and contains 60 communes and 208,000 
inhabitants. It includes the town of Genoa with 94,000 
inhabitants within the walls, its extensive suburbs of San 
Martino with 15,300, and S. Pier d^Arena, 6800; the 
adjoining? valleys of Poloevera andBisagno ; and the maritime 
towns of Recoo, 4000 inhabiUnts ; Nervi, 3300 ; PegU, 3000 ; 
Scstri di Ponente, 3500 ; Voltri, 7400 ; and Arensano, 2700. 
The soil is mostly rocky, but the industry of the inhabitants 
has taken advantage of every spot of cultivated ground. 
The chief productions are oranges and lemons, light wine, 
and chesnuts. Maritime trade, fishing, and manufactories 
constitute the chief resources of the population. The town 
of Genoa stands partly on the declivity of several hills risins 
in the form of a semicircle round the spacious harbour, and 
partly on a narrow strip of ground between them and the 
sea. It is enclosed on the land-side by a double line of for- 
tidcations, the external one bein^ above eight miles in 
lenp:th. The higher Anennines rise immediately behind, 
dividing the waters whicn run to the Mediterranean by the 
valleys of Bisagno and Polcevera, from those which flow 
northwards into the Scrivia and the Bormida, two affluents 
of the Po. Upon the summits of these mountains, which 
arc near enough to command Genoa, aro several detached 
forts, called (1 Diamante, I Due Fratelli, Sta. Tecla, &o. 
The appearance of Genoa from the sea is truly magnificent. 
A succession of fine buildings more than two miles in length 
lines the shore ; numerous palaces and gardens, churches 
and convents, rise behind like an ampnitheatre, on the 
steep sides of the hills that rear their dark and barren sum- 
mits above, crowned with formidable ramparts, batteries, 
and forts ; the buildings are suuare and lofty, and the rooft 
are covered with light-colourea slate, which has a neat and 
pleasing effect. The interior of the town is not so pleasant ; 
the streets are very narrow and crooked, dark and steep, 
with the exception of a few, such as Strada Balbi and 
Strada Nova, which are entireljr lined with marble palaces 
belonging to the Genoese patricians. Some of these palaces 
have galleries of paintings, and their internal decorations 
and furniture are splendid. The palaces Serra, Duraxzo, 
Doria, are among the most remarkable. Genoa has many 
handsome churches; the cathedral, I'Annunaiata, and the 
r church of Carignano, an among the finest. The 



Loggia de' Baiichi, where is the Exchange, the BoiDti or 
quays of the harbour, the Porto Franco or free-port ware > 
houses,where goods can be deposited and re-exported wu Uou t 
Dating duty ; the lighthouse, the new theatre Ckrlo Felu*«, 
Duilt by the late king of that name ; the promenade «>/ 
L'AcquasoU, the great hospital, and the former palaco of 
the Doges, are all worthy of notice. 
Genoa is a garrison town, the residence of a governor- 

Seneral, and ofa senate or high court of justice for the wbulf« 
uchy. The French civil and commercial codes have Un-n 
retained, with some modificationa For public instructiuu 
there is the University attended by about 500 students, a 
Royal college, and six communal schools, one te each dis- 
trict of the town, with very good masters. 

The Genoese are shrewd, active, industrions, fhigal, and 
parsimonious. They are well calculated for commerre. 
which is their real element. The Rivieras or maritime dis- 
tricts furnish the best sailors in the Mediterranean. Genuev: 
vessels trade to the Levant, the Black Sea, the Baltic, tu 
America, and even to the coasts of the Pacifie. In ibM 
there entered the port of Genoa 2857 vessels, of which 'iJ^j 
were under the national or Sardinian flag, and of the»e 4 : 7 
from the Black Sea, and 648 from beyond the Straitu of 
Gibraltar, including 47 from America. The yearly importa- 
tions amount to nearly three millions sterling, the exports 
to somewhat above two millions. The princimd articles of 
export are silk, rice, hempkoil, and paper. There aie st 
Genoa manufactories of silk stuffs ana of wooUens, and 
paper and cotton mills. 

The climate of Grenoa is healthy, and the atmosphere re- 
markably pure. Provisions are abundant and at moderate 
prices. The Genoese speak one of the most difficult Italian 
dialects, and they have a few books of poetry printed in it. 

Hitiory qf Genoa. — The origin of Genoa, or Genua nt% 
Roman name), is lost in the obscurity of old traditions which 
would assign to it an antiquity greater than that of Rome. Wc 
find it mentioned by Livy (xxi. 32), at the beginning of the 
Second Punic War, when it appears to have been a town m 
friendship with Rome. Some years after, Mago, the Cartha- 
ginian general, coming with a fleet and army from the Bi- 
fearic iauands to effect a diversion in favour of Hannibal, took 
Genua by surprise and partly destroyed it It was re«torvd 
two or three years after by Lucretius Spurius, after Magu*4 
defeat, agreeably to an order of the Roman senate. (Liv\, 
xxviii. 46 ; xxx. 1.) From that time Genua appears to have 
continued in alliance with Rome, but it was not a colony. 
Strabo (p. 201, Casaub.) mentions Genua as an emp</nurn 
where the Ligures from the interior brought for sale hide^. 
cattle, honey, and timber for ship-building, and received in 
exchange oil and wine from other parts of Italy. After the 
fall of the Western Empire, Genoa was taken possession <»f 
by the Lang[obards, a.d. 641. Charlemagne afterwards loiA 
it, and put it, with all maritime Liguria, under the go«-em' 
ment of a count After the fall of the Carlovingian dyna.N;v. 
and during the contests about the crown of Italy betwe«.*n 
the German emperors and the Berengarii and other claim- 
ants, the citixens of Genoa seized the opportunity of a^kert- 
ing their independence under the government of etectn« 
magistrates, styled consula The names of the oonsuU U>' 
gan to be recorded from the latter part of the eleventh 
century. At that time the Genoese bad already renderv x 
themselves formidable by sea ; after having suffered from 
the Saracens, who about a.d. 935 surprised and plundervl 
their town, they applied themselves to strengthen their na^-y. 
and having allied themselves with the Pisans they drove 
the Saracens out of Corsica, Capraia, and Sardinia, betve^^n 
the years 1016 and 1021. From that time dates the domi- 
nion of Genoa over Corsica and Capraja, and that of Pi»a 
over Sardinia. About aj). 1088 the united fleets of Pi^ 
and Genoa sailed to the coast of Africa and took Almadu 
or Mahadia, then an important town between Tunis an<i 
Tripoli They took part m the great Crusade, under Gt..U 
frev de Bouillon, and obtained settlements on the coast .f 
Palestine, especially at Acre. In 1146 Uie Oenoeee to«»k 
Minorca from the Moors, and the next year they took b> 
storm Almeria in the kingdom of Granada, where x\xv\ 
made an immense bootv. The Genoese fleet on this occa- 
sion consisted of 63 gallevs and 163 transports with U,oui> 
land forces. In the year after, having joinea the Catalon lans 
they took Tortosa, which was defended by a Moonsh gar**- 
soiu These oonouests excited the jealousy of Pisa and 
Venice, the two other naval powers of Italy ; risa, being tlie 
nearest, was the first to come to Uowt with Genoa. Four 



G 6lt 



ii* 



OEH 



WETS took plaee between the two stfttes: tbe first in 1070, 
which was short; the second in 1118, which was ended in 
1 132 by tbe mediation of Pope Innocent II. ; the third in 
1162, which lasted nearly a century; tbe fourth in 1282, 
in which the Pisans were completely defeated by sea near 
tlie rocks of Meloria, in sight or their own coast, when 3000 
Pisans were killed and 13,000 taken prisoners to Genoa, 
where most of them died in chains. Pisa never recorered 
from that blow. In 1290 tbe Genoese under Conrad Doria 
destroyed Porto Pisano and filled up the mouth of the har- 
bour. 

The rivalry between Genoa and Venice began to &how 
itself soon after the conquest of Constantinople by the 
Pranks in 1244. The Genoese having assisted Michael 
PalsDologus to reconquer bis capital, obtained from him 
the suburbs of Pera and Cralata, and the port of Smyrna, 
with full jurisdiction over those places^ The Vene- 
tians disputed with them the supremacy of the Levant 
seas, but after several naval fights the two powers con- 
cluded a truce in 1271. After the Mi of Pisa the Genoese 
found themselves more at leisure to renew the conflict with 
Venice. They put to sea with 165 galleys, each carrying from 
250 to 300 men, and sailing up the Adriatic, defeated the 
Venetians near the island of Curzola, took or burnt 84 
galleys, and made 7000 prisoners, including tbe Admiral 
Dandolo. Peace was made in 1299, by the terms of which the 
Genoese excluded the Venetians entirely from the trade of 
tlie Black Sea, where the Genoese had formed a succession 
of colonies, forts, and Victories all alone the coast. War 
broke out again in 1346, when the Genoese defeated 
the Venetians in sight of Constantinople, but were Bfter- 
wards totally routed on the coast of Sardinia. Genoa, dis- 
heartened by this defeat and a prey to internal fiictions, 
gave itself up to John Visconti, Duke of Milan. In 1372 
war broke out again between Genoa and Venice, for the 
]K>ssession of Tenedos. Genoa had meantime shaken off 
the yoke of the Visconti. In tins, the fourth war between 
Genoa and Venice, the Grenoese took Chiog^a and besieged 
Venice. The Venetians were near capitulating, when 
Vettor Pisani and Carlo Zeno revived their spirit, formed 
a new fleet, with which they blockaded the Genoese within 
Chioggia, and obliged them to surrender. This war, called 
the war of Chioggia, ended in 1381. 

From that time Venice ^nd Genoa remained at peace, 
with trifling interruptions. Genoa was exhausted by inter- 
nal factions. To the rule of the consuls had succeeded, 
about AD. 1190, that of the PodestA, renewed annually, and 
who were chosen from among the citizens of another state, 
in order to avoid the partialities and intrigues resulting 
from family connexions. This lasted with some interrup- 
Um till I'iJO, when two citizens, Oberto Spinola and OberCo 
Dona, distinguished for their services, usurped the supreme 
power, under the name of 'captains of liberty,* which they 
retained till 1291. Tbey reconciled the lower classes to 
their usurpation by appointing a magistrate called Abate 
del Popolo, a kind of tribune who supported the rights 
of the people against the nobles. Foreign captains were 
next appointed, to be chosen from among the natives of 
places at least 100 miles distant from Genoa. Afrowards 
a council was instituted, first of twelve and afterwards of 
t^^enty-four members, half nobles and half plebeians. Feuds 
and fighting oflen took place within the town between no- 
l)les and plebeians, and between Guelpbs and Guibelines. 
Both the Doria and the Spinola were Guibelines, but having 
quarrelled among themselves they were overcome by the 
<'Uclph8, who were headed by the fomilies of Fieschi and 
Grimaldi, and who exiled their rivals. But the Guibelines of 
Genoa, unlike those of Florence, were popular among the 
lower classes, and they re-entered by force. Prom 1317 to 
1331, and again in 1335, these fkctions continued to desolate 
the country, so as to render it, says tbe chronicler Foglietta, 
* frightful desert. In 1339 the citizens, weary of discord 
and disorder, instituted a supreme magistrate, called Doge, 
^r life, excluding by law all the nobles, both Guelphs and 
Guibelines, from ever flllin? the office. [Boccankra ; Dogb.] 
This lasted two centuries, but not without frequent conten- 
tions between tbe principal citizen &milies, especially the 
Adomi and Fregosi, who proved just as fiictious and trou- 
blesome as the patricians bad been. Several Doges were 
elected at a time, some w^ exiled, and others were forced 
npon tbe community by an armed fiiction* The neighbours 
of Genoa, the Visconti of Milan and the kin^ of France, 

^^adnntago of lh«M flrods^ M nriow tints obtiuiMd 



poMession of G«iloA. At last, Andrea l)orla htid the tnerit 
of delivering his oountry from the French voke ; and in 
order to avoid a recurrence of the former feuos, he changed 
the institutions of the country, by establishing biennial 
Doges, and councils to aanst and control them. [Doria.] 
A roll was made out of all the distinguished families* 
both noble and plebeian, from among whom tbe doges, 
councillors, add other officers of state were to be 
chosen. This aristocracy however was not wholly doseil 
and exclusive, like that of Venice : hew fiimilies might be 
added to it at certain times and with certain oualiflcations. 
This form of government lasted from 1528 till Bonaparte's 
invasion of Italy, when the democratic party, assisted by 
the French, rose upon the aristocracy, who werQ supported 
by the lower classes, and a scene of bloodshed took place 
which lasted several days, and ended in the discomfiture of 
the democrats. But the French Directory now took up 
their part openly, pretending that the honour of the French 
republic was concerned, and demanded a complete change 
in the institutions of the country. A democracy was formed* 
protected by a strong French garrison within the town. In 
1799 the French, under Massena, were besieged within 
Genoa bv the Austrians and the English, and after a most 
gallant defence tbe town capitulated to the Austrians, but 
was again ffiven up to the French after the battle of 
Marengo. Bonaparte, then consul, gave a new form of 
government to Genoa, leaving to it a sort of nominal inde- 
pendence and the name of republic, but, in fact, he made it 
less democratic than before. Napoleon, when emperor, in 
1805 required the formal annexation of Crenoa to France. 
The Doge Durazzo repaired to Milan, where Napoleon 
had just Deen crowned king of Italy, and stated * the wishes 
of tbe Genoese senate and people to be united to tbe Grreat 
Empire.' These wishes were immediately granted. The 
state of Genoa was formed into the three French depart- 
ments of Grenoa, Montenotte, and the Apennines. In 1814 
Genoa surrendered to the English forces under Lord 
William fientinck, and in the following year, by a decision 
of the Congress of Vienna, it was unitoa to the Satdiniaa 
monarchy. 

Of all her foreign possessions Crenoa retained Corsica the 
longest ; till 1768, when she ceded it to France. Her nume- 
rous and wealthy settlements in the Levant and the Black 
Sea she lost aner the Ottoman conquest of the Easterh 
Empire. In^ the 16th century her navy was reduced to A 
fbw galleys, and her flag was insulted with impunity by the 
Bar&ry privateers. Since the last peace the spirit of com- 
mercial enterprise in her citizens has been greatly revived. 
The Sardinian navy is chiefly manned by Genoese. (Fo- 
glietta, Caffaro, and the other old Genoese chroniclers; 
Botta, Storia cT Italia; Sena, litoria dei Ligmi e dei 

GENOVE'SI, ANIXXNIO, bom near Salerno in 171 i, 
was ordained priest in 1736, and was made professor of elo- 
quence in the clerical seminary of Salerno. He afterwards 
repaired to Naples, where he was allowed, through the 
influence of Monsignor Galiani, archbishop of Taranto, to 
open a dass of metaphysics in that university in 1741. He 
here then vrrote his * Elements of Metaphysics ' in Latin» 
which he afterwards recast into two Italian works, ' Logica 
per i giovanetti,' and ' Delle Scienze Metaflsiehe,* which 
had great success, and are still much esteemed. Hit 
* Logica' is perhaps the best elementary book of that 
science in the Italian language. His 'Meditazioni file- 
sofiche suUa Religione e sulla Morale,* are replete wit'i 
pound judgment, though written in a defective style. In 
bis ' Diceosina, o la Filosofla dell* Onesto e del Giustot 
he proceeds on tbe principle that 'every thesis in mo- 
rality is susceptible of logifMil demonstration.' These are 
the principal works of ^novesi on the moral sciences. 
We must now consider him as a political ec( nomist. In 
1754 Bartolommeo Intieri, a wealthy Florentine merchant 
settled at Naplee, founded a chair * of commerce and me- 
chanics,* and with the approbation of the k^lg appointed 
Genovesi to fill it This was the first chair of political eco- 
nomy, taken as a distinct science^ establishc a in Europe. 
In the course of bis professorship Oenoveii urote his ' Le- 
zioni di Commercio^ o di Bconomia civile,' 2 rols. 8vo. His 
book is flill of sound principles, which were quite new at 
Naples in his time, although in some instances he still ad- 
hered to the Colbert school. His lecttires excited a pro'1 i<ri. 
ous sensation among the Neapolitans; public attention 
WW $>% onee tvmed to questions of commerce, arts, and 



G BN 



120 



GEN 



agricoltnie ; «nd politieal eoonomy, the xtry name of which 
was hitherto unknown, became quite a ftubionable tiudy. 

When in 1767 the Jesuits were eiuled from the kmg- 
dom, the minister Tanucci consulted GenoTesi as to a 
new pUm for the organisation of the schoob and coUeees 
of the kingdom, which he drew up accordingly. He 
eontinued to lecture and to write, although his health was 
ereatly impaired for several T^vs, almost to the day of his 
death, which occurred in September^ 1769. The mind 
of Genovesi is exhibited in the following lines, which he 
wrote to his friend Angelo Pavesi in 1765 : 'I am now get- 
ting old, and have nothing more to hope or to expect from 
this world ; but my wish would be to leave my oountiymen 
a little more enlightened than I found them, and also a 
little more affectionate towards virtue, which is the only 
true source of good. It is of little use to think about go- 
vernment, arts, or commerce, unless the morals of a nation 
are also reformed. As long as men will And their interest 
in being rogues, we must not expect much from our me- 
thodic labours.' A selection of Genovesi*s familiar letters 
was published after his death, in two small volumes. He 
edited in his lifetime the ' Course of Agriculture* of Cosimo 
Trinci, to which he added notes and a preliminary discourse 
on the state of Neapolitan agriculture in his time. Ga- 
lanti, one of Genovesi's best disciples, wrote an ' Elogio 
Storico,' or biographical notice of his master, and Fabbroni 
wrote another in Latin. XJgoni, in his Letteratura Ita- 
Hanth devotes a long article to Genovesi. 

GBNSERIG, king of the Vandals, was the bastard bro- 
ther of Gonderic, whom he succeeded a.d. 429. In the 
same year he left Spain, which had been partly conquered 
by the Vandals, and crossed over into Africa at the solicita- 
tion of Boniface, governor of that province, who had been 
induced, by the arts of his rival Aetius, to rebel against 
Valentinian III., emperor of the West. Boni&ce soon re- 
pented of the step he had taken, and advanced to meet the 
invader. But his repentance came too late. The Moors 
joined the standard of Genseric, and the powerful sect of 
the Donatists, who had been cnielly persecuted by the Ca- 
tholics, assisted him against their oppressors. Boniface 
was defeated, and obliged to retire into Hippo Regius, 
where he remained till he obtained a fresh supply of troops. 
Having ventured upon a second battle, and being again 
defeated, he abandoned the province to the barbarians, and 
sailed awav to Italy. A peace was concluded between Gen- 
aerie and tne emperor of the West, by which all Africa, to 
the west of Carthage, was ceded to the Vandals. This 
however did not long continue ; and the city of Carthage 
was taken bythe Vandals by surprise a.d. 439. The em- 
perors of the West and East made great preparations for the 
recovery of the province ; but an alliance which Genseric 
formed with Attila, king of the Huns, effectually secured 
)iim against their attempts. 

Genseric's next object was directed to the formation of a 
navnl power; an immense number of ships was built, and 
bis fleets ravaged the shores of Sicily and Italy. Invited by 
the empress Eudoxia, he sailed up the Tiber (aj>. 455), ana 
permitted his soldiers, for the space of fourteen days, topQ- 
lage Rome. In a.d. 460 he destroyed the fleet which the 
Emperor Majorian had collected for the invasion of AfHca ; 
and as his power increased his ravages became more exten- 
sive ; the island of Sardinia was conquered, and Spain, 
Italy, Sicily, Greece, Egypt, and Asia Minor, were plun- 
dered every year by the Vandal pirates. Leon, the empe- 
ror of Constantinople, at last resolved to make a vigorous 
effort for the recovery of Africa. A great army was 
assembled, and the command was given to Basilicus. He 
landed at Bcma, and at first met with considerable success, 
but was at length obliged to retire from the province. After 
this victory Grenserio met with no further opnosition, but 
remained undisturbed master of the sea till his aeath, which 
happened ai>. 477. He waa succeeded by his son Hunne- 
rie. Genseric was an Arian, and is said to have persecuted 
the Catholics with great cruelty. (Procopius, De Bell. Fan- 
dal. ; Gibbon's Decline and Fall, o. xxxiii. — ^xxxvi.) 

GENTIA'NA, a genus of herbaceous plants, giving their 
name to the natural order Gentianacen, remarkable, as or- 
namental objects, for the brilliant colours and brautifril 
forms of their flowers, and most useful in medicine, on 
account of the pure intense bitter which they all contain. 
The species are extremely numerous, inhabiting the tem- 
perate parts of Eurone, Asia, and America, chiefly in moun- 
'aiuous situations^ vnere they breatbl t purt and rari^ed 



air, are exposed to bright light during the abort eumniers 
of sueh regions, and although fixed during winter in places 
intensely cold, yet are so well prepared to resist it by the 
warmth of their summer, and so much protected by tl*« 
snow that covers them, as to suffer no injury. These al- 
pine plants are consequently diiBcult to cultivate, or even 
uncultivable, from the impossibility of imitating their i;a- 
tural atmosphere; and hence it is onlv a very small num- 
ber that are ever seen in gardens. The prevailing colours 
of their flowers are either an intense pure blue, or a bright 
clear yellow : some idea may be formed of the brillianr) of 
the former from that of Gentiana aeaulis, a common species 
in gardens, where it it much employed for making efli^ini? 
to borders ; the yellow snecies are equally represented 1> v 
Gentiana lutea, a tall kino, which thrives well in a oomcn'^n 
American border. As the various plants comprehended .n 
the genus Gentiana, as defined byLinnssua, are extremely 
different in apoearance, and offer great diversities of struc- 
ture in their flowers, some attempts have been made to 
break the Linncean genus up into several others. Botam^tA 
however have not received these innovations favourabl}. 
and therefore, although Dr. Grisebach's new arrangemtMit 
will probably be adopted, we shall still consider the species 
as all belonging to one and the same genus. 

The ornamental species that are fbund easily eapable of 
cultivation are G. lutea, with yellow, and G. aselepiadta, 
saponaria, cruciate, septemfida, acaulis, and Pneumonanthi*. 
with blue flowers. Or these all reouire a good American bor- 
der of peat-earth to grow in, with the exception of G. acaul s 
which prefers the hardest and stiffest clay. Many <»tl>.r 
species are named in gardening books, but they genera] Iv 
perish as soon as they are brought under the hands of ti.'* 
cultivator. For medical purposes, the root of Gentiana lut<. a, 
a native of the central parts of Europe, is principally col- 
lected, especially for the French and English markeu ; Im.i 
Gentiana purpurea and punctata have roots that are *>iA\ 
more bitter, and the latter is said to furnish the chief |ur: 
of what is consumed in Germany and the north of Eur i^* 
In the Himalayas the roots of Gentiana Kurroa are used u« 
a substitute, and the stems and leaves of G. cheretta. 

GENTIA'NA LU'TE A, a perennial species, common sn 
the mountainous and sub-alpine districts of Switzerlanti. 
Germany, &c. Though the whole plant is bitter, yet a> tl.is 
property is most concentrated in the root, that part onlv t« 
officinal. This should be taken up in autumn, and is In.->: 
when the plant is only one year old. It is generally c> Imi- 
drical, often an inch thick at the summit, but below ratlnr 
branched, of a dark or brown colour externally; internal > 
fleshy and yellow. In commerce it is met with in pieces 
cut longitudinally, from a half to one foot in length. A 
transverse section displays three distinct circles. The great«;r 
portion is procured from Germany; the specimens from 
Switzerland are generally thicker and darker coloured. 

When fresh it has some smell, which is almost entirely 
lost by drying. The taste is at first somewhat sweet, then 
purely and strongly bitter. According to the analvu^ (f 
Henry and Oaventou, it contains a principle tenuM Gcn- 
tianin, which is cry stall izable ; a volatile odorous principle, 
a greenish fixed oil, a free organic acid, uncrystallizaoU 
sugar, gum, colouring matter, &c. 

Owing to its saccharine matter it soon moulds m a damp 
place, and should therefore be kept in a dry airy situation. 
From the abundance of the sugar, it is easily susceptible of 
fermentation, and from it is distilled a spirit, called En- 
ziangeist, or ' bitter snaps,* much employed by the peasanu 
on the Swiss Alps to fortify the system against the fogs and 
damps of these lofty re^ons. 

Yellow gentian-root is often oonfbunded with the roots i>f 
other species of this genus, a circumstance attended with no 
bad consequences, but unfortunately roots of very poisonous 
plants, growing in the same locality, are of^en Uken up 
instead of the proper one- these are, the Veratrum album 
(white hellebore), the leaves of which resemble those of een- 
tian in their peculiar venation, but are alternate. vliJe 
those of gentian are opposite — the root is very d^reouond 
besides this, it contains Veretria; and the A trope Br I la- 
donna (deadlv night-shade), which, besides differences ti 
the physical characters, is devoid of the peculiar bicter of 
gentian, and acquires a bluish*black colour from tincture 
of iodine. The roots of Aconitum Lycoctonum and Ranun- 
culus Thora are occasionally confounded with gentian-n«.«c 

Gentian-root is a pure and excellent bitter tonic; useful 
ill «ai cases of debility, whether of the itomach only» or of 



GEO 



122 



GEO 



The Wrned auOior mutt have baoi Mmewbat irasxled 
with his deflnidon of a gentleman, at understood in his 
time. Having defined a gentleman to be one who studieth 
the laws, &c^ he adds (to be shortX that he who can live idly 
and bear the port, &c. of s gentleman* is a gentleman ; that 
is, if he can live idly, and if he can also do as a gentleman 
does (it not being said what this is), he is a gentleman. 
Perhaps a definition of the term, as now used, would not be 
easily made; it being extended by the courtesy of modem 
manners to many who do not come within the ancient 
acceptation of the term, and denied by public opinion to 
many whose rank and wealth do not make up for the want 
of ot her qualifications. 

GRNTOOS. [HiWDtJSTAN.] 

GENUS, in physics, signifies a multitude or class of 
objects possessing some common quality or qualities: in 
logic it denotes the material part of the definition. 

when we direct our attention to a particular object, we 
discover under its apparent unity a great variety of cha- 
racters and qualities ; and, upon an examination of several 
objects, we observe many points of agreement and difierence 
between them. By the power which we possess of concen- 
trating our faculties, we are enabled to consider these mu- 
tual relations and resemblances without any regard to their 
differences : we as it were draw the one away fron^ the other ; 
in short, we abstract them. 

Now by abstraction we may either confine our view to a 
quality inherent in some object independently of that 
object; or else, neglecting the many points of disagreement 
which exist between a number of objects, we may seize 
upon the qualities that belong to all in common, in order to 
combine them into a single idea. In the former case 
the notion is simply abstract ; in the latter it is abstract 
and general ; and the multitude of objects to which we 
apply the general notion or common term constitutes a 

genui. 

In this operation we may proceed continually by neglect- 
ing in succession a greater number of differences, and com- 
prising under the common denomination fewer points of 
agreement and resemblance. In this manner we form a 
series of notions or genera of , higher and lower order, until 
we ultimatelv arrive at the highest possible— that of bein^. 
In this co-ordination of genera, every intermediate genus is 
called a subaltern genus or species, being such in respect of 
different other terms ; for that of which a hieher genus is 
predicated is called a species, while relatively to all lower 
species it is itself a genus. Lastly, that which is not con- 
tained under any higher, is called the iummum genui, and 
that under which inaividuals only are comprised is usually 
called the injlma species. 

These general notions and genera are the principles of 
classification and arrangement, and without them tho know- 
ledge of facts and nature itself would be, if not absolutely im- 
possible, at best a confused mass of conceptions and objects 
without beauty, order, or coherence. But at the same time 
that we thus admit the utility of such general notions, we 
must remember that they are purely relative to human 
science and its objects ; that even as such they are imper- 
fect, and very far n-om conveying an adequate expression of 
the truth of nature, wherein there is nothing really cor- 
responding to them, but only a something in the individual 
objects from which we derive them, which not only is the 
cause and the occasion of our forming them, but also trans- 
ferring to them, as it were, a part of its own verity and 
existence, justifies us in according to them our confidence 
in science and action. 

GEOBDELLA. (Zoology.) [Lbbch.] 

GEOCENTRIC (having the earth as centre), a term 
applied to the place of a planet, as seen Arom the centre of 
the earth, in opposition to its heliocentric place, as seen 
from the centre of the sun. [Parallax.] 

GEOCICHLA, a genus of birds established by Mr. 
Gould for a pretty species resembling the Redbreast {Eri- 
thacui Bubecuia, Swainson). It belongs, he observes, to an 
interesting group which was first characterized by M. Kuhl, 
and of which tne Society's collection possesses four well- 
marked species. (Zoo/. Proc, 1836.) 

GBOCXX:iHLIDES, Latreille's name for the shell-snails : 
TYachilipodee colimach of Lamarck; Limadnie of De 
niainville ; Limacwi of De F6russac. 

"rSCVDESY IS that branch of applied mathematics 
;h determines the figures and areas of largo portions of 
earth's surfeoe, the general figure of the eartn, and the 



^•nations of the xntentitjr of granty in diftreiit MgisM» hf 
means of direct observation and measurement 

Some of the antient philosophers, who lived several cen- 
turies before the Christian SBra, were acquainted with the 
nearly spherical form of the ^lobe, and even devised me- 
thods for measuring approximately a meridional circum- 
ferenoe [Ebatosthxnx^* The Arabs long afterwards pur- 
sued the same object, and the Caliph Almamoun, in a.d. 
814, ordered the measurement of a degree in the plains ff 
Mesopotamia, an example which, after another long intenaU 
was imitated by Snellius in Holland, Norwood in Eudlan'i, 
and by several French and Spanish mathematicians. Richer 
observed a variation in the length of the seconds* pendulum 
when sent to Cayenne by the French academy of sciencvt, 
the true cause of which phsenomenon was explained by 
Newton; for the centrifugal force arising from the earth's 
rotation round its axis in twenty«-four hours is directly (•!>- 
posed to the force of gravity at the equator, and m other 
latitudes the part of this force which acts in the directum uf 
the plumb-line is nearly proportional to the square of tin* 
cosine of the latitude. He has also proved in his 'Principle* 
that a uniform lluid spheroid, in which the ratio of the cen- 
trifugal force to the attraction at the surface was the same 
as in the earth, would be in equilibrium when the axis of 
revolution was less than the equatorial diaqieter by l-23Uth 
of the latter. From that time measurements have been un- 
dertaken under the directions of the various governments 
of Europe, to determine if the globe were really flattened st 
the poles, and also for the purpose of forming exact nia{/s 
with respect to the latitude, longitude, and altitude abu> c 
the level of the sea, of places in their respective dominion* : 
and lastly, the French have deduced their legal metre of 
length from the measurement of a particular meridian 
arc. Jacobi has lately shown that a revolving fluid eUii»- 
soid, having three unequal axes, may also present a surfa^ e 
of equilibrium. 

The result of so many geodetic enterprises has iK>t Iw'on 
as successful as could be wished. Some of the earliest at- 
tempts by the French were faulty in computation, and (ra%e 
results directly contrary to Newton's theory, and iome aM« 
mathematicians of that day appear to have been misled b « 
a feeling akin to envy, to the extent of supporting tlu-^^ 
false conclusions by plausible reasonings. The error of that 
survey has been since discovered, and ul the methods w Uk L 
have been employed in the numerous trials undertaken m 
this and the last century agree in provins that the polar ax .^ 
of the earth is shorter than the equatorifd bv about l-30(Mh . 
but they have served at the same time to nemonstrate ihu: 
the earth is not a spheroid, that it la not a solid of reviilu- 
tion, and that the fibres of the northern and southen. 
hemispheres are dissimilar. Hence if we suppose a >«>lhi 
of revolution having, its axis in the same direction as that U 
the earth, and osculating the surface of the latter, the e\* 
centrici^ of this spheroid varies both with the latitude and 
the longitude of the place. 

If the materials which compose the solid mass of the 
earth had equal capacities for heat and became liquid at eq u. I 
temperatures, the spheroid of revolution would roo»t yi^ 
bably be the figure assumed at the epoch when the cuuit;.^ 
of the whole had rendered it solid. Such however i:» i. 
the case ; a great portion of the surface of the globe is w * 
liquid, and of the solid parts some must have assumed ti. .i 
state prior to others. It is also possible that the tein|)cra- 
ture of space is variable within the extent of the solar s\ •- 
tem, and therefore the conditions for the cooling of ti t 
northern and southern hemispheres may be different, ui . 
a very small difference would siifiice to produce, in a I>i»^- 
series of ages, a marked difference between the leui|x': - 
tures of the two hemispheres, and thorefore a oorre5poti<';r . 
difference would arise relative to their forms. The i;«i»4 . ... 
sphericity of the earth cannot be otherwi>e conceive*! u .ut 
by its primitive fluidity, and the irregular cooling cf it- 
parts accounts sufficiently for the observed departures U *ii 
the spheroidical shape* which would have been otheni.^^' 
produced by the attraction of its parts and the ccnuifij .1 
toTce of rotation. The other bodies of the solar system wh 
havo short periods of rotation present the analogous a{>pv.ir- 
ance of unequal axes» theequatori^ axis being al«a}» tl o 
longer. 

In the trigonometrioid survey of portions of the ear;}i*« 
surface, the extent or area may be computed more ai«ti 
more approximately bv the suppositions of such purt. •.« 
being plane* spherical* spheroidical, and lastly of b««it^ 



&£ o 



128 



GEO 



fioineident with tbe ocenlating spheroid. We i^hidl now ex- 
plain the manner in which geodetic measurements are 
conducted, and thetarious corrections and reductions which 
it is necessary to apply to the principal calculations. 

In Older to measure an arc of the meridian, a series of 
stations are chosen near it in the most advantageous posi- 
tions which the locality will permit ; the lines which suc- 
cessively connect those stations form a series of triangles, in 
each of which, if one side and two angles, or two sides and 
one angle, are known, the remaining sides and angles are 
determinahle by trigonometry ; and if one extended line con- 
nected with the triangles, and called a base of verification, 
be measured, it serves at the different stages of the opera- 
tion to detect any small errors which may have crept into 
the calculations. The stations should be so chosen that the 
triangles should be as nearly equilateral as possible, for 
then the errors of observation in the angles have the least 
induence in producing corresponding errors in the sides 
opposed to them. The measurement of the angles is effected 
by a theodolite, to which one or more teleseopes are at- 
tached, with circles or ares accurately graduated and ac- 
companied by a vernier. The French, in the great survey 
hctvreen Dunkeraue and Barcelona,which was conducted by 
Delambre and Mechain, employed Borda's repeating circle ; 
while, in the English and Insh survev, a zenith sector, con- 
structed by Ramsden expressly for tnis purpose, was used. 
It is of ^eat importance that the telescopes should have a 
motion m azimuth as well as a vertical motion. In a 
Memoir on the Doctrine of Chances applied to geodetic 
operations ('Ck)nnaissancedes Terns,' 1820, p. 422), Laplace 
shows that it is in general an advantage to have the series 
composed of as few triangles as possible, and yet in the sur- 
veys we have mentioned a great number were employed 
without producing on an extended base any considerable 
error, when a country is deficient in spires, towers, or 
other lofty edifices, situated conveniently for stations, arti- 
ficial ones are easily raised, and if illuminated at the top 
ind provided with parabolic reflectors directed towards the 
cbserver, these, \/hen employed by night, are found emi- 
nently successful. Care must however be taken that this 
station be estimated at the foot of the vertical passing through 
the object observed, and corrections must be applied for any 
eccentricity in the position of the telescope, or error in its 
line of coliimation. The angles observed not being in the 
horizon, must be reduced to it by a formula given in most 
treatises on spherical trigonometry. (Woodhouse's Trigon., 
Appendix.) M. Delambre again reduced the latter angles 
to the angles between the chords of the spherical area 
between the stations, and therefore his series corresponded 
to the edges and fiices of an inscribed polyhedron. {Bcue 
du Sysieme Mctrique,) 

The three angles of any triangle in the series when added 
together are always greater than two right angles, which is 
a known property of every spherical triangle ; but M. Le- 
gendre has uiown that they may be treated as plane trian- 
gles by taking from each angle the third part of the excess 
of the' sum above two right angles ~ a theorem of great use 
in geodesy, and which, as the same mathematician has 
proved, mav be extended to spheroidical or other triangular 
portions of'^curved surfaces. 

It happens not unfiequently that the mstrument cannot 
be place! at the very centre of the station which forms the 
true angular point of the particular triangle in the series ; 
by placing it as near to the centre as the observer oonve- 
nieutly can, b small correction, which is easily calculated, 
will reduce the observed angles to those which would have 
been observed had the centre been the point of observation : 
this correction is called the reduction to the centre, (De- 
lambre, Diterm. dun Arc du Mtrid,^ p. 24.) A similar cor- 
rection must be applied when the observed object is a tower 
with a polygonal base. Another source of error is the ob- 
lique illumination of the observed object, which it is most 
important to correct, many of the surveys of the last cen- 
tury being fiiulty bv the observer either disregarding or 
bv^>ing ignorant of tne change of apparent position which 
is thus produced. 

Tbe actual measurement of the bases is one of the most 
delicate operation in geodesy, and requires the greatest 
precaution ; it is best that they should be as long as pos- 
sible and chosen on level ground, or at least that tney may 
be in vertinl planes, so as to correspond to arcs of a great 
circle when the earth is regarded as spherical. But the great 
difficulty is to detennine their lengths in referenee to a fixed 



unit of length ; for whateter material may be employed for 
the chain or rod of measurement, the variations of tenQperft- 
ture will produce sensible alterations in their length. Thesa 
indications must be reduced to a fixed state of the thermo- 
meter, and if they are of a nature to be affected by mois- 
turOr it wiL oe necessary also to make a correction for the 
hygrometric state of the atmosphere. The French employed 
for rods a species of metallic thermometer consisting of a 
copper rod placed on one of platinum, which had precisely the 
same length at a known temperature ; as these metals ex- 
panded unequally by heat, the difference easily indieated 
the proper correction : the English in the late survey first 
employed glass at Hounslow-heath, and afterwards also 
steel rods, and applied the correction, for temperature, which 
was small in the former case. The following table gives the 
proper corrections for the materials generally used ; it must 
be nowever remembered that the linear dilatation is not 
always the same in the three dimensions of a body :— « 

Linear 
DlUUtioQ. 

*00001, 72244 



•00001,86671 I T?«,.^„« j^,,«^ 



Names of Sulistanoei. 

Copper • • • . 

Brass. .... 

Soft iron, wrought . 

Glass tube, without lead '00000,87572 

Platina • . . • -00000,85655 

Sometimes it is impracticable to have a base coincident 
with a single geodetic line, as was the case in the instances 
of the bases atMelun and Perpignan ; when accurately mea- 
sured they are to be projectea on a horizoutal plane by mul- 
tiplying them by the cosine of their inclination to the horixon, 
which being a very small angle, it sufiices to subtract a 
small quantity proportional to the square of this angle. 

0* 
(Cos. 9=1 — - when is small.) 

General Roy in 1784 measured a base of five mfles on 
Hounslow-heath, reducing his observations to the level of 
the sea and a temperature of 62"^ Fahrenheit, and formed 
a series of triangles between Greenwich and Dover. After 
his death (I790)t Colonel Mudge extended it to Dunnose in 
the Isle of Wight ; a verification-base being measured on 
Salisbury Plain ; and the same great siirVey has been ex- 
tended to Ireland and Scotland under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Colbv, bv whom a base of seven miles was measured near 
Lonaonderry. 

The irregular figure of the earth \a the cause that the 
geodetic meridian is not a plane curve. If through a point 
on the earth's surface and the axis of the earth a plane be 
drawn, this plane intersects the celestial sphere in a great 
circle, which is the celestial meridian of the place. Con- 
ceive verticals to be drawn parallel to this plane ; the points 
where these verticals meet the irregular surface of the earth 
have evidently a common celestial meridian, and since the 
radius of this circle is indefinitely great, the locus of all these 
points forms a geodetic line. If another section of the sur- 
fiice be taken perpendicular to this, the radii of curvatura 
of these two curves at their common intersection are suffi. 
cient to give that of any other section made through the 
same point by a plane of known inclination to either, what- 
ever be the figure of the earth's surface, and the sum of the 
curvatures of any two rectangular sections through the 
same point is constant. The geodetic line possesses the 
singular property of being the wortest route between any 
two points taken in it ; the equations to this curve of dou- 
ble curvature may therefore be found either by the differen- 
tial calculus, if we consider the points of which it is the 
locus, or by the calculus of variations, if we regard the 
above-mentioned property. When the surface is one of 
revolution, this line is in the plane of the celestial meridian 
of the place, and is the same as the curve of revolution ; 
but as it is not a plane cmrve, it follows that the earth is 
not a solid of this nature. 

The refraction of light by the atmosphere is very great when 
the visual ray is nearly horizontal ; and hence arise great 
errors in the measurement of angles, whether the observed 
objects are in the same level or not. These errors are geiierally 
remedied by an empirical law for terrestrial refraction, but 
all such laws fail to apply in the varied states of rarefection 
or of moisture in which the lower strata of the atmosphere 
are found ; the best remedy is to seize the most propitious 
opportunities, when the heat of the surface of the earth has 
undergone no sudden changes, and when the atmosphere 
is fiur and free ftom fogs. 



GEO 



124 



GEO 



All the iveceding conrectioiift being made so u to ensure 
the accuracy of the obtfervationa* it ia necessary to reduce all 
to one level : for this level the mean surface of the sea» be- 
tween iu ebb and tide, or thai which would be its level if 
there were no tide, is selected. The barometer must then 
be used to determine the altitude of the place of observation 
above this level, and a formula given by Laplace, and in- 
serted in most treatises on hydrostatics, being applied* will 
give the altitude of the place, which with iU latitude and 
longitude are all the co-ordinates necessary to determine its 
position. The preceding remarks are probably sufficient to 
give an idea of all the difficulties and delicate processes 
necesiiary for an exact trigonometrical survey. 

The results of tlie most careful geodetic measurements 
show that the earth is compressed at the poles and extended 
at the equator. The lengths of a degree diminish regularly 
in the following different countries, to which we have annexed 
the names of the surveyors: Sweden, Melanderhielm ; 
England, Mudge ; Cape of Good Hope, Lacaille ; France, 
Delambre ; Italy, Boscovich; Pennsylvania, Mason; Peru, 
Bouguer; India, Lambton: but in distances which are 
small compared with the surfiuse of the earth, the alteration 
in the length of the de^^rees is very irregular, as is strikingly 
manifested by the English base of General Roy, connected 
with the French of Delambre prolonged by Biot and Arago. 

Anotlier method has been adopted to determine the 
ellipticity of the earth by means of a seconds* pendulum, 
which, as well as direct measurement, indicates the llatteu- 
ing of the earth towards the poles. The following table is 
taken from the ' M^canique Celeste,* tom. ii. No. 42 ; the 
latitudes are expressed in grades, and the length of the 
pendulum at Paris is adopted as the umt ; the seconds are 
centesimal and of mean time: — 



VUcfot 




Length of 


Nam* of 


Obkcrvatioo. 


Ulltttde. 


PeDdolttn. 


Obscnrator. 


Equator 


. 000 


0-99669 


Bouguer. 


Porto Bello 


. 10-61 


0-99689 


Id. 


Pondich6ry 


• 13-25 


0-99710 


Le Gen til. 


Jamaica 


. 20*00 


0-99745 


Campbell. 


Cage of Good|3,.„ 


0*99877 


LaCaille. 


Toulouse 


. -:8-'14 


099950 


Darquier. 


Vienna 


. 53-57 


0-99987 


Liesganig. 


Paris 


. 54-26 


1-00000 


Bouguer. 


Grotha • 


. 56-63 


1-00006 


Zach. 


London . 


. 57-22 


1-00018 


• • • 



Arengsberg . 64-72 1-00074 Grisschow. 

Petersburg . 66*60 1 '00 101 Mallet 

Lapland . 74*22 1-00137 Academicians. 

By employing the method of least squares, and assuming 
the figure of the earth to be nearly spheroidical, Mathieu has 
deduced from «these observations ^§ as the fraction which 
expresses the eccentricity ; the theory of the lunar inequali- 
ties make it to be , , which differs but little from the former, 
and still less from that w^hich corresponds to the southern 
hemisphere: the English observations would give ^. 

In the ' Philosophical Transactions ' from the year 1819 
to 1830, may be found the experiments on the length of the 
ixsndulum by Captains Kater, Sabine, Foster, and Mr. Fal- 
lows ; an account of which, together with those of Freycinet 
and Duperrey, is inserted in the 7th volume of the 'Me- 
moirs of the Royal Astronomical Society,* by Mr. Baily. 
Besides the works already quoted, the reader may consult 
with advantage the article on the Figure of the Earth, by 
Mr. Airy, in the * Encycbpndia ^ietropolitaoa,* and the 
' Trait6 de Geod^ie,* by Puissant. 

GEOEMY'DA. ITortoisbs.] 

GEOFFRifiA INERMIS, or ANDPRA INERMIS, 
IS a tree inhabiting the tropical parts of America, and 
yielding a bark, wiUi emetic, dmstic, purgative, and nar- 
cotic properties and in large doses poisonous. It acts as a 
powerful anthelmintic. The leaves are pinnate, and covered 
with a rusty down; the leaflets are oblong-lanceolate, or 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, and the flowers are arranged in 
tonninal and axillary ferruginous panicles, very showy, with 
reddiah hlac petals. Legume the size of a large plum. An 
account of it by Dr. Wright will be found in the PMloso- 
p/tirai Transartwns for 1777, p. 512, t, 70. 

(;K0KFREY of MONMOUTH, otherwise named 
ARTHUR, the well-known British hibtorian, was born in 
lown from which he took his name, and is supposed to 
; reri'i\ed his education at the Benedictine monastery 
I vicinity. Tradition ttill poiiiu out a Muoll apaitmen 



ft 



in the remains of that monastery which ii designated as his 
study. He was made archdeacon of Monmouth, and on 
the 24th Februaiy, 1152, consecrated bishop of St. Asaph. 
Robert, earl of Gloucester, natural son of Henry L, and 
Alexander, bishop of Lincoln, were his chief patrons. 

Walter Mapes, at that time archdeacon of Oxford, a 
diligent inquirer for his day after the works of anticnt 
authors, is said, whilst journeying in Armorica, to have met 
with a history of Britain written in the British tongue, the 
translation of which, upon his return to England, be re- 
commended to Geoffrey of Monmouth, who undertook the 
task and rx>mpleted it with great fidelity. At first hcdividetl 
it into four, but afterwards into eight books, to which he 
added the book of Merlin's ' Prophecies,' which he h^d 
also translated from British verse into Latin prose. Nu- 
merous fabulous and trifling stories are inserted iu the 
history, to an extent which has induced some authors, and 
among them Buchanan, to consider ths whole as ftctiijti : 
but others, among whom are Archbishop U»her, Lelai.d, 
&C., consider that parts of his history are true, and that 
the work is not to be rejected in the gross. The best Weibh 
critics seem to consider that Geoffrey's work was a vitiated 
translation of the ' History of the British Kings,* writton by 
Tyssilio or St. Talian, bishop of St Asaph, who lived in 
the seventh century. Geoffrey's omissions, additions aud 
interpolations are verv numerous ; and his Latin for British 
appeUations frequently very diflScult to understand. 

Several editions of Geoffrey's history are extant in Latin ; 
the earliest is in 4to., printed by A&censius at Paris in 1 519 , 
reprinted, 4to., 1517. It was also printed by Commeliuc at 
Heidelberg, in folio. 1587, among the * Rerum Bntannics- 
rum Scriptores vetustiores et pnecipui.* A translation of 
it into English, by Aaron Thompson, of Queen's ColU ^e. 
Oxford, was publibhed in London, 1718. in 8vo. (Tani.*. r, 
BtbL Briian. Hib^ pp. 305. 306 ; Nicholson's HUt, Library : 
Chalmers's Biog. Did,, vol. xviii., p. 488-492.) 

Copies of Geoffrey of Monmouth s history, in manuscript, 
are not unfre<}uent m our great libraries : several, of an 
age very near his time, are preserved amooff the manuM^npib 
of the Old Royal Library in the British Museum; ot.e 
formerly belonging to the library of Margan Abbcv i* 
believed to be the best Geoffrey of Monmouth died about 
the year 1154. 

GEOGRAPHY (a term derived from the Greek >#.^- 
ypa^iei^ geoerdphia) is a science the general object of wL;4 h 
is to descrme the surface of our globe. Its more sp^c ^I 
object is to ascertain and describe such physical peculari> 
ties in each country as tend to promote or retard the lucrva^c 
of population and the arts of civilized life. 

The political condition of a nation and the change^ i<< 
which it is subject are in a great decree dependent on ',\ « 
character of the country which it inhabits, or of those cx'i. • 
tries which surround it. The difference in civilization cU- 
ser\'ed in nations living near one another may al^o in -s 
great degree be ascribed to the same cause. According « 
we find that as soon as men began to apply themseUcs :i« 
the explanation of such changes and differences, they wr;c 
obligea to look to the particular character of the cuunttic-a 
inhabited by those nations whoso history it was their oliji -t 
to investigate. Geography is coeval with histoiy. It la u> 
impossible to form a just idea of the events which have hit li 
most decisive in the history of a nation without a knowlcxl^e 
of their country, as it is to understand the mov<;n)ents t 
two armies on a field of battle without knowing the uatuc 
of the ground which is the scene of their operations. 

Herodotus, the father of history, is likewise the futhor <•:' 
geography. His geographical descriptions are short ar.d g.-- 
neral, but always cloar and sufficient to show how far i i .o 
physical peculiarities of each country influence<l the chant: i s 
and events which he had undertaken to commemoriti\ 
When he found that a country was characterized by strik»; ^ 
peculiarities he described them at considerable length. .\ 
instance of this is his description of Egypt in the se<-i ' .. 
and his description of the Scythians and their coui4t.\ l:^ 
the fourth book. 

There is however something vague in the descriptiuri% i f 
Herodotus, for want of a means of referring to the positt 
of places as determined by astronomical obser\*ations. lit* 
rodotus indeed was apparently not fully acquainted wiih tl>. 
state of science, and particularly astronomical know Icd^* «.«. 
it existed in his age. Tliales had some time beforcr ralrvi- 
lated an eclipse of the sun, and from his epoch astrom tii v 
attracted the attention of the Greek phifosopheisa aud U<{^ 



GEO 



125 



GEO 



ill this science began to accumulate. It was however soon 
evident that most of these facts lost a ^reat part of their 
value, fh>m the circumstance of the position of places not 
being ascertained. Astronomers therefore were led to de- 
> ise a method of fixing the latitude and longitude of a place ; 
and though this method, when compared with our practice, 
was extremely rude and imperfect, yet it must he consi- 
dered as having materially contributed to the improvement 
of geography. With the help of such astronomical obser- 
vations as were made by his predecessors or himself, Era- 
tosthenes formed the first system of geography founded on 
a basis which in some degree approached to truth. He de- 
lermincd the geographical position of a great number of 
places, many of them hardly known to Europeans, but these 
determinations were often founded on vague information, 
and consequently were in a great degree conjecturaL Still 
his map gave a much truer image of the figure of the 
-world than philosophers had formed before him, as he took 
care to sub^'ect his information to a strict examination. 

While his successors were slowly improving his work, 
the historians, following up the plan traced by Herodotus, 
enriched geography with the description of those countries 
^hich at Uie time of the historian of Halicarnassus were 
not known, or at least only imperfectly known in Greece. 
Among these historians Polybius deserves particular men- 
tion. His geographical descriptions of the countries which 
enclose the western portion of the Mediterranean Sea are 
as good as, if not superior to, those by Herodotus of the 
countries between the Caspian Sea and the Gulfs of Persia 
and Arabia. About his time, or shortly afterwards, it would 
seem that several persons undertook travels into remote 
countries, in order to investigate their physical character 
and to ascertain the accuracy of such information as had 
reached them by hearsay. The most conspicuous among 
these adventurers was Posidonius. Like Alexander von 
Humboldt he went to the then remotest country of the 
earth, to Iberia, which was as noted for its mines of the 
precious metals as South America and Mexico are in 
in our times ; and though only a small portion of the in- 
formation which he collected is come down to us, he seems 
to have paid great attention to nearly all the objects of in- 
quiry which the German philosopher has investigated. 

The geographical information collected by these eminent 
travellers and many others of less note was scattered over a 
great number of works, access to which, in the circum- 
stances of those times, was necessarily difficult Strabo, a 
native of Asia Minor, who wrote in the time of Augustus 
and Tiberius, undertook to incorporate in one work those 
scattered materials and to add the information which he had 
ai^quircd in his own travels. His object, according to hi** 
own declaration, was to compose a work which should be 
useful to those employed in the administration of countries. 
He accordingly discarded everything which was only of 
temporary importance, and described each country accord- 
ing to its permanent physical character. In a few words 
he informs his reader of the extent of each country under 
description, and its chief political and historical divisions. 
Passing on to the detailed description of these divisions, he 
follows much more nearly the course of our modem travel- 
lers than that of our geographers. Mountains, plains, val< 
leys, rivers, and towns keep their true position with respect 
to one another ; productions and climate are mentioned in 
t'neir proper place. A few short observations on commerce 
and the articles of export conclude his description. By this 
judicious arrangement the sagacious Greek geographer 
avoided causing to his readers that weariness which every 
one experiences in perusing common geographical books, 
m which every object is as it were rooted out from its 
natural place and transported to a foreign spot We can- 
not help thinking that the method of treating geography 
adopted by Strabo ought still to bo considered as a model, 
and ought to be again introduced into works of this class ; 
and we find that Charles Ritter, in his justly esteemed geo- 
graphical works, strictly adheres to the plan of Strabo. 

Whilst the geography of Strabo was extensively used all 
over the Roman world, the astronomical school of Alexan- 
dria continued collecting materials for the purpose of com- 
pleting and perfecting the system of geography framed by 
Erastosthenes. These collections enabled Ptolemy to form 
his geography, which is hardly anything else but a cata- 
logue of places according to their estimated or determined 
geographical position. In its time it was certainly a very 
useful worl^i but its value Xq us consists chiefiy in showing 



how far the Greeks had carried their knowledge of the suf -• 
fiice of the globe. From the time of Ptolemy up to the four* 
teenth century scarcely anything was added to what he left 
behind him. 

The downfal of the Roman Empire, and the occupation 
of Western Europe by barbarous nations who were hardly 
acquainted with the elements of civilized life, suddenly ex- 
tinguished all scientific research. Many centuries elapsed 
before these nations made such progress in civilization as to 
enable them to turn their attention to science. Geography, 
which shared the ikte of the other sciences, was however 
revived sooner than the rest, and the circumstance which 
led to this was the travels of the Venetian, Marco Polo. 
Though his accounts were rejected by his countrymen as 
mere fictions, or at any rate were treated as great exaggera- 
tions, some German scholars at Niirnberg took a different 
view of them. As Niirnberg at that time was one of the 
greatest trading places on the Continent, and for that reason 
closely connectea with the first commercial houses of Venice, 
these learned men soon procured a copy of Marco Polo's 
travels. For the other countries of the world taking Ptolemy 
as their basis, they introduced the principal geographical facta 
contained in Polo*s travels into their globes and maps, as an 
addition to the knowledge transmitted by the astronomers 
of Alexandria. But Marco Polo had made no astronomical 
observations, nor had he even mentioned the leneth of the 
longest day at any place. The German geographers were 
therefore obliged to determine the extent of the countries 
which he had traversed by his vague estimates of days' jour- 
neys ; but the length of these journeys was greatly exagge- 
rated by them, as they were entirely unaoquaintea with the 
peculiar character of Eastern Asia. The consequence of 
this was, that on their maps and globes Asia extended over 
the whole of the Pacific, and its eastern shores were placed 
very nearly where the Antilles are situated. This error of 
the geographical school of Niirnberg was attended with 
very important conseouences. Columbus, relying on their 
estimates, considered that tlie shortest way to arrive at the 
eastern parts of Asia would be by sailing to the west. He 
found America ; but the same school of geographers whose 
errors had induced him to venture on such a voyage 
deprived him also partly of the honour due to his great dis- 
covery. Baron von Humboldt has proved that the very 
slow and insecure communications wnich then existed be- 
tween Spain and Germany brought the news of the dis- 
covery of the New World to the geographers of Grermany 
together with the names of Columbus and Americo Ves- 
pucci, and that the Germans thought that Americo was the 
true discoverer of the nei^ continent, which accordingly ob- 
tained from them the name of America, a name that has 
become universal. 

The first half of the sixteenth century was entirely em- 
ployed in discovering the extensive coasts of America, and 
the countries and islands lying along it, and in the Indian 
Ocean ; and geographers were fully employed in inserting 
these new discoveries in their maps according to such de- 
terminations of positions as they oould obtain. In all the 
geographical works written during that century this charac- 
teristic is observable. They resemble much more the geo- 
graphy of Ptolemy than that of Strabo. But what could 
geographers then know of the interior of countries whow 
very coasts were yet hardly laid down with accuracy even in 
a few places ? 

In the mean time the other sciences had been revived and 
with them also the study of antiquity, which gave a different 
turn to the study of geography during the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Manv persons well informed in antient history visited 
Greece and the countries of Western Asia, with the view of 
examining those parts which had once been the theatre of 
great events. Such At>foricci/ travellers were very numerous 
dunng the second half of the seventeenth and the first half 
of the eighteenth century ; and though at first they confined 
their researches chiefly to such places as had obtained some 
historical celebrity, they afterwards extended their views to 
the physical character of the countries in which such places 
were situated, and gave us some excellent descriptions of 
them, such as we find in the travds of Chardin, Shaw, Po- 
cocke. Chandler, and Carsten Niebuhr. These travels 
greatly contributed to the improvement of geography as a 
science. They brought history and geography again into 
close connection. Before this time geographical works con- 
tained hardly any thing beyond a dry catalogue of names of 
places, riversi and political divisions. But in de^ribing th« 



OBO 



126 



OBO 



ttfll existing ruiiu of pl»oei celtbratod in nnamt biitoiy. 
geographen were oompelled to go beck to thoM antienft 
autkora who had treated of theee plaoea. and tbua a nart at 
least of the geographical knowledge of HerodotUB» Polybia«» 
and Strabo, was transplanted into our modern geographical 
treatises. Thus a gn»t deal of very interesting and useAil 
maiter found its way into treatises on geography, which had 
hitherto been entirely excluded, partly Moauae it had not 
been known, and partly because it had been considered as 
foreign to the object of the science. If any person will take 
the trouble to examine any of the geographical works of the 
middle of the seventeenth and eighteenth oenturies, he will 
find that more than three parts out of four of their contents 
have changed in the course of 100 years. 

Still the science of geography remained in a very imper- 
fect state. Only a few spots in each country had been de- 
scribed with any degree of precision. The peculiar eharae* 
ter of an entire country'* and of its component parts, had 
never been made a subject of inquiry. It had never been a 
subject of investigation, how far the physical eharaoter of a 
country was favourable or adverse to the civilixation of its 
inhabitants. This has now in a great degree been effected 
by the naturalists and other men of science, who during the 
last and the present century have visited nearly every part 
on the globe. In course of time the researches of travellers 
and voyo^ers have thus been extended to a greater number 
of new objects. At first they limited their labours to the 
extension of Natural History, adding a few observations on 
the countries through which they passed, llius Toume- 
fort, who travelled through Asia Minor, Armenia, and 
Persia, may be considered as the first travelling naturalist. 
But by examining the natural productions of a country 
travellers were insensibly led to an investigation of their 
climate. In their attempts to establish the mean tempera- 
ture of different places, and its effects on vegetation and 
animal life, they soon perceived the great influence which a 
variation in elevation above the level of the sea has on both. 
Tints they gradually learned that nearly ^rery country is 
divided by nature into a smaller or greater number of [larta 
materially differing in climate 9M natural productions. 
The knowledge of this fiuct mainly contributed to ^ive 
geography a new character, and to introduce new and mi- 
purtant elements into the geographical descriptions of coun- 
tries, such as we find in the works of Pallas, Sir Francis 
Hamilton, and Alexander von Humboldt. What these 
great men, and several of their leas distinguished predeces- 
sors did for the countries out of Europe, has been accom- 
plijihed with equal success for the European continent by 
the labours of numerous excellent writers. 

Geoanraphy, then, in its present state, and in its practical 
application, has for its object the determination of all those 
facts, as to any given country, which will enable us to judge 
of Its fitness to provide man with food and to promote bis 
civilization. As a science, its object is to deduce, from all 
the observed phnnomena within its sphere, those general 
principles which enable us from certain known facts, as to 
any given country, to infer others not ascertained, and which 
indicate what are, as to each portion of the earth, the proper 
objects of inquiry. It is not every part of a country that 
poiisesses equal advantages for the habitation of man. Some 
parts are more favoured by soil and climate than others. 
There are also tracts which are inferior in both respects, 
but by tho aid of other advantages, especially those of 
ea:»y communication, have risen to a higher degree of pros- 
perity and cultivation than many others in their neigh- 
bourhood which are more favoured in soil and climate. 
No correct knowledge of a country can be acquired unleae 
the parts of it which are distinguished by their natural 
advantages or disadvantages are separated from eadi 
other, and unless a partieular deaeriptiott is given of each, 
with iu extent, and the proportioa which it bears to 
the whole country. The first businois of the eeographer 
then must be to make this separation. His next business is 
to give a particular description of each of these natural di* 
visions, beginning with the moat essential fiMst, its elevation 
above the sea. If it is a valley, he notiees ito elevation at 
its origin and its termination, observing where its descent is 
regular and gradual, and where it declines with greater ra- 
pidity. If it is a plain, he notices at least iU mean elevar 
tion, and observes in what cases it extends in a flat level, 
'^-~'* in what cases it has an undulating surfhce; also, if a 
'er or larger portion of it is oowed with awampa. 
description of the andboa is IbUowed by tlmt of we 



wat0r-eottnei or drainage. Alter determining tlie sourrea 
of a stream, and the direction and length of ita course, he 
mentions the amount of depression of ita bed below i\m 

Seneral aurfkoe of the valley or of the plain ; and when it 
rains a plain, if there are bottoms or river-valleys fonuv«i 
on the sui^e of the plain, Iho mentions also the gene- 
ral extent of these bottoms. The distance to which a 
river is navigable ia the next object of inquiry : if therr ore 
any natural impediments to the navigation, and if any ftuc- 
cesaAU attempts have been made to remove them. thoM» 
facta also require mention. The extent of surface drained 
by each river, or by all the streams which ultimate;^ 
unite in one channel ; in other words, the extent of cacu 
river-basin must also be ascertained. Next follows tl*e 
climate. Here two pointa especiallv are to be attend*^ 
to; the temperature of the air, ana the quantity of nuJi 
which falls, and of moisture in the atmosphere. As fur 
the temperature of the air, not only the mean annual xcni- 
perature is to be given or ascertained, but also that of tJie 
different seasons, and the regularity or irregularity of lu 
changea, as such changes generally affect the health of the 
inhabitanta in a sensible degree. As to moisture or raio* 
not only the annoiU quantity that falls should be notic»<i« 
but also its distribution at the different seasons. The cha- 
racter and the duration of the seasons must also be obserMnU 
and the prevalent winds ; and especially the effect of the 
seasons on the progress of vegetation. It is necessar)' ta 
know all these facts before a just notion can be formed of 
the fitness of any given tract of country for providing a p » 
pulation with food. And this c^iability of a country lor 
the production of food, or in other words its capabilities fi>r 
agricultural purposes, is one of the most useAil branches of 
geographical inquiry. The nature of the soil and its fiine«% 
for different productions adapted to the climate of the Xsucu 
are therefore matters of primary importance in a geogra- 
phical description. It is here proper to enumemte thoM 
objects of agriculture which are raised for food and a» ma- 
terials for clothing, and the prooortion between the labour 
which they require and the value of the nroduce : and in 
the next place such productions as could be raised with 
ease and advantage, but which are not cultivated to any 
extent Those objects which form articles of export, and 
enter into the market of the world, also claim a notice ; and 
also such iudigenous planta as are either of some um in 
the domestic economy of the inhabitants, or furnish a cum- 
modity for foreign trade. It is not the business of llie geo- 
grapber to enumerate all the particulars which constitute 
tne botany or zoology of a district, for that would enlarge hi» 
science boyond all oounds and encroach upon the limits of 
others, lue principle that must guide him in determining 
how much and what he must include in his geographical de- 
scription of the botany and zoology of a country, will alwn> s 
be indicated by the question — does the thing or object in> 
quired after materially influence the capabiUty of tho 
country as a place fitted for the residence or man r Bc»)dca 
the useful domestic animals, it im only necessary to men- 
tion such wild ones as are useful to the inhabitants, either 
by providing them with food and dotiiing, or by supplving 
an article of commerce ; and these animals only noed be 
mentioned when they are found in great numbers. As for 
the mhieral wealth of a country, the notice of that will be 
limited to those substances which are worked for the use of 
the inhabitanta or for exportation. 

In this way we conceive the geographer ought to de- 
scribe in detail each natural division of a country, aud 
when he has described two auch tracts which are cou- 
tiguous to one another, he must point out the boun- 
dary-lines by which nature haa separated them, and the 
obi^cles wluch she has placed to their mutual intercourse. 
If he finds that such boundary-lines are formed by moun- 
tain-ranges, he baa to notice their mean elevation, and hke- 
wiae that of the mountain-passes by which the dividin^r 
range ia crossed. He must also add what natural produc* 
tions of the range contribute to the sustenance or comturt 
of the inhabitants of the %djacent tracta. When the ran^v 
has numerous offsets and extensive valleys, and con««- 
quently oecupies a considerable oart of the country, be mua 
treat it as a separate natural division, and desoribe it in 
detail like any other natural division. 

When the geoerapher has described evcnr natuvsl diiisioo 
of a country in this wa^, and incorporated m hie descriptiun 
the best attainable mformation on all the above>»eu- 
tbnod points^wothinkthathohasdonohiidtt^fOndma 



«EO 



GEO 



eonsider liii labour u tenniimtod. Bat our geographical 
treatises still contain other matter, which is not compre- 
hended within the above ennmeration of objects belonging 
to the soienoe of geography. This extraneous matter is 
taken cither fiom statistics, or from what is populaily called 
natural philosophy or from history; and it ought to be con- 
sidered now far it is expedienl to admit ssch matters into 
geographical treatisea. 

As to statistical Ikets the greatest caution ought to be used. 
Most of them are of such a description that they are true 
only for a very short time, and then lose that character. 
Such things, according to th^ opinion of Strabo, ought not 
to be received among things which are of an entirely dif- 
ferent nature. Yet the knowledge of a country woula pro- 
perly be considered as incomplete without a general notion 
of the most commercial and manufacturing towns within it 
Such towns must therefore be mentioned, and at the same 
time it should be stated how far they facilitate the internal 
and external intercourse of a country. The political divisions 
of the country may be added or omitted ; when added, they 
should be mentioned briefly, and in a very general way. 
Good maps supply any deficiency in geographical works in 
this respect. 

We do not venture to exclude entirely from geographical 
isrorks all mention of natural phaenomena peculiar to a 
country. Some of these, as volcanoes and esrthquakes, 
thout^h they do not exercise a permanent influence on the 
welf^ of the inhabitants, are frequently destructive of 
property or life, or of both. For that resson they ought 
to be, noticed. Such phenomena as warm or mineral springs 
seem' also to claim a notice, especially if distinguished by 
peculiar characters, as the Oeysers in Iceland. 

It is more difficult to determine how fkr it is proper to 
describe the remains of antic^uity in geographical works. 
When the ruins of a great city still exhibit remarkable 
traces of its antient grandeur, they certainly cannot be 
altogether excluded. But the true solution of these and 
other difficulties of the kind that may be suggested as to 
the matter admissible Into a geographical treatise, seems to 
be this : these subjects are tpedodtiei^ and if they belong to 
geography at all, do not belong to it as necessary component 
parts of it, but stand to it in such a relation as to achnit of 
being introduced or omitted according to the taste and 
judgment of the writer, who in this, as in all branches of 
knowledge whose boundaries are incapable of precise deter- 
mination, will show his good sense and his clear compre- 
hension of his subject as much by what he omits as by what 
he takes in. 

The political institutions of a country belong to its his- 
tory, and not to its geography, and ought certainly to be 
excluded from geographical treatises, though they form a 
necessary part of most statistical and of all historical 
works. 

The importance which geography, as a science, has at- 
tained of late years, has suggested the fbrmation of Qeogra- 
phical Societies. The main object of such societies is, or 
ought to be, to encourage the accumulation of facts as to 
countries that are little known. The first Geographical 
Society was established at Paris in 1 82 1 . The ' Transactions* 
of this society, in five volumes, in 4to., contain very little 
original information. They are chiefly valuable for the 
history of geographical knowledge ; they contain complete 
translations of the travels of Marco Polo, and of the geogra- 
phical works of Abulfeda and Edrisi. The third volume 
contains the ' Orographic de I'Europe,* which presents a 
tabular view of the elevation of numerous mountain sum- 
mits and other positions: it is executed with consider- 
able correctness, and is a very useful work. The second 
society of this kind was established at London, in 1 830, and 
called the Royal Geographical Society. This society 
publishes annually a volume of Transactions, under the 
title of the * Journal of the Royal Geographical Society.' 
We think it may be safely asserted that there has seldom 
appeared a work which, for amount of original information, 
can be compared with these IVansactions. This country 
indeed has greater facilities fbr procuring geographical in- 
furmation than any other, and the society has not failed to 
mske the most of these resources. The naval officers 
employed by Government and the East India Company in 
surveying various parts of the coasts of Asia, Africa, Ame- 
rica, and the Mediterranean Sea, have made valuable con- 
tributions to the volumes of the society. The information 
cuniainod in thesd communications is distinguished by a 



eorraetness proportionate to the attention which their pio« 
fisBsional duties requuredof them. Of this character par- 
ticularly are the accounts of the coasts of South America, 
by Capt. Phillip Parker King and Capt Fitsroy. Various 
persons who have been sent out by Government in a public 
capacity have added to the stock of useful information : as 
Lieut (now Oapt) Washington, on the empire of Marocco; 
Mr. Brant, on Armenia and Asia Minor « Major Mitchel, on 
the interior of Australia; andoihen. Many travellen, who 
had no intention ofpublishingtheirobservationsin the shape 
of a book, have communicated them to the world through the 
* London Geographical Journal ;* and it i^ certain that most, 
if not all, the information contained in many of those valuable 
papers would have been lost to science but for the existence 
of the society. Though the annual contribution of each 
member is but small {2,1.), by a judicious management of 
their Aindsand the aid of Government the society has been 
enabled to send out travellen to such of our foreign posses- 
sions as are yet imperfectly known. Thus Capt. Alexander 
was sent to the Cape of Good Hope, Mr. Schomburgk to 
British Guiana, and Capt Back to the Arctic Regions, and 
other expeditions are in contemplation. The success of 
the British Society has led to the formation of a similar 
society at Berlin (1833), and at Frankfort-on-the-Main 
(1837), which however, up to the present time, have not 
published any Transactions. A Geographical Society has 
also been formed at Bombay, which has for its object ' the 
elucidation of the geography of Western India and the sur- 
rounding countries.' {,Lnndm Qeograph, Journal, vol. iii. 
1633.) 

GEOLOGY, f 1. Historical Notices of the Pro- 
dRsss OP Gbolooical Science. — ^The science of the earth 
(as the Greek words y^ tuid \6yoi may be translated) in- 
cludes, in a large sense, all acquired or possible knowledge 
of the natural pbtenomena on and within the globe ; whether 
these be now of frequent occurrence, the result of the exist- 
ing combinations of physical agencies, or remain as monu- 
ments and measures of those agencies in earlier periods of 
the history of the planet 

Some of these phsenomena are witnessed in connexion 
with inorganic homes, and depend in a great degree on the 
laws of force which appertain to and distinguish from each 
other the particles of matter ; othen are exemplified in 
organised structures endowed with vital functions related 
to those structures ; and there may yet be distinguished a 
third order of elTects, influencing and combining with both 
of the former, and depending on laws of force which affect 
the whole mass of the globe, as gravitation, or derived 
from extraneous agency, as h'ght 

If at any certain epoch (as the present time) the phseno- 
mena thus classed were known in detail, and reduced to 
general laws, which trulv expressed the individual cases, 
the actual condition of tne earth would be really known ; 
if further it were possible to collect sufficient evidence firom 
monuments preserved in the earth of its exact state at some 
former epoch, the variations to which terrestrial phssnomena 
are subject would be disclosed; and by the comparison of 
several such surveys, taken at distant times, the laws of 
these variations would be revealed, with an exactness pro- 
portioned to the certainty with which the intervals of time 
were determined. These laws of the variation of the condi- 
tion of the globe at successive epochs, combined with the 
laws of chemical, vital, and mechanical action, which are 
assumed to be essential and constant, independent of time, 
and exempt from change, will fumiBh one, and only one, 
satisfactory general contemplation or theory of the origin, 
structure, and successive changes of the globe, consi- 
dered as a part of the planetary system revolving round 
the sun. 

To reach this general theory is the highest ambition of 
modern geology. The discovery of the right method of pro- 
ceeding m this attempt is of modem date; and all the 
most important steps of the advance towards this ' high 
point of knowledge * have been taken within the memory of 
the generation now passing away. If, as Sir John Her- 
schel tells us ('Discourse on the Study of Natural Philoso- 
phy,*) * geology, in the magnitude and sublimity of the 
objects of which it treats^ undoubtedly ranks, in the scale 
of the sciences, next to astronomy,* it owes this great distinc- 
tion to the humility with which its modern cultivators havo 
sought within the ranks of inductive science better mo (hods 
of research and purer models of reasoning than tho^u 
afbrdcd by the treasures of ancient philosophy which havo 



GEO 



128 



GEO 



been inreaenred to oar time. Nor is this the peculiar boait 
or shame of geology. Every branch of the study of iiature 
was equally transformed by the introduction of the Baco- 
nian methods of interpretation of nature ; all the natural 
sciences have advanced together; the knowledge of the 
constant laws in the visible creation has been continually 
perfected; and thus, while the study of the long-past ope- 
rations of nature has been imbued with the exactness of 
chemical, xoological, botanical, and physical research, the 
dry annals of one Bra in the history of the world have been 
enriched into a long, instructive, and eventful histoiy. 

Geology qfthe Greeks.—Amoikg the antients the notices 
of geology are few, and the interest belonging to them is 
of a peculiar character. When chemistry, whose operations 
manifest the existence of peculiar laws of force among the 
particles of matter, was wholly unknown — ^when the living 
wonders of creation were but slightly considered by philo- 
sophers intent on abstract principles — no accurate survey 
could be taken of the condition of any one part of the sur- 
face of the earth. But a small part of that surface was 
known to any one people, and only in a few situations were 
tho changes in the aspect of nature so extensive as to arrest 
the attention of the geographer, or so violent as to excite 
the philosopher to search for the cause. 

Among the anciently-peopled and commercial states of 
tho eastern sliores and islands of the Mediterranean, both 
these circumstances concurred, and there first awakened 
the powerful intellect of Greece to speculation on the vary- 
ing condition of the land and sea. Lower Egypt is the gift 
of the Nile, and the powerful and learned people which 
possessed it were compelled by the circumstances of their 
situation to study the nature and effects of the annual 
floods of the river. Herodotus (bom 484 b.c.) estimates 
(ii. 11) that the Nile, if diverted into the Red Sea, would 
fill that long gulf in less than 20,000, or even 10,000 years. 
The notion of chanfl^e thus distinctly impressed upon the 
minds of the Egyptian priests was developed in a general 
and philosophical form^ and illustrated by special reSrences 
to an extended series of geological phsenomena by their 
pupil INthagoras (bom 586 d.c.). According to the sum- 
mary or their doctrine, and the tenor of the illustrations of 
it which are given by Ovid, we cannot avoid seeing, even 
through the injurious ornament of verse, that Pythagoras 
had acquired a clear conception, a ' distinct idea,' of nature 
as existing by the concurrent action of many complicated 
powers, which were subject to continual or sudden varia- 
tion in their relative intensity. Chanses of the relative 
level of land and sea, and divulsion or islands from the 
mainland by the action of earthquakes, are distinctly an- 
nounced ; the displacement and limited duration of volcanic 
vents, such as iEtna; the degradation of laud by the action 
of atmospheric agency (' et eluvie monr est deductus in 
tequor*) ; the submersion of land which had been formerly 
peopled — 

8i qiunma H«Uc«n et Ruxin, AehaiiU»'iirbeB. 
luTeniea tab aqaic— (^Ovid. Metam, xr^ 1. £93.) 

the production of new land, and the occurrence of marine 
shells far from the present seas ^ — ^these pha)nomena, dis- 
tinctly observed ana analyzed, and clearly produced in 
proof of a general proposition, justify a higher degree of 
admiration for the Samian philosopher than is due to any of 
the merely speculative writers of antiquity. 

Similar observations appear to have served as the ground- 
work of Aristotle's exposition (* Meteorologica*) of the per- 
petual fluctuation of natural phcenomena ; the altemate ex- 
citation and rest of parts of the earth's surface. (See 
particularly the end of the first book.) But it is in Strabo 
(nearly contemporary with the commencement of the 
Christian a^ra) that we find the most sensible views of the 
causes of tho occurrence of marine shells far from the 
shore, the displacements of land and sea, the rising of islands, 
the formation of straits, and other great geological phse- 
nomena. 

Having stated the views of Eratosthenes, as to the gene- 
ral fact of the earth's globular form, and the production of 
tho numerous minor inequalities on its surface, by corre- 
apondingly numerous * proximate causes,* such as the opera- 
tions of water, heat, concussions, vapours, and the like, 
be examines the opinions of Xanthus and Straton, which 
Eratosthenes had presor\'ed. (Sirab^ Cataub. 49, &c.) 

The explanation of Xanthus (derived from an liistorical 

') that the phsenomena in question were due to great 
ights which had diminished the originally greater ex* I 



Sanse of the sea, it Kgarded as insolBcient ; and 6traba*e 
ypothesis of adjacent out disconnected seas, one of which 
bemg raised to a higher le^xA by sediment on ltd bed, 
had forcibly opened itself a passage to the other, the Euxin« 
to the PropoDtis, the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, i« 
shown to contradict received physical theorems. 8tmlH> 
proposes to account for these and other pluenomena hy the 
general speculation that the land, not the sea, is subject \n 
changes of level, and that sueh changes more easily hapi^*n 
to the land below the sea, ' because of its humidity.' 

The action of ^tna in moving the shores of Sicily an'l 
Italy is spoken of in a fiuniliar manner, and a long de^ r .p- 
tion of Dbsenomena bearing on the discuasions succeeds, m 
which tne opinions of many authors are quoted. 

Fifteen hundred years elapsed after the vra of Strabo. 
without adding anything material to the stock of Keoltvp •- 1 
facts, or the limited range of rational theory ; for.excvptir z 
the work of Omar (10th century), in which the pltirn<>- 
mena of ' new lands,* and marine shells found inland, n*<« 
referred to a ' retreat of the sea,' there is not, on the swhy i 
of geology among the Arabian writers, even the iMt ?! 
amount of comment on the writers of Greece and R"in<< 
which characterixes the literarv efforts of the learned M«-<- 
lems, (Lyeirs Prindpla of Oeology^ vol. i.) 

Revival of Geology in Europe, Nature of Organic F»» - 
sils, — Italy, the fruitful mother of modem physical scien? «*. 
offered in her volcanic cones, ranges of mountains, a .1 
shelly marls at their bases, the most attractive points to tl.r 
intellectual activity of the precursors and contempoiaric» ff 
Galileo. 

So recent are sound views of the true nature and n-lA- 
tions of the organic forms buried in the earth, that it is n* : 
very difficult for £ngli.<h geologists to imagine the (Icr^ • 
ness of the contest in which Fracastoro (151 7) was iD\*oh< \, 
to defend his opinions that the * formed stones' (as xh*'s 
were afterwards termed in England) were not ' lusus :. • - 
turoo' produced by a 'plastic force,' but really the remn*; i 
of fishes, moUusca, &c. ; and that they had not been nifl< > 
scattered over the surface by theNoachian flood, but bi.r«(d 
at great depths by a more regular operation of water. Th<^-'* 
important assertions were the subject of controverfiy for 
nearly two centuries in Italy ; and in establishing the true 
nature of the organic remains, Cardano, Colonna(1666), &t. 1 
Scilla (1670) overlooked or disregarded the more serious 
and more seducing error of ascribing their inhumation tn 
the earth to a general deluge. Georgius Areola 0:.x* > 
adopted the wrong view of the origin of organic fossils : !• .t 
Steno (1669) of Copenhagen, opened a new line of inqu: \ . 
by noticing the succession of rocks; distin|n>ishing sotm* *.% 
having been formed before the creation of antroals and plan* ^ 
insisting on the original horizontal position of the strata : t :.• 
proof of violent movement of the crust of the globe, affirm!- a 
by the now inclined position of such strata in roountainoii^^ 
countries; and the variations of condition to which the s'lr- 
face of Tuscany had been expo«ed, by repeated ovcrtl •«• s 
and retirements of the sea. ( Lyell, Principles qf G*^ h^c^ i 

Scilla's masterly work on the organic remains of Calabt * .. 
published both in Latin and Italian (' La Vana Specula/..t. .• 
disingannatadal Sense,' 1670), may be considered as clo>:n^ 
the long dispute in Italy, among men of philosophical miT;< • ^ 
on the subject of the nature of organic fossils. Its cour-- 
was comparatively very short in England, for Plot (in ir,; ' i 
is almost the only writer who really and heartily embnirc-*) 
the doctrine of an occult cause, to escape from the C'^n^r- 
quence of admitting the true origin of the 'formed stonr? 
and Scilla*s work was abridged for the * Philosophical Tran^. 
actions' in 1695-6, by Dr.Wotton. Listers early viei»5 .-n 
the matter (1678) express a doubt, arising from Imowled^ ; 
he saw that the fossil shells were different (torn the Im.iL; 
types, and proposeil the alternative of a terrigenous ortinn. 
or an extinction of species. Ray (1692) on * Chaos ar. i 
Creation.' Woodward's 'Natural History' (1695). Schcuch- 
ger's 'Herbarium Diluvianum,' of the same date, aff«rd 
proof of the victory gained by the observations of natural, ^u 
over the closet speculations of metaphysicians, on the onzr- 
of fossil shells in most parts of Europe ; and indocd. .{t 
France, Palissy's lectures and writings (tiis last publirntt 
bears the date of 1580) may be said to have estabHsbc<l ti. 
truth contended for. 

Submersion and Deticcat ion of LaniL^The >*ictory *ij% 
unproductive. In consequence of coupling vtith the iil>< 
Wous truth a fatal and fundamental error, the shells ani 
other exuviss of the sea were maintained by Woodwjinl 



'•I 



r 



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129 



GEO 



and a host of eontemporaries and fi^wecs to have been 
brought upon the land by the ' universal deluge,* as all 
\vriters except Quirini (1676) agreed to term the Noa* 
cliian flood. This error might speedily have been swept 
away by the early arguments of Falissy, the investiga- 
tions of Steno, and the striking generalunition of Lister ; 
but that, unhappily, from a philosophical question, it be- 
came a theological argument. The fossil shells for from 
the sea were lield to be physical proof* of the truth of the 
Musaic narrative ; and the occurrence of these shells at va- 
rious depths and heights, and in rocks of different kinds, 
only furnished additional arguments in favour of the violence 
of that flood, which not merely was supposed to have covered 
the mountains, but to have entirely broken up and dissolved 
the whole frame-work of the earth, and to nave deposited 
the materials according to their relative gravity. In vain 
bad Hooke, Ramaaxini, and Ray, previous to 1700, protested 
against the absurdity of this hypothesis, which Leibnitz ap- 
pears to have despised; it was reserved for Moro(l740), 
Buffbn (1749), Linnaeus (1770),^ and Whitehurst (1792), to 
Imsten its banishment from philosophy; and even at this 
day there are persons who from time to time revive the db- 
cussions of the sixteenth century, as a point of iipportance 
in Christian theology. 

To account for the dryness and elevation of the countries 
where fossil shells occur, there are but two hypotheses: the 
shelly bed of the sea has been raised, or the ocean has aban- 
doned its autient place. Many of the Italian geologists 
adopted the former view, and in consequence repeated the 
opinions and reasonings of Strabo, with the advantage of 
referring to the elevation of Monte Nuovo near Puzzuoli, 
iu 1538 and Santorino, 1707 (Miyoli, 1597; Vallisneri, 
1721; Lazzaio Moro, 1740). The better order of English 
writers (Hooke in 1668, Ray in 1692 --earthquakes were 
then frequent in Europe) adopted the same views; ahd 
Hookein particular presented the phenomena of earthquakes 
and volcanoes in the form of a general speculation, which 
served to direct the opinions of subsequent systematislslike 
Whitehurst. 

Diluvial HYpoih&ns. — ^None of the philosophers who were 
concerned in estabtishing the truths connected with organic 
remains were seduced by their success into the vanity of 
proposing any general hypothesis on the formation of the 
earth. But this creditable modesty, so characteristic of the 
spirit of induction which animated Fracastoro. was not at all 
imitated by the fanciful diluvialists, who followed in the 
wake of Woodward, Burnet, Wliiaton, Catcott, and others. 
To determine whence came the water which held at once 
in suspension the whole of the ejiterior parts of the globe, 
and whither it retreated, was necessary to help out their 
extravagant proposition. 

No ordinary hypothesis would meet these formidable pro- 
blems, and if we recollect that in answering them it was 
further required to adopt views which should not trench on 
the arbitrary notions then entertamed as to the meaning of 
certain passages of Scripture, we shall he disposed to regard 
even the monstrous violations of physical truth which ap- 
pear ip the hypotheses of Burnet, Woodward, and Whiston, 
without surprise. Omitting minor circumstances which it 
would be useless to particularize, Burnet, Woodward, and 
their followers agreed in adopting the notion of an interior 
abyss below the crust of the earth, as the general reservoir 
from whence the waters rushed to cover the earth, and into 
which they again withdrew after the diluvial devastation was 
completed. Wliiston, who was far better versed in physical 
science than either of the others, introduced in addition the 
notion of extraneous force ; he brought a comet to envelop the 
earth in its misty tail, to cause violent rains, raise vast 
tides iu the internal abyss, and thus effectually destroy the 
external crust of the planet. It appears probable that man- 
kind seldom permit their imaginations to take such dan- 
gerous flights without necessity ; the hypothesis is made to 
suit the conditions of the moment, and the chief error con- 
sisted in including among these conditions a narrow and 
unreasonable interpretation of the Mosaic narrative. This 
error lies even yet at the root of some well-meaning specu- 
lations, which from time to time arise, a century after 
their proper date, for the avowed purpose of reconciling 
geological and scriptural truth. 

* 'T71»i tntaeeftetlithophyta foMQU obtanl In fliatnaeopiB,n»{ qnoadaai 
twft9 Htton Mt abyna*, com tint mem fnUfUmatis, omni hiatorw anti- 
quiotm ; dilBtiiim Ttio mm <l— WMtnui*, Md taatam loBgioilB ati ndtra.* 
iSjfit. iy«t..FoM. PMffl£) 

P. C^ No. 674 



General SpeculaHom.^The diluvial hypothesis has been 
sufficiently traced to its natural consequence^a monstrous 
violation of the laws of nature ; another general view, first 
distinctly stated by Vallisneri (1721), has been the source of 
long-continued errors. Struck by the general diffusion of 
marine fost:ils, he supposed the ocean to have once extended 
over all the earth, and to have gradually subsided, leaving 
everywhere the traces, not of a violent flood, but of the quiet 
super-fluctuation of water. Perhaps Vallisneri found this 
notion in his travels ; at any rate, the notion of a universal 
subsidence of the ocean appears to be the Grerman element 
of geological hypothesis, for Wenier made it the basis of his 
so-called theory of the earth, and thus obscured with a phy- 
sical improbability the important truths which he had esta- 
blished ooncerning the succession of strata. 

Starting from an entirely different point, Leibnitz (in 
1680) propoifed one of the most general contemplations 
which has ever appeared in geology. He commences with 
the concentration of the mass of the globe in a state of 
great heat ; accounts for the fundamental primary rocks by 
the refrigeration of the surface, and explains the violent 
action of water upon them by the collapse of this crust on 
the contracting nucleus. Sedimentary strata are the natural 
consequence of these watery movements subsiding to rest, 
and by the repetition of the phsenomena su6h features are 
imparted to the earth as to insulate many of the later depu* 
sits, and render it necessary to be prudent in determining 
whether local or general agency has been concerned in pro* 
ducingthem. It would be diflicult in general terms more 
clearly to announce views now prevalent among those who 
contemplate geology in connection with physical science. 
0>rdier, Von Bnch, and De Beaumont have endeavoured 
bv this speculation of Leibnitz to explain some of the prin- 
cipal pfasenomena of geology— the elevation of mountains; 
but the theoretical merit of Leibnitz was little regarded in 
England till Mr. Conybeare explained his views to the 
British Association at Oxford. {Reports qf the British 
Association.) 

The effect of Laplace's and Fourier*s theorems on the ope- 
ration of interior heat is likely to be augmented by Mr. 
Hopkins's labours (Cam6. Phil, Trans.); and the grand 
views of Sir W. Herschel as to the eonstitution of the uni- 
verse have alreadv been applied to the history of the earth 
by Mr. De la Beche (Theoretical Researches), and will pro- 
bably became an important addition to the Leibnitzian 
theory. 

In the works of Ray (1692), and Hooke (1688), we may 
trace the revival of another general speculation (that of 
PythagorasX which, instead of deducing the leading geolo- 
gical appearances from some primal condition, with Leib- 
nitz, supposes the essential condition of the world to be one 
of continual change, and assigns to modern causes in action , 
a measure of force capable of producing, in a sufficient lapse 
of time, phflsnomena as important as those of antient geolo 
gicol date. 

' Lazzaro Moro's vieiHUl740) have the same tendency to 
recall speculation to the employment of real causes seen 
in daily operation ; Buffon (1749) anpears to have unsuccess- 
fully attempted the union of the fmidamental view of Leib- 
nitz and the regard for existing agencies shown by Ray ; 
Dr. James Hutton, of Edinburgh, rejected all inquiry as to 
the beginning of the world, and gave himself up entirely 
to an explanation of the phronomena visible in the crust of 
the earth, on the principle of a continual degradation of 
land by atmospheric agency, the consequent formation 
of sedimentary strata on the bed of the sea, and the peri- 
odical compensarion of these effects by the action of internal 
heat raising the bed of the sea, with the stratified deposits 
thereon. A continual destruction of the existing lane* 
through the agency of water, and an occasional uplifting ot 
new continents from the ocean bed — these are the most 
striking points of the Huttonian theory of the earth. Mr. 
Lyell differa from Dr. Hutton chiefly by recurring to the 
onginal form of the speculation as we may conceive it to 
have existed in the mind of Pythagoras or Aristotle, could 
either of those great men have become acquainted with 
modem science. For instead of the oocasional occurrence 
of a violent upvrard movement of the bed of the sea, the 
author of tlie ' Principles of Greology ' appeara impressed 
with a distinct idea of a continual compensation among the 
agencies of nature, the.perfect equality of modem and an- 
tient physical forces, and the possibility of explaining all, 
even the grandest, of antient geological phienomena by 

Vol. XL— S 



G £ O 



190 



OBO 



causes now acting, and acting with their pnient intensity. 
No more definite or general proposition has ever been ad* 
Tanced in geolof^, and its effect has been highly important, 
oven in the estimation of those who do not entirely sdmit it. 

Inductive Ueoiogy, — Geological appearances are usually 
of a complicated character, and must be analysed into their 
elementary parts before the inductive process, which requires 
the comparison of facts agreeing or differing with respect to 
a certain quality, can be usefully applied. Fossil shells must 
be distinguished into fluviatile or marine, identical with or 
different from recent kinds ; rocks must be considered as to 
their chemical nature, mechanical structure, geographical 
and other characters, before any valuable inferences can be 
gathered from them. Though this kind of labour is not 
discoverable among the works of the Greeks which remain 
to us, we must not hastily deny that they attempted it In 
modem times Fracastoro, Palissv, and Steno, by distin* 
guishing the groups of strata ; Lister, by discriminating 
ivcent and fossil species of shells, and by noticing the ^^bo- 
graphical relations of rocks ; Woodward, by his industrious 
collection of specimens and methods of arrangement; 
Packe, by his remarkable chorographical map of Kent; 
Lehman (1756), and Arduino, by their classification of 
rocks, according to the relative periods of their production; 
and Mitchell ( 1 760), by his masterly determinations con* 
cerning the relation between the ranges of mountains and 
the inclinations of the neighbouring strata— have stronger 
claims to grateful remembrance than are due to those who 
with much labour have merely produced volumes of empty 
speculation. 

Distinction nf Primary, Secondary, and subsequent De- 
fiosits in Germany.— John Gottlob Lehman (1756) may be 
considered as having the best claim to a clear enunciation 
uud proof of the different age and relative position of classes 
of stratified rocks. In the French translation of his work 
(* Trai(6 du Physique, d'Histoire Naturelle, de Mineralogie, 
ct de Metallurgie"), he say«, * Nothing is more natural than 
to group all mountains in three classes. The first includes 
mountains which are coeval with the formation of the globe ; 
the second class was produced by a revolution co-extensive 
with its surface ; the third consists of mountains which owe 
their origrin to particular accidents or local revolutions/ This 
was not a mere speculation of what might be convenient, 
for, he adds, ' The mountains of the first class are high, 
sometimes insulated in the plains, but generally connected 
in a chain, traversing considerable parts of the earth. They 
differ from those of the second class by their elevation and 
extent, by their interior structure, by the mineral sub- 
stances associated with them.' 

Pallas (1779*X in addition to these general views, main- 
tains that the granitic rocks, then taken as primary, were 
never fbrmed by water, because they do not occur in beds, 
nor contain organic remains ; that t jfie secondary mountains 
were produced from the disintegration of granite; and the 
strata of later date, by the wrecks of the sea elevated and 
transported by volcanic eruptions and subsequent inunda- 
tions. 

Succession qf Strata.-^To these distinguished authors, 
Werner, professor of mfhcralogy in Frey berg (1775), was a 
worthy successor. The first important addition to pre\ious 
knowledge on the subject was contained in his * Kiirze Klas- 
sifikation und Beschreibung der verschiedenen Gebirgsarten' 
(1787), where the miiieraloeical distinctions of rocks may be 
viewed as a completion of the labours of the earlier Swedish 
w riters, Cronstadt, Wallerius, Linnasus, &c, all of whom had 
glimpses of the geological relations of the rocks they clas- 
sifled. It does not appear that Werner proposed any views 
as to the geological relations of rocks in advance of those of 
I^hman or Pollas till 1790 or 1791, when the doctrine of 
• formations ' was explained in his lectures, which indeed 
was a |N>werful mode of difiTusing instruction ; fbr his amiable 
manners, disinterested enthusiasm, and various knowledge, 
gav« him a strong ascendency over the numerous pupils 
who, from various countries, flocked to Freyberg. In 1795 
(or 1796 according to Dr. Fitton) Werner had maturad his 
views as to the classification of all the stratified rocks, and 
from this it is easy to estimate the real claim of Werner to 
a high place in the ranks of modem geology. Tho great 
advance made by Werner consists, not in propouiuling the 
distinctions of great classes of rocks for this had become a 
common idea in Europe, but in practically analyzing these 
classes into their constituent groups, tracing tne order of 

••lomslde Pfc7«ic|a«,' 1779^ 



sQceession among them, assigning thmr niBMnkgieal dm- 
ractera to each, and generalising this local truth into the 
doctrine of fbrmations universally succeeding one anoih. r 
in a settled order of time. Parting fh>m Frcybeig with a 
better method of mineralogy, and a more developed system 
of the succession of rocks than was preiiousl^ known, tiie 
pupils of Werner carried the influence of his name and 
opmions over the world, and, unfortunately, the cru<i«* 
hypothesis which was connected with the n^ truths 1j« 
tau^^t was embraced with an ardour very disproportiouaic 

to its T|klu«. 

In France, Rouelle (about 1 760 T) had acquired ideas ap{ ^a • 
rently as general and fully as well supported by local kn«ivi - 
ledge as Lehman. His views on organic remains we. «• 
quite in advance of the time. In England the notici'^ t.f 
stratification, by Mr. Strachey (' Phil. Trans.,' 1719), tV'- 
Rev. B. Holloway (1723), and the Rev. John Mitch ^ *i 
(1760X sre of great importance. Strachey presents u-. 
accurate section of the coal strata of Somersetshire, wi'h 
reflections on the strata above them, and their geographi* ai 
boundaries; Holloway describes the geographical relatiuj 
of Uie sand-hills of W^bum and Shotoven yieldini^ fuller^ • 
earth, to the chalk hills on the east, and the oolitic tra'*i9 
on the west ; but Mitchell entera into a general and n) ^y 
terly discussion on the relation between geological structiKx> 
and the geographical features of the surnoe not to be par..i- 
leled for fully fifty years. 

Whitehunt must hera be mentioned with honour. IL^ 
' Inquiry into the Original State and Formation of tl.t. 
Earth,* 1*778, is of small value for the purpose he pro|iom«l. 
but it contains important facts towards a right concept! on 
of the structure of the earth. His 16th chapter, entitle t 
' The Strata of Derbyshire and other parts of England.' .<> 
full of information, principally derived from the muK-rs 
but evidently well methodized in his own mind. Hi*v 
could the geologists of England neglect such passages .i« 
these following, which are merely tne scientific expoairi u. 
of truths known for hundreds of yean previous by ski If 
miners in all regions of stratified rocks? 'The arrangeint n: 
of the strata in general is such that they invariably f«^l). m 
each other, as it were, in alphabetical order, or as a scno« '•? 
numbers, whatever may be their diflferent denominati^mv 
Not that the strata are alike in all the diflbrent regions .«f 
the earth, either with respect to thickness or quality, f %- 
experience shows the contrary ; but that the order of thr 
strata in each particular part, how much soever they m^i 
differ as to quality, yet follow each other in a regui •: 
succession, both as to thickness and quality — insumu' ' 
that by knowing the incumbent stratum, together with tbt 
arrangement thereof in any particular part of the earth, v p 
come to a perfect knowledge of all the inferior beds, so f. r 
aa they have been previously discovered in the adjarvi : 
country.' (Edit, of 1792, pp. 178, 179.) In p. 186 is i. 
following remark in capitals: ' N.B. No vegetable form* 
have yet been discovered in any of the limestone strata.* 

From these notices it is very clear that adistinct percepth^n 
of a fixed order in the succession of strata was so preval< 
in the mining districts of England as to attrsct tne att«'n- 
tion of the well*informed classes of society, and especial . 
of the clergy, who can never with justice be charged v! 
neglect of the natural sciences. But it is extraordinary t >• at 
Mitchell, who was appointed Woodwardian professor in I r > J 
(according to Farey), and, by his physical andmathemaii'.. 
knowledge seemed especially able to work out the wh i: 
system of English stratification, should, on his retire m*** t 
f^m Cambridge to his rectory of Thomhill in Yorks\);t*. 
have contented himself with tracing the succession of «ir.ri 
in the north of England, or rather between Canbridgr .r i 
Thomhill, and communicating the document to Smt*a*>':., 
without giving it even to the Royal Society, which bad pt ^ 
lished his early papers. Had this been done, or had Snit * 
ton known the value of the paper put into his hand%, it 
could not have happened, that of all the able on^iix-- . 
who, before 1790, were engaged in surveys and cxciu-. 
canals, not a man should have attended to informat)on 
such singular value in his profession ; nor would Mr. W 
Smith have been occupied in rediscovering some <^f t{"> 
truths which constitute the fbundation of English ^'^ » . 

The progress of Mr. Smith*s discoveries in geolotp* is i-.. ^ . 
traced. Commencing his career as a surveyor of Un'l ** 
afterwards acquiring great employment as a ci\il tn^:. i- 
his attention was drawn, in 1 767, to the obvious di»iii. : 
in the soils and the subjacent strata of certain part» oi iJ » 



GEO 



tai 



GEO 



fordaliire and Wanriekshira, wbidi oeeupied* with regard ta 
one another, a certain geographical rcktion. In 1790 and 
1791 the same relative position of the same strata was 
forced on his attention in Somersetshire^ with the addition 
of a series of coal strata helow the oolite, lias, and red marU 
with which he was previously familiar. Assured hy his 
own obserration, that the local knowledge of the mines of 
Somenetshire which Strachey had published in 1719 was 
only a part o( the truth, he set himself not to frame an 
hypothesis but to determine the extent of the regular suc- 
cession of strata in the vicinity of BaUi, drew accurate sec- 
tiuns of the strata in the order of superposition, ascertained 
amongst them a general dip to the east, marked their ranges 
un a map of the surface, and in 1794, in the course of a 
professional journey from Bath into the north of England, 
examined impartially whether the general features of stra- 
ti Hcation in other parts of England corresponded with the 
impression fixed in his mind by abundant evidence near 
Baih, that one general order of succession of the strata 
c«>uld be traced throughout the island, with a general dip to 
the east or south-east The result confirmed his view, and 
excited him to devote time, professional inoome, and une- 
qualled labour to produce proof satis&ctory to others. The 
result was a geological map of England and Wales, drawn 
previous to 1801, when proposals were issued for the publi- 
i>ation of it 

The strong conviction in his mind of the regular, orderly, 
and successive deposition of the strata, led him to a more 
minute analysis of the chanusteristic marks of the several 
deposits than had ever been conceived before. The remark- 
able resemblance and occasional proximity of many rocks 
near Bath, belonging to difierent places in the section of 
strata, and which (to use a fkvourite expression of Mr. 
Smith), *had been successively the bed of the sea,' prevented 
any merely mineral distinction from being effectual ; and 
he was thus forced to study with care the method of distri- 
bution of the fbssil organic remains in the rooks, for the 
purpose of discriminating these similar deposits. This was 
nut long pursued before the local peculianties of the strata 
in this respect were connected to a general law, and it was 
found that, throughout the district in question, the fossils 
were definitely located in the rocks; each stratum had its 
own peculiar species, wherever it oceured, and could thus be 
identified when in detached masses and in distant localities. 
This great discoverv was recorded as a thing fully deter- 
mined in a table of the Order of Strata in 1799, of which 
copies were distributed beyond the British Isbnds. The 
dear idea of each stratum being successively the bed of the 
sra, is apparently the germ of that happy expansion of geo- 
lo^cal truths, unmixed with hypothesis and unfettered bv 
afurmulaof merelv local stratification, for whkh English 
eeology is indebted to Mr. Smith. Such an idea imme- 
diately suggests, not a speculation in cosmogony, but va- 
riuus yet harmonious researches in the full spirit of induc- 
tive science. The history of successive geological periods, 
&n characterizable by their chemical or m^anieal products 
and contemporaneous organic existence, was thus placed in 
a concentrated tight aa a geneml problem for inquiry, and 
tUe effects were immediately obvious, in the employment of 
organic remains, and sections and maps of strata, to deter- 
mine the true condition of the kind and sea from the earUest 
I>eriods to the present hour. 

SuncetncH if Life en the G/o^.— Against the hypothesis 
of Woodward, that the fossil exuvisa in the rocks were 
t^Klged in them by the ' universal deluge,' it was objected, 
t)iat though the fossil shells, corals, fish teeth, &c re- 
sembled tlie recent kinds, they were not the same. The 
question thus raise4 could not rest Lister affirmed, that 
in general the fossil species of shells were entirely dis- 
tinct from living forms; Camerarius inquired to what 
marine genus of aniouils Woodward referred the belem- 
I) lies, and jreceived for reply that it was a mere mine- 
ral! The ammonites were admitted to be not nautili, 
but wen» declared to be 'Pelagian shells' not likely to be 
thrown on the present sea-eoasts by the moderate force of 
tide«i and storms, which do not influence the deep parts of 
the ocean. Linnous continually points out the species of 
comls and shells to which no recent analogue ui known ; 
and Solander, by giving suitable names to the extinct shells 
or Hordwell Cliff, Beured by Brander (1766), opened the 

^ay to the researches of Martin, Parkinson, Sowerby, 

Brocchi, Oeshayes, Goldfuss, &c 
Uwyd and Scheochiei oommeneed the study of fossil 



plants, which has lately been so much advanced by Stem- 
berg, Adolphe Brongniart, and Lindley. But by none of those 
writers who compared the fossil and recent worlds of life 
under the aspects of zoology and botany only could any clear 
notion be formed of the existence and destruction of a succes- 
sion of different races of animals and plants. Lister had no- 
ticed the constant occurrence of a certain helemnite in the 
red layers at the base of the chalk ; Morton had distinguished 
the geological position of some fossils in Northamptonshire ; 
and Llwyd and Woodward had some knowledge of this 
kind. Rouelle and Werner have claims to attention, 
but certainly it is to Mr. Wm. Smith that we owe the in- 
troduction of the important doctrine, that during the forma- 
tion of the stratified crust of the earth, the races of animals 
and plants were often and completely changed, so that each 
stratified rock became, in his eyes, the museum of that age 
of the world, containing a peculiar suite of organic exuviae, 
the remains of the creatures then in existence. 

In France the same truth was put in a bright light hy 
the successful labours of Cu\ier ana Alex. Brongniart in the 
vicinity of Paris ; the former of whom, by his great anato- 
mical skill, succeeded in restoring the vanished forms of 
many quadrupeds, different from those which now live; 
while the latter, collecting materials with great judgment 
from a wide field of research, brought the most convincing 
proof of the almost total dissimilitude between the forms of 
life of the secondary and tertiary periods of geology, while 
both were for the most part distinct from those of the ac- 
tual land and sea. 

The general doctrine of many successive creations of life 
m the globe, thus firmly establidied in England and France, 
was speedily aeknowleclged in every country where accurate 
observations could be made, and it only remained to trace 
out its consequences, and apply them to particular problems. 
One very successful effort of this kind has been made by 
M. Deshayes and Mr. LyeU, who, observing among a vast 
number of the tertiary fossil shells which are different from 
existing types, some few which are identical with them, 
proposed to determine what variation there might be in the 
proportion of yet existing species among the tertiary fossils 
from different localities and deposits of a different geological 
age. As a general result (subject to exceptions) it may be 
stated, that the more recent the strata the greater the 
amount of resemblance between their fossil contents and 
the existing creation, — a result in harmony with general 
views of the whole subject of the analogy of recent and 
fossil forms. Hence arises a method of classification for 
these strata of peculiar interest and power, though its suc- 
cessful application may for a time be delayed, till the phi- 
losophy of organic remains be more perfectly developed. 

Qefioeical Surveys, — Without maps and sections of par- 
ticular districts, representinc; the extent, thickness, and 
order of superposition of the several component rocks, 
the abstract truths of geology could never become of gene- 
ral interest or public value. Until the whole of the land 
be thus surveyed and described geological inferences may 
be insecure ; it is therefore grati^ing to reflect, that since 
Mr. Smith first proposed to publish a geological map of 
England (1801), a considerable part of Europe has been 
thus delineated. The first idea of such a map was given 
by Lister in a communication to the Royal Society in 
1683; Mitdiell's descriptions in 1760 are such as to make 
it surprising that no map came from his hands. The 
Wemerian school of geognosy produced none, we believe, 
so early as those few maps of the Board of Agriculture in 
England (1794X which contained delineations of soils, and 
occasionally of the rocks which gave them their, distinctive 
qualities. In this respect Mr. Smith had no precursor; 
and when his map of the strata of England and Wales was 
produced in 1815 it had no rival, and has called up only 
one original successor, the map of Mr. Greenough. Mr. 
Griffith is about to publish a map of Ireland ; Dr. Mocul- 
loeh's Scotland is produced; Von Buch*s great map of 
Germany is published ; the Mining Engineers of France 
are just completing their survey of that country; the 
United States of America have made progress in a similar 
labour; and the number of topographical works illustrated 
by maps and sections is innumemble. Before many years 
have passed the whole accessible surface of the laud wil. 
have been mapped by geologists. 

i 2. Mattxr of the Globb. 
Geology is distinct firom cosmogony ; the history of the 



G EC 



132 



G BO 



successive phflDnomena happening on a planet revolving 
round an orb of light ana heat may be treated without 
reference to the condition of the same material particles 
while they were subject to entirely different conditions. 
Yet as in tracing the progress of a colony reference may 
often be made with advantage to the previous history of the 
same people in another region of the globe, so^ in prose- 
cuting geological science in a just and liberal sense, it is 
advisable to take into account tlie discoveries of collateral 
science, so far as these tend to give sure indications of or 
even to fix certain limits to speculations concerning the 
origin of the planetary masses. 

For the successful prosecution of this inquiry geology must 
appeal to two entirely distinct branches of collateral science, 
chemistry and astronomy; which indeed agree in this, 
that they are both directed to the elucidation of the proper- 
ties of material substance ; but the former is occupied with 
a study of its elementary constitution, the latter contem- 
plates the relations of its congregated masses. 

Chemistry, by analysis of the different sorts of matter 
visible near the surface of the earth, teaches us that almost 
every thing is of a compound nature, and formed by the 
union of two or more elementary particles, endowed with 
distinguishable properties, and capable of a separate ex- 
istence and of entering into new combinations. When 
thus freed from their combinations by processes of art the 
elementary particles or atoms, of the same kind, form, when 
reunited, solids, liquids, or gaseous exjiansions, according as 
they ate affected by temperature, pressure, and ])erliaps 
other less general influences. Oxygen, the most abundant 
of all the elementary substances yet discovered, expands 
immediately on being freed from union with solid bodies, to 
a gas which occupies 2000 tiroes the space it previously did ; 
and as nearly half the ponderable matter of the globe consists 
of oxygen, we must admit, as a plain consequence of this ana- 
lysis, that upon a general resolution of the compound rocks 
and minerals into their constituent elements, nearly half the 
weight of the exterior parts of the globe would expand into 
gas, and augment the atmosphere till the accumulated 
pressure should liquify the gas, or prevent further decom- 
position. What happens to free oxygen with the tempera- 
tures and atmospheric pressures which now prevail at the 
surface, would (we know by trial) happen to chlorine and 
other substances similarly released from combination, un- 
der other temperatures and pressures. As these conditions 
are now variable, and may be supposed to have passed 
through all possible grades, it is not improbable that all the 
substances which exist in the crust of the globe might be 
converted into gaseous expansions if freed from combination. 
The great antagonist force to the concentration of matter is 
heat; by augmenting this agent some substances are de- 
composed and the parts rendered volatile ; in other cases 
combinations take place which are also volatile ; and there 
are others in which gaseous substances combine with 
solids at particular temperatures only. Now, as the sub- 
stances known in the outer parts of the globe are fifty- 
four in number, as they all separately stand indifferent 
relations to heat, pressure, electricity, &Cn it is conceivable 
that under particular conditions the mutual forces of the 
various particles might be so arranged, and so balanced by 
the influences of heat and other general conditions, that all 
sensible solidity and liquidity should vanish, and the whole 
globe dissolve into an expansion where the particles would 
be, if not all free, yet in very different combinations from 
those we now see. This is conceivable as an hypothesis, and 
chemistry can teach us no more ; for as we have not ascer- 
tained for each substance, Uken singlv, what must be the 
conditions for its appearance as a solid, liquid, or gaseous 
body, nor have the means of computing what variation in 
this respect might result from particular admixtures of the 
substances, it is impossible to deny that the hypotbesu may 
be true, and it would be equally unphilosophical to assert that 
It is. In this dilemma wo must turn to the contemplation 
of phasnomena which may serve to guide us to a just deci- 
sion. Omitting for the present all considerations of geolo- 
gical phflDnomena, we must accompany the astronomer in 
his survey of space, in order to discover if any masses of 
matter exist which are of the nature of the gaseous expan- 
sion assumed ; if this be the case, we must further inquire 
if there be gradations in the appearances they present such 
as to justify the belief in the possibility of a gradual con- 
Tersion of a planet into an expansion, or the contrary. To 
'hese inquiries the &i-seeing eyes of Herschel supply a posi- 



tive answer. Through various parts of the hesvesis are 
scattered large expansions of attenuated matter, csallol 
nebulsB, which are urregularly reflective of light, vanou* in 
figure and degree of oondensation. The Tatter curcuui- 
stances being carefully studied, it appears that many ol 
them are of a globular or elliptical figure, as if the paiii 
were collected by a general attraction toward a centre ; that 
otliers in addition, appear to grow continually denser tow aril 
a centre, while not a few objects show in the centre tb<> 
brightness of a solid star surrounded by a t&ick and exien • 
sive haxe. Occasionally two or more points of oondensatAon 
appear in a nebulous mass, thus affording a great ai>ak»g> 
with what may be supposed to be the origin of our plaiictar> 
system. 

Comets, which are to be regarded as nebulsD attracied to 
some one or more systems, supply another and strong aiu- 
logy with orbitual planets. But it may be reasonalily ex- 
pected that in adaition to tlie graduated appearaocea» of 
expansion, condensation, and nebulous solidity, there should 
be proof of corresponding gradations of density. This pruuf. 
as far as relates to the nebul» fiur distant from our s>»teiu. 
can perhapfi never be given, though appeanmces are ui 
fttvour of the view ; even with respect to the comets which 
enter the solar system, further researches must be made : 
but the planets themselves supply such a proofs for tlM^«^ 
density varies exceedingly. The planets nearer lo the sun 
are denser than those fiu'ther removed; Mereuir, being tb« 
heaviest, is almost thrice as dense as the earth, while Jupilcr. 
one of the distant orbs, is about one-third as dense aa» our 
earth ; and Saturn, which, excepting Uranus, is the most 
remote, is only one-eighth or one-tenth as dense, and may 
be considered as light as cork. (HersdieL Introdme, ^ 
Attron^ p. 278.) 

Finally, this general idea of the origin of the mass of tiie 
earth from a nebular expansion, suggested by chemical fisrtt. 
and supported by the appearances in the visible heavens, ti 
confirmed by the mathematical researches of Laplace, wlk> 
has by this supposition connected together the most stnkmg 
pha&noroena of the solar system ; the general paralWism ^f 
the orbits of the planets, the consentaneoua direction uf 
their movement round the sun, of the satellites round thr 
planets, the anomaly of Saturn's ring, and other important 
circumstances. We have therefore only one lest more to 
which the hypothesis can be subjected, namely, its accordaiv^ 
with what is known of the actusl constitution of the earth. 
This is still no question of geology, but of astronomy. It 
appears however very certain that neither the figure of the 
earth, which is that of a spheroid of revolution on its axu^ 
nor the density of the earth, which is greater toward the 
centre than at the circumference, and so arranged that tlK 
surfaces of equal densitv are symmetrical to the axis of 
figure, are at all opposed to the doctrine in question* but 
rather confirm it. From astronomical and chemical con- 
siderations, then, it is probable that the mass of the earth 
once existed as a part of a diffused nebula, like some now 
visible in the heavens; and as no merely seological e%i- 
dence as to the changes operated on the condensd planet 
can be of the smallest value in a question relating to t^ 
condensation of a nebula, we must adopt the oonciuaam as 
a limiting condition of geological theory. 

Consult for further information the article NsurLji; 
Herschers IntrodueHcn to Astrtmomy ; Laplace, ifccontyw 
Cileite; 'S'lchoWs AreHieeture qfihe Heavefu,) 

Uftiformiif o/Naiural Ageneie*,^Bnt however finslt 
we may admit the truth of the speculation of the coodensa- 
tion of planets finom a nebular expansion, it can now have 
but little influence on the progress of geology. For it can* 
not be employed as the origin of deductions which might 
disclose circumstances hiddeu from observation in deep 
ports of the earth, and explain complicated ftiets visiUle at 
the surface ; and this for want of adequate knowledge uf 
the successive effects which must happen amoQg the tit- 
mentary particles or masses of a nebula during its coEMden- 
sation, as well as of the necessary consequences which anck 
effects must entail on the physical conditions of a plauiaL 

There is however one |)omt of importance which thM 
speculalk)n, if adopted, may assure us of. The coodensa- 
tion of nebulsD is gradual ; the density of planets variotM, 
the larger ones in general liaving the least relative weight; 
the earth must therefore be supposed to have pasied tliroogh 
a long range of (condensation ; and this imphes a eontmual 
change of intensity among some at least of the pbysscal 
agencies which belong to it. Whatever was the anti^oDist 



GEO 



133 



G ElO 



txta to the central attractioii of the nebular mass, the 
gradual decline of this force moat have been felt, more or 
less, by all the natural a<^encie9 related to it by opposition 
or sympalhy. Even the extraneous influence or light is not 
independent of the change of conditions produced. 

The continual condensation of the mass of a planet neces- 
sarily brings with it a change in the relative intensities of 
the agencies at work among its parts, because they operate 
under continually varying conditions. Some would lose 
and others gain in strength, and thus the aspect of the 
eartii must have been continually changing, or subject to 
periodical renovation. By those geologists who accept the 
doctrine of the earth's continual condensation, from what- 
ever cause, the uniform intensity of natural agencies 
taken separately, the continual compensation of their 
antagonistic effects, and the production of equal eflEects 
in equal times, must inevitably be rejected. 

Yet though, in strictness, the preceding reasoning forbids 
assent to Mr. Lyell's general principle, that the former 
changes of the earth's surlace * are referrible to causes now 
in operation,' it by no means follows that other causes (that 
is, other combinations or measures of natural agencies) 
than those now in operation must be appealed to for ex- 
plaining the monuments of past revolutions of nature which 
are preserved to our days. For if these monuments go but 
a short way back on the scale of time, compared with the 
periods whieh elapsed in the condensation of our planet, the 
causes may not have sensibly varied during the whole course 
of phienomena traceable in the crust of the earth. This 
must be decided by a study of the monuments themselves, 
upon the general and acknowledged principle, that effects 
are proportional to the causes. Still less is it to be imagined 
that the study of the effects of modern causes in action is 
unfruitful in illustrations of the pho^nomena due to antient 
causes ; on the contrary, there is no other way of learning 
either the kind or degree of physical agencies concerned in 
geobgieal opemtions of early date than the comparison of 
these with the results of the daily action of the modem 
powers of nature. 

$ 3. Hbat op ths Globs. 

The knowledge of the condition of the earth in respect 
lo temperature is one of the most important steps which 
can be taken toward a right general contemplation of the 
history of the revolutions which it has undergone. This 
knowledge cannot be ^thered by geologists labouring as 
such ; it cannot be obtained by meteorological observations, 
however accurate ; nothing short of a mathematical theory 
of heat, supported by a variety of data concerning the 

asical constitution and relations of the earth to the sun 
space, will be at all available in grappling with the in- 
herent diffieultiea of the subject. For this theory we are 
indebted to Fourier. 

The heat of any point on the surfiu;e of the earth regu- 
larly varies from hour to hour, with the rotation of the 
globular mass on its axis ; from day to day and from season 
to season, with its revolution round the sun ; and from year 
to year to year, with any change in the dimensions or form 
of the earth's orbit. There are however several causes of 
irregularity or fluctuation of temperature not demanding 
notice in a general view. 

If in ita long course round the sun, the earth passed 
through parte of the planetary spaces of uneaual tempera- 
ture, this would cause a modification of the perioaical, 
annual, and daily variations. 

The atmosphere and the ocean, by their various move- 
ments, modify all these circumstances, but not so as to 
disguise the results when an average of many periods is 
taken. 

In consequence there is for each point of the earth's 
surfiice a certain mean temperature, depending on the 
causes above stated ; and the parts under the surface con- 
tinually tend to acquire very nearly the same temperature 
ss the surface, but not at the same time. The extremes of 
summer heat and winter cold are not felt till after they have 
Mssed away from the surfkce, and in proportion as we 
descend, the influence of the daily, monthly, and annual 
variations grows less and less, because of the slowness of the 
conduction of heat through earthy substances. 

At a certain depth below the surfiice, these variations be- 
come wholly insensible, and the temperature is constant, 
and nearly the same as the mean temperature of the surfiice. 

If the temperature of the interior parts of the earth be 



now very different from that constant heat which would 
result by communication from the surface (heated as before, 
and subject to the stated variations), this difference would 
exercise a corresponding though insensible effect on the 
surfiice beat, and be more or less sensible at small depths 
below the inner surfiice of constant temperature. 
' Whatever may have been the proper or original tempera- 
ture of the inner parts of the earth,, it is easy to conceive 
that in very long time the equilibrium of heat should be 
reached, and the earth receive from the sun and radiate 
into the ethereal space equal quantities of heat in equal 
times ; while the temperatures at points situated at very 
great depths below the surface (many miles, for instance) 
would not sensibly vary from that of the mean heat of the 
place vertically above them. 

But if this equilibrium be not attained, the original 
state of the earth as to heat maj be ascertained, so far as 
to determine positively whether it has formerly been hotter 
or colder than at present, by merely trying at many points 
exempt from volcanic action, what is the amount of heat at 
various depths, on the same or different vertical lines, as 
compared with the corresponding points of surface. 

These trials have been made at various depths, under 
different circumstances, in salt-pits, coal-works, and ;minea 
of different metals, in the British Isles, France, Germany^ 
Mexico ; and in all situations where the external influence 
of the air, and the artificial effects of light, respiration, &c., 
could be guarded against or justly appreciated, they agree 
in proving that after descending below the limit of variable 
heat, a continual augmentation of temperature constantly 
occurs. (1° Fahr. fi>r 15 yards is a common ratio.) 
The mine of Falun, supposed to be an exception to this 
general truth, is extremelV ill-suited for experiments. (See 
Thomson's and Qarke's iVavels in Sweden,) 
^ The consequence is obvious. The interior masses of the 
globe are incomparably hotter than the parts at the surface ; 
must formerly have been still hotter ; and though now the 
interior heat is almost wholly masked and stifled by the non- 
conducting stratified masses which form the crust of the 
earth, it must formerly have influenced in a decided man- 
ner the temperature, and with it all other phenomena at the 
surface of the earth. 

The same conclusion as to the existence of great heat in 
the central parts of the earth has been drawn from consi- 
derations of the density of the interior masses, as compared 
to the superficial parts. While the surface rocks are twice 
and a half as heavy as water, the mean density of the whole 
globe is five times as great as that of water ; moreover the 
density augments toward the centre with so much of regu- 
larity, that the imaginary interior surfaces of equal 
density are symmetrical to the same centre and axis as 
those of the exterior spheroid. (See Conybeare's Report on 
Geology to British Astociaiionf 1832.) Now if the interior 
masses of the earth are compressible even to a far less extent 
than the rocks near the earth's surface, the pressure to the 
centre would have made the inner parts much more dense 
than they are : the whole mass of the earth would have 
been included in a much smaller volume, were it not for 
some antagonist force, such as heat is known to be. Unless 
thcrefi>re we venture to suppose the central and surface 
matter not subject to similar laws of force, it must be 
admitted that the interior parts of the earth are still very 
hot 

Condition of the Interior Moieet.^Thia great truth 
established, we may inouire further into the state of the in- 
terior masses. If the heat of the globe were increased, its 
diameter would be augmented ; there is a degree of heat 
which would liquefy nearlv all the substances of which it 
consists, taken singly, anu still more easily when in their 
usual combinations. Beyond this degree of heat gaseous 
compounds would mix with, or alto^ther replace, the lic^uid 
rocks, and the globe would bo lost m a nebulous expansion. 

Turning to observation of phenomena, we find the inte- 
rior roclu to be such as were cooled from igneous fusion : 
they are extensively, perhaps universally, spread below our 
feet ; and thus we gather the conviction that originally the 
whole or great part of the exterior masses of the planet were 
in a melted state. The figure of the earth is such as would 
result from revolution on its axis, provided the whole or a 
very large part of the mass were in a state of fluidity or 
viscidity ; to this figure the surikcea of equal density corre- 
spond both as to centre and axis ; and thus strongly corro- 
borate the speoulations of Leibniti, that the earth u to b« 



G.BO 



134 



GEO 



looked ODM • bMtodMidfluid Rlobo, eoolodand ttiO «noUiic: 
«t the Mcftoe by radiation of iu •uperabuuduit beat into 

space. 

H^ngeraiiom of a Pianet.-To determine whether it i« 
now aoltd or partially fluid within it a problem of high m- 
tere«t, and one which we may perhaps despair to see com- 
pletely solved, unless certain astronomical phsnomena (pre- 
cession, nutation) should be found, when analysed by a 
rigorous mathemaUcal deduction, to furnish interpretations 
which geology alone can never attain to. As however 
Mr. Hopkins, who is engaged in this abstruse renearch, has 
presented some simple views of the possible conditions of 
a cooling globe (as the earth may be ooosideredX ve shall 
here briefly state them. 

If the earth were originally a hot fluid mass cooled by 
radiation, the cooled parts would descend towards the 
centre, and be replaced by others in a perpetual circulation. 
The tendency to solidification in such a mass would be 
directly as the pressure, inversely as the temperature, both 
which are at a maximum at the centre: soliaiftcation would 
therefore be determined near the centre by the superiority of 
pressure over temperature ; and at the surface by the rapidity 
of external refVigeration overbalancing the internal conduc- 
tion of heat The numerical relations of these qualities are 
unknown. It cannot therefore be decided by mere calcula- 
tion whether the solidification of the surface by radiation 
would precede or follow that of the centre by pressure. Let 
us suppose, for simplicity, the relations of pressure, heat, 
circulation, conduction, and radiation, to be such that all 
the mass f^oes on cooling till in everv part of its fluidity is 
lust, and the whole is reduced to such a degree of viscidity 
as to prevent the circulation of heated matter, the further 
distribution of heat must, under these conditions, be deter- 
mined by conduction and radiation only ; a large part of the 
interior would assume equality of temperature : the solidi- 
flration of the surface by cooling would he the first new 
phieiionienon, to be immediately followed bv condensation 
through pressure about the centre ; and tnus two solid 
masses would be produced and continually augmented— a 
spherical nucleus, and a spherical shell — ^while between 
them would remain a large but diminishing lone of viscous 
matter, subject to some changes of temperature through the 
conversion of its surfaces from a liquid to a solid state. 

If, on the other hand, the effect of pressure to the centre 
became superior to the expanding agencv of heat, before the 
eirculation of liquid matter had ceased in the superficial 
parU, the centre would solidify first ; and tlie induration 
might proceed through a large part of the globe, so as even 
to approach the surface before that could be consolidated. 
If these conditions were reversed, consolidation might pro- 
ceed from the surface downwards, and would ultimately 
reach the centre, and the whole mass be a stony globe. 

It is important to remark that upon neither of these sup- 
positions is it required to adroit the continual au^entation 
of heat to the centre ; to which M. Poisson obiected, and 
instead of which he proposed to account for the phenomena 
of the earth's interior temperature by supposing that the 
solar system had once passed through other ethereal spaces 
than tliose which it now occupies, and there experienoed 
much higher temperature at the surfkoes of the planets. 
This hypothesis may be perhaps not very different in its 
development from the more general theory of tlie nebulous 
origin of the planets ; but it appears unnecessary to discuss 
the speculation after what has been said of the cooling of 
the earth. 

i 4. MOABBN CAUSBl OV ChaNOIS OM THB 8uRFACX OF 

mi Eakth. 

The never-ceasing activity of the powers of nature may 
be viea'ed as an inextingui^blable and unavailing effort to re- 
store an equilibrium which is incessantly disturbed. The pro- 
tean changes of the atmosphere; the varying effects which 
it« chemical and mechanical energies occasion among the 
masses of dead matter and the forms of life ; the flowing of 
the ocean ; the subterranean fire and wide wasting of the 
earthquake, are all eflTorts to obtain rest consequent on a suc- 
cession of perturbations. In this sense, not tne earth only, 
but all the solar system, and perhaps all the extent of the 
heavenly spaces, conceivable rather than visible by ni^n, is 
in the oondition of instability described in the Pylhkgorean 
Philosophv, * Nihil est toto quod peiatet in orbe.* 

These ehangea on the surfkoe of the earth affeel the ge 
grapUofil bottndiffiM oftaadaad v»t«r, the nlativo lev 



of land and sea, and the forms, praportionii and 
tion of animal and vegetable life. In a popular tenie they 
may be classed by their proximate agencies, as dependmu 
on chemical and mechanical powers originating from aim >• 
spheric action, rains, springs, nvers, &c. ; ai oepending on 
siDular powers residing in the ocean ; and as affected by \ ol 
canie forces. We may also venture to contrast the tjfTecti 
of the watery agencies, whether of atmospherie or oceanic 
origin, with the products of volcanic fires. For the gencr-.J 
eflRtfOt of the watery agencies is to abate the high and to 
raise the low, to equalise the level of land and sea h\ 
abrading the farmer and filling the latter ; but volcan:- 
efliBcts are directly the reverse. They augment the origM..i] 
inequality of the surfkoe ; in some parts they raise matu r 
fiom within the earth, and form new hills to bear the ra\a- 

Ses of the atmosphere ; and elsewhere cause tremendmu 
epressions of land, and sink in deeper hoUowt the original 
basins of the ocean. 

The external influences, thus contrasted with the interior 
powers of the globe, are far more various in their a9(H-r( 
and more general in their visible operation ; yet they uiay 
all be reduced to one or two variable fbroet, indepenaent uf 
the terraqueous system. It is to the unequal accession <»( 
heat from the sun, upon a globe whose distance ian«^, 
whose parts are variously presented to the radiating beam*, 
and to the unequal abstraction of heat by the cold ethereal 
spaces in which the earth circulates, that we may refer x\\ 
the variations of corpuscular and mechanical phKnomens us 
the ((lobe ; while in the varying diffiision of light we rr- 
cognise the prime element of change in the animal and 
vegetable world. 

Minute as is their momentary impression, the sura <r 
their effects in a long time is prodigiously great ; h«at and 
moisture by alternate influence weaken ; fh>st bunsts ; car- 
bonic acid eats with cankering tooth ; rains, swallowed i.f- 
by the fissured rocks, abstract parts of their substance : lanii 
slips, avalanches, and glaciers heap the valleys vrith At 
tritus, till swollen rivers or bursting lakes sweep away uv 
burden towards lower ground, or convey it even to the »ex 
Thus chemically dissolved, mechanically suspended, ar 
roughly rolled along, the substance of all the rocks tni 
mountains yields to a slow but sure destnietioii, mnd thi'^c 
who, adopting the notion that ' time coats nature no- 
thing,* take as much of this as pleases theii, may easih tee. 
in the effect of these operations, the total disintegration f 
the existing continents and islands, which is so oonspiru- 
ous a feature in Dr. Button's hypothesis of the deca}ii.: 
and renewing earth. 

Nor is the sea less a theatre of change than the bnii. 
For, independent of its receiving the sp(^ of the land, «i- . 
distributing them on its bed, the untiring agitation ui '• 
waves undermines the clifls which are above ita level, gni. 1« 
away the rocks which are covered and uncovered b> tt 
tides, and distributes the materials in various ways, h% ' 
making dangerous sandbanks, there adding to the low &h<.4i * 
a valuable heritage. 

Nor even below the deep water of the middle ocean t^ :" 
at rest There multitudes of sea animals, the xoopm.-. 
testacea, &c., by their mere exuvi» tend to fill up the dc}-:- 
and certain tribes (the lamelliferous oonds in particular >. • 
their peculiar growth and mutual adherence form < - 
careous islands and reefr, similar in some important part • 
culars to the antient limestone rocks. These coralh^ei. > 
rocks are however not reared from the extreme dc|»ih% f 
the sea, but based on the summits of submarine hills. i»r *.i ^ 
crests of volcanie oonet, and thus, in a general expnt^^. . 
we may say that in modem nature most of the depusit^ ( 
solid matter in the sea are joined to the shores or shai. '« 
of the previously-formed land.* 

The sediments transported by rivers, and gathered h\^ * 
wasting of the elevated coasts, being for the most part iv\*' 
sited along the sea-shores, and almost wholly below the U * i 
of high water, it isohvioua that from this cause alone *: . 
bed of the sea is filling up, and its depth diminishing tu« ^ : 
the shores ; but as the quantity of water on the rk^ a.-*'* 
be supposed sensibly constant, it follows that toe orf i •* 
area must expand, or its surface rise a little. But since ihr bi> s 
is wasted by the waves, as we may suppose the aogmcii'^* 
tion of area which results ih)m this cause snflcient tu bala;. e 
the elevating tendency of the littoral deposits of seduucit, 
and that upon the whole the effect of the watery 8gcncie» i 

* For deUila in pfoofofwhal is hm* advaoead. ooasitl LssS, * Priacti. • 



GEO 



185 



GEO 



the globe it insensible in altering the level of the rarftuseof 
tbo see, as compared to the deeper parts of its bed ; it fol- 
lows, as a strict consequence, tnat the area of the 
ocean is enlarging. This appears also probable from ob- 
servation ; tor the small addition of marsh land on particu- 
lar shores, by the inttuenoe of rirers, winds, and storms, in 
raising littonl sediments above the reach of all but the ex- 
tremdy hi^ tide, is not enough to balance the continual 
waste of land along many thousand miles of perishing clilSs. 
By the mechanical agency of water considered alone, the 
land is certainly losing in area continually. 'The accumu- 
lation of marine exuvisD on the bed of the sea acts in the 
same direction, and the erowth of coral principally concurs 
in the same result. Left to watery agency alone then the 
land may be imagined to be continually diminishing, as Dr. 
Hutton and Mr. Liyell suppose. If the shores of the sea 
did not waste away, the annual additions of sediment 
brought from the uplands would everywhere cause the water 
to rise in level ; if the land were supposed to overhang its 
base at a certain angle depending on the diameter of the 
earth, the area of the ocean would remain invariable ; but 
AS neither of these conditions applies, it is certain that the 
area of the ocean is extending, and probable that its level 
does not materially change. 

Volcanic phsenoroena, the earthquake and the ignivo- 
mous mountain, are to be viewed as cases of critical action. 
Whether the heat of the interior of the globe be the residual 
portion of its original temperature {chaleur (Tarigtne of 
Arago), or generated by the access of water, or other bodies 
containing oxygen, to certain chemical subitances, it is to 
the disturoance of its e<|uilibrium that the violence and the 
tumult of volcanic excitement are owing. But there are 
other and more gradual effects of the distribution of heat 
in and upon the globe which reuuire notice. The most im- 
portant of these ia the gradual change of level of certain 
parts of the land, as oompared with the general level of the 
ocean, one instance of which is supposed to occur on the 
snores of the Baltic, where certain tracts appear to be slowly 
fising above the sea. (Lyell, in PhiL Tranwctiant, 1835.) 

Concerning this ' secular inecjuality,* (as it may be 
termed) of level of land and sea, it is unfortunate that no- 
thing at all important is known toward determining the im- 
portant question whether the elevation of one tractor dry land 
or seabtMl is balanced or overbalanced bv the depression of 
another. Mr. Lyell assumes that the aepression of land 
from this cause exceeds the elevation, but it is difficult to 
find sufficient evidence fbr this important postulate ; and to 
adopt it merely as a consequence of another unproved as- 
sumption of a continual compensation of the agencies of 
nature, is altogether inadmissiole. 

If there be in the earth a pervading high temperature, 
which diminishes from the interior toward the surface, in 
consequence of the radiation from the sur&ce, it appears 
from Sir John Herschel's reasoning (given in Mr. Babbage's 
* Ninth Bridgwater Treatise'), that along the shores of the sea 
the isothermal lines of the interior of the globe should rise, 
because of the continual deposition of imperfectly conduct- 
ing sediments there. For thus the radiation of heat along 
these lines would be diminished until the interior heat had 
come nearer to the surface. By the consequent expansion 
of the subjacent earthy substances the sea-shore should rise, 
and thus the addition of sediment from watery action, 
and the effect of the effort to restore equilibrium in the dis- 
position of the interior temperature, would, upon the whole, 
cuiocide in minutely raising the sur&ce of the sea. 

It is chiefly near the sea-coast, on the land or in the 
ocean, that volcanic pha^nomena are at this day seen in ac- 
tivity, and this apparently because the admission of water 
to some depth below the sur&ce is necessary to the excite- 
ment of the imprisoned forces of heat The elevated cones 
and large areas of melted rock, or accumulations of scorip 
and ashes, mark one of the prevalent effects of the volcanic 
forces to be the withdrawal of matter ftom the interior, to 
heap it on the surface of the earth. But the cavities left by 
tbis operation below the crust of the earth must often cause 
depression of masses of land during the concussion and dis- 
placements occasioned by earthouakcs. In this manner it 
may easily be understood that tne volcanic islands of the 
South Seas have been raised up from the sea^bed there, and 
It may be supposed that under large tracts of the ocean 
volcaiiie agency is employed in a similar way, and by a 
superiority of elevation over depressiout raising irregu- 
lariy the bed of the sea* and by consequence extending 



tb« ana of its larftiee. If all the cavities left below 
the suriace by the heaping of volcanic matter on the 
land were completely balanced by corresponding depres- 
sions of the crust of the earth, it would depend upon 
the proportion of submarine subsidence corresponding 
to terrestrial elevation whether the sea-level should 
All, and its area contract. Every sinking of the sea-bed 
corresponding to an elevation of tne dry land would tend to 
lower the level of water, and to augment the area of land. 
Along sea-coasts such correspondence must be admitted oc- 
casionally to occur. If the cavities alluded to were not 
compensated by the sinking of the superincumbent crust, 
volcanic phenomena on the land would hardly affect the 
area or level of the sea; but similar eruptions in the sea 
would raise its level and cause it to encroach upon the land. 
If it be admitted as the most probable basis of reasoning, whe- 
ther subterranean cavities exist or not, that the continual 
elevation is upon the whole balanced by continual subsidence, 
submarine and continental volcanic vents may be left out of 
consideration ; but the littoral and insular volcanoes act in 
one certain way. and give as the general result of all volcanic 
action, a partial aeepening and agenerdl contraction of the sea, 
which counterbalances in kind the general effect of the 
aqueous agencies ; but whether these completely antagonist 
principles are equal in degree can not be safely inferred 
nom any data now accessible to geology. Nor does it ap- 
pear prudent to rest so important a conclusion on the mere 
net of the constancy of the earth's dimensions, indicated by 
the invariable length of the solar day ; the experience of 
2000 years is as nothing in a question of such infinitesimal 
differences of diameter as mipht be occasioned by changes 
in the relative position of the really small quantities of 
matter raised or sunk by volcanic powers. 

Moreover it is impossible to avoid doubting whether even 
the quantity of water on the globe is constant ; fbr so many 
combinations of earthy substances require certain propor- 
tions of water for their completion, and so much of volcanic 
excitement appears due to tne decomposition of water, that it 
would perhaps be safer to suppose the water continually di- 
minishing in quantity : nor is it at all unlikely that such 
may be tne case with the atmosphere. 

i 5. Comparison of Effects of Natural Aokncirs 
IN Modern and Antibnt Times. 

The statement of the effects of modern causes must no- 
cessarily be received as true and applicable to other sras of 
the world, at least in its general features; because the 
chemical, mechanical, and vital fbrces of nature are ad- 
mitted as individually constant, though their manifestations 
to our senses be ever so various in kind or degree, in con- 
sequence of change in their combinations, the quantities of 
matter operated on, external influences, &e. Fixed laws 
and variable conditions are certainly recognised in existing 
nature, and they give rise to extreme inequality in local 
results and combinations. It is concei^'able, by extending 
this idea, that the existing laws of nature should be pro- 
ductive not only of results which, taken locallV or periodi- 
cally, appear anequal in degree or diverse in kind, but that 
under tne influence of a general change of conditions they 
should manifest a gradual decay or increase of strength, or 
spring into extraordinary activity after long periods of 
apparent slumber. Let, for instance, the sun s rays be 
supposed to fhll upon the earth in smaller quantity through 
the augmentationof the minor axis of the earth^s elliptic 
orbit; let the temperature of the ethereal spaces rise: who 
does not see that all the effects depending on the external 
excitant fbrces would immediately changer In like manner, 
let the earth's internal energy of heat be supposed to die 
away, whether fbr lack of fuel, incrustation over metalloids, 
or a loss of general warmth in the globe, the volcanic phe- 
nomena would be weakened, and no longer balance the 

effects of water. 

Now as these great conditions cannot be affirmed to be 
constant, but, on the contrary, as one at least of them is 
known to be variable (the earth's orbit), how * baseless as . 
the fabric of a vision' is the assumption that the physical 
agencies on the globe have always produced • equal effects 
in equal times,* and that modern causes acting with their 
present intensity have produced all the older phsenomena of 
geology. But it would be equally unjust, as observed 
before, to assume that they have not; the question, ^ff** 
pable of determination, can only be settled by ample obser 
vation and losrical induction. 



GEO 



136 



GEO 



Among the antient plMetiomena of nature we equally 
recognise the contrasted action of water and heat, as at 
this day: hy the former the solid land was wasted, and 
stratified rocks were deposited along the sea-shores (as sand- 
stones) and in the depths of the sea (as some limestones), 
while the latter manifested itself in the production of un- 
stratified crystalline rocks and the elevation and disruption 
of the stratified bed of the sea. [Rocks ; Strati ncATiON.] 
The materials arranged by the action of water in the strati- 
fied rocks of antient date are the same as those now carried 
by rains, suspended by the tide, or separated from sea- water 
by the vital ninctions of invertebrata ; they arc, to a certain 
extent, similarly associated: the oreanic esuvisD buried in 
them are not very differently arranged or grouped from those 
which now lie in the bed of the sea (Donati's Researches on 
th^ Bed of the Adriatic may be quoted in proof of this) ; 
the physical conditions of their accumulation were therefore 
in a considerable degree similar. 

On a careful consideration of the facts, it appears obvious 
that the long series of stratified deposits was not accumu- 
lated without great and even sudden changes of those phy- 
sical conditions: thick deposits of sandstone are followed 
by others of clay or of limestone, for which different acencies 
and conditions were required. Over the same spherical 
area of the earth's sur&ce the predominant physical 
conditions varied ftom time to time, and many times, so 
that the tetual state of the globe, as far as regards watery 
agencies, represents not all its previous conditions, but is to 
be compared with each of them successively. The same is 
true of the igneous products in the crust of the globe, 
which similarly varied from time to time in the same sphe- 
rical area. 

Successive phases of the aqueous and igneous agencies 
over the same region appear, either contemporaneously or 
successively, to have aflected all parts of the earth's surface 
accessible to man ; so that everywhere there is proof of 
great revolutions in the condition of land and sea. More* 
over it appears [Organic Remains] that to each general 
system of stratified rocks, indicative of a corresuonding 
great system of physical agencies, peculiar races of plants 
and animals belong : — with new pnysical conditions, new 
forms of life came on the globe, vanished with those 
conditions, and gave place to others equcdly transitory. If 
now we compare the modem survey of nature with any 
similar work, executed on the same principle, for any one 
of the earlier epochs, it is certain that the earth has under* 
Kone many very extensive revolutions in all that respects 
its aqueous, igneous, and organic phnnomena, before 
arriving at its present state: it is equally certain that 
between the epochs of these revolutions, the state of the 
earth was not extremely dissimilar to that which we now 
behold ; yet, because the organic beings preserved in the 
earth in each of these systems are peculiar to it and differ 
from the others, and from those thai now live, we cannot 
possiblv doubt that the points of difference were numerous, 
general, and important 

To determine the cause of the change of physical con- 
ditions between one system of stratified rocks and another is 
not difficult. In existing nature suoh a change might be 
easily produced in almost every region by a disturbance of 
the level of some particular tracts of land, by one great 
movement or many successive displacements. For example, 
let the isthmus of Suez or the isthmus of Daricn sink one 
hundred or a few hundred feet (perhaps scarcely beyond 
the range of the power of an earthquake), what mighty 
changes would be occasioned in the Indian, Mediterranean, 
Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans, over areas which would 
appear considerable even when compared with many antient 
systems of strata — changes of stratified deposits, and phy- 
sical conditions, and consequent variations in the relative 
abundance and geographical distribution of organic beings. 
Now, though at this day no such mighty changes are 
witnessed, we have only to enlarge our conception of the 
actual effects of volcanic agency to see clearly that this is 
the power which was employed in producing them. 

( 6.— SURTIY OF SUC^BSIITB PxRlOM OF THl FORMATION 

OF THs Crust of thb Earth. 

The analpgy of the effects of aqueous and igneous agen- 
cies in all past periods of the earth's history being assumed, 
we may prooeea to gather inferences as to the measure of the 
intensity with which they have operated* and the time which 



has elapsed daring their operation. This requires at least a 
brief liummary of the characteristic features of the pheno- 
mena of successive steps of the earth's formation, in the 
order of their occurrence. Observation can only guide us 
to a knowledge of the crust of the earth for a depth of a few 
miles at most ; and fh>m what we there behola it is pru- 
bable that a much greater extension of the power of oU- 
ser^'ing would really help us but little in tracing the history 
of the revolutions of our globe of which monuments remain 
for inspection. For at some moderate depth below the 
surfece all marks of lamellar increase, indicative of pen 
odical formation, cease ; all monuments of life and watery 
action terminate ; and we behold the effects of heat alone. 
The general basis of all the crust of the earth, in whirb 
we trace the combined results of igneous, aoueous, and 
vital energies, is a mass of crystallized rocks, tne fruit of 
great and very general heat ; which limits all inquiry in 
that direction. 

From the surface of these interior crystalline rock* 
mostly of the nature of granite [Rocks; Stratifica- 
tion], the monuments of physical changes left in the 
rocks are capable of interpretation by the application of the 
knowledge we have ^thercd of chemical, mechanical, and 
vital forces, but below it all appears at first sight dubiaua 
and dark. Were these rocks of igneous origin anterior to 
the whole crust of the earth now placed upon them ? Or 
does the interior heat slowly reconvert to granite the masses 
of sedimentan* strata laid upon it by external watery agen- 
cies ? In the n>rmer case the monuments of nature are oona* 
plete so far as any thing analogous to the present system of 
surface agencies is concerned ; but accoraing to tne latter 
supposition, the earlier strata, with whate^-er of organic 
exuvisD lay in them, have been reabsorbed and melteil into 
the hidden secrets of the earth, and a similar fate awaits 
their successors. 

\ To assume the truth of either of these views is altogether 
contrary to the prudent spirit of modern philosophy : no 
inspection or analysis of the old granitic masses ; no merely 
analogical comparisons of them with the fluid oompounds 
of existing volcanoes ; no d priori reasoning will solve the 
question. Yet it appears capable of solution by a full and 
impartial consideration of Uie stratified crust of the earth 
itself, which ought to show, in the nature and condition of 
the lower strata as compared with the upper, and in the 
nature and abundance and mode of conservation of oceanic 
remains, evidence not only of the circumstanoes under 
which they were accumulated, but indications of the aaturr 
and extent of the changes which have since occurred to 
them. This mode of inquiry we shall endeavour to felk>w. 

This first diagram on the following page is intended to 
show how very small is the supposed depth of the crust of 
the earth, and of the most profound parts of the ocean, 
compared to the radius of the globe. The thickness of the 
crust of the earth, here taken at 15 miles, is perhaps on a 
general average, not so much as five. To this mere film on 
the surface of the globe inductive geology is confined; 
though by help of collateral science we have learned many 
truths as to the constitution of the hidden interior masses. 

The difference of the diameters of the earth is nearly 
36 miles. If the axis of the globe were displaced 90*, thr 
level of the sea would rise at the old poles and sink at the 
new poles about half that quantity, or 1 3i miles : and at 
other points, intermediate quantities, according to thc.r 
relations to the great circle passing through the new and 
old poles of rotation. At the poles of this great circle 
tliere would be no alteration of level. 

By imagining the depth of 1000 miles, in the first diagram 
on the following page, to be repeated three times, and 
the three radii to be at the same time prolonged till the> 
meet at a point, which would represent the centre M 
the earth, the reader will easily form a notion of what u 
intended. ^ 

The are includes 20 degrees from the Adriatic to the 
Atlantic passing over the Apennines, the Alps, the English 
Channel, the Welsh Mountains, and the Irish Sea, the 
depth of the narrow seas being less than the breadth ot the 
fine lines. 

The subjoined general section {Jig. Z\ combined with 
the complete table of British strata which follows <e\> 
tracted ftom Phillips's ' Guide to Geology,* 3rd edition, p. 1 9 1 
will serve for reference to the reader who may be tinac> 
quainted with the arrangement of the stratified rocks in tne 
crust of the earth. 



GEO 



138 



G EG 



SertH qfBfitiih Siraia, beginning at the Surface^ frwn which all JVatefmoved Oravel and River SedimenU are 

mppoeed to be removed, 

[The ICailM SInU am Darkad by Figures ; 11m Freth-woter and JBttttary Beds by Letters; the aames of some chanctciisUa FbeeUa are fai IlaJka.) 

TXRTIART STRATA. 

A imal) number of the Fossils are identical with erbting species. 



iVaaiet pfFormaHomt, 



OsNeml 

TIUelbeM. 

Y9r4$, 



1. Clay 



«. Fresh-water marls 
t London clay 

'' (Plastic clay 



16 
33 



{ 



' A waterwdrifted mass of marine shells, pebbtet. Ike., leslin^ ov more regnlar «heM« 

se. Abo 

MCM 

luarjr sbeUs. s 
100 to 900 Mast of clay rich in marine shelli.or which 34 per cent, are identical with neent V\tvU 
1AA * AMk i Varloasly eolottred sands and clays, the latter oontalniof orfanic remains idebtt &J 
100 to 400 \ with or mneh allied to those of the London day. 



beds of sand or sandy Umestone. Aboat 40 per cent, of the dMUe ai« sap]KM*-J 
to be identical with ekistinf speeiee. 
They include a bed of mstuarjr shells, and ooeur only in the Isle of Wight 



SXCONDARY STRATA. 



w 

In 



All the Fossils belong to extinct species. They are different ttom those in the Tertiary Strata. 



Chalk . • 
Green sand • 



I 

.2 

I 



f h. Wealden • 

5. Portland oolite 



6. Oxford oolite . 



. aoo { 

. ISO I 

. aoo \ 

. 130 { 



7. Baih oolite Cacav Bath) 



8. Lias 



• a 



•8 



'I 

V 

I 



9. New red sandstooe 



10. HagnesiaB limestone 



c. Coal • 



I 

00 

g / 11. Caibonifospiu or Moantain limestone 

I 

I 

m 



18. Okl red sandsloBe 



Of oneqnal hardness, soft above, marly below, with intentntiStd Mmts; extinct 

Zoophyta. Amtmekytai, and other Echinodermata. 
Upper green sand, Tery fossOireroas. in general chalkr. 
Oault. a blue marl, or elay. often very fossiliferotta. BeUwaltet mimmm. 
Lower gre^n sand, or iron sand, very fossilifenras in plaeee. 
Weald cUy. with frRsh-wster shells. Cfpndet. 
Hastings sauds. with land plants, and bones of /^wnodee. 
Purbeck beds of clay and limestone, with fresh-water shells. 
A variable locally ooUtie Umestone ; some beds Aall of fossils. 
Kimmrridge clny, with layers of Oilr§a Atltoiiea, 
I 'pper calcareous grit. 

Coralliae oolite, with beds and masses of coral; Sckmida; many shells. 
160 \ Lower calcireous grit. jiwtmonUe$ caU$M, Ptaaa lamceolata. 

Keilit^y Jick. } ^"■«»^'» CaWeeieiMir. OrypM^ diiatata, 

Cornbrash, thin, impore, shelly .limeetone. AviaJa ecHbutta. 

Fore«i mnrble. Shelly oolite, with ooocretionary sandy limestone. 

Bath oolite. In several divisions, shelly, oolitic, compaet* and sandy bods. Mtj/a'^ 
130 \ $aurm$, Aftoerimui. 

Fuller's earth. A series of calcareoos and arffllaeeoos shelly beds. 

Inferior oolite. Fholadomya. TW^oaia sfrioto. 

Snud, with ouncretivnary masses hduding shells. 

Upper lias shale. Fall of charaeieristle saorians, of AmaamUsi, JMemai/es, Mid o'ikrr 
shells. 
,^ J Maristone, replete with TerOmimla, Peettnlda, Atkida hmmtkakii. 
*^ ^Middle lias shale. Contains Ofyp*csa.jtfBHaon«ef. 

Lias limesione, with Or«pAesa Isciirea. AmmiomUt* CbnytMri. 

Lower lias shale, and ooEoured marls. 

, Colonred marls, gypsnm, and rock talL % 
800 J Red ond white sandstones, and marls. VFow or no otfaale lemaias. 

( Conglomerate and sandstone. J 

/ Knottiogley limestone. A few bivalvni la tht lowtf faedf. 

I Gypseous red marls. No fossils. 
100 < Magneiian limestone. Shells, oorals. 

I Marl slate. Fiihet of remarkable forms. 

I Red sandstone. Plants of the sobjaeenC coal Mries oecor in It 

The snbdivlslons of tlic eoal series are only locally ascertained. Otitstone and sIuIm 

constitute the principal mass. Flagstone and ironstone are among tW m^Mt 

charactrristie layers. Freshwater limeetone and marine liowetone srr exr«e«iiiel9 

1000 1 rare and local. The shells are mostly of mstoary origin. The plaata ars nwr-l] 

of terrestrial tribes and extinct genera. 

MtUatone grit, series of sandstone, shales, eoal, and thin limestones, fonnlnya tra»- 

sitiou group between the coal and the carboniferous Hmeetones. 
Yoredale rocks, eonsisting of five or more bods of Umestone, with alteraatlag flagstone*, 
and other gritstones, shales, thin coal, ironstone. 
800 ^ Lower or scar limestone, in the North of England and Seotland, snhdf Tided by asod- 
stones, shales, .and coal seams. They yield characteristic Crm9»de»^ iSmdrntJ. 
Spiri^ertw, OrthocemtOt BtUvrophom, OimuttiAt$. 
Alternating limestones sud red sandstones, forming a transition group bet war u tl.* 

carboniferous Umestone and red sandstone formations. 
I Conglomerates and sandstones. No fossils yet notic*d. 
100 to 3800 \ Coloured marls and concretionary limestones, called ** eornsiones." A few fbsftila. 
^TUestonea, or flagttone beds. A few flshes. 



fee, OB the tnMect of this clastiilcation of the Carboniferous System, the second volume of the * Geology of Yorkshire/ 1836. 



PRIMARY STRATA. 



AH the fossils belong to extinct species, and often to extinct genera and families. They are different from those lo 
the Secondary and TeKiaiy strata. It has been usual to class the upper systems under the title of Transition strata, 
and to confine the name of Primary to the mica schist and gneiss systems. The following view of the subject res tilts 
from Mr. Murchison's researches :— • 



IS 



IS. LndtovMoks 

U. Wtnkiek limestone 

15. Carmloe sandstono 
IS. Landeilo rocks • 



•60 



• flOO < 



• S80 

• 400 



Sandstones. Species of Orlinita, LimguU, Terebratnla, Spirifera. 

Limestone. Pea£a««r«f, j^oswaei^etaf. 

Shale. 

LimMion- C Corals and Crinoldea In vast abundsnee. 

Shal* i AMMipAa/i. Prodmeta Uprttm, Orthocerata, Cat^mema Bhmanhaehii, s^! 

•*•• ( other Trilobites. 

v!lri"L^"ndttones.}'^^ Or«*w. TrihAiUi. 

Calcareous flaggy bods, Includiag Aaapku AuAn, and other TrOobilef. 



Tlie stratified argillaceous rocks below» from the 
understood. The following arrangement, based on 
reference to the succession of deposits in the Welsh 




17. Plynlymmoo rocks 

Bala limestone 
Hoowdon rocks 
Clay slate • • 



rarity of organic remains and other causes, are not yet completelv 
the labours of Sedgwick, is however almost certainly correct wit.-i 
and Cumbrian districts. The thicknesses are insufficiently known. 

r ArgUlaceous lodnrated sUte, sandy slales. No feoeils yet foand la it. 
I and urgillaceuus rocks, with Orbieula, Zoophyte, and othar 



orgai^ 

f Calcareoos and argiUaceous rocks, with OrbicWo, Zec^pAyte. and other orvanie ret 

I mains. 

f Varioitiily coknued and indented aigUlaeeoot elate. A few Ibeiils have be«tt 

i iu Wales. ^^ 

Soft dark slau. No 



«EO 



189 



GEO 



^ gjCbUstantoiUte .^ ••••,•• • Soft daxk lUt*^ vHh ohkttotite. Molbtiaflki 

3 %\ Hornblende «UU Soft dariL lUte* with hornblende. No foeeilt known. 

^'^ «. V.-* -* (W«»»BW*8wn»to«. TT»«bedsofniknichl«l.compoeedor«kanid« 

Mieeiehiflsyiteni { wTUi goeim, chkirile lehbt, tak •ehu^ bonib£ide fchU^ dny eftte. qnertoraokl 

i and primary llmMtone. ' ^ ««»•, 

Gneuaiyitem 1 ''••2K!!"S**"iL '*'&? f*^*!'^*'?*^!*^."'"''^*'^ 

' t locaUy witk mion schist, qnorti lock and primary Ua^tone. 



PaiUA&Y PSRIOOS. 

Oldeit 8y9iem» q/* Strata, — Qneiti and Mica SchiH. — 
Gneiss and mica schist, two of the most abundant of the 
oldest stratified rocks, appear, as to their substance, to be 
composed of the same paxts as granitic rooks, viz. felspar, 
quartz, and miea, with great Tariations of proportions, and 
some admixtures and substitutions of other minerals, con- 
stituting alike granite* gneiss, mica schist, &c. But the in- 
ffredients are not in the same condition ;— in the granite all 
is crystallixed ; each mineral is independently a crystal, or 
moulded in the carities left between crystals ; in gneiss and 
intca ftohist the felspar, quartz, and mica are roUed or frag- 
mented masses. The character of worn surface of the 
ingredients, combined with the lamination or stratification 
of the mass, assures us that aqueous agencies have deter- 
mined the aggregation of gneiss and mica schist: the cha- 
racter of the lamination, especially the minute fiexntes 
which abound in these antient rocks, suggests somewhat of 
peculiarity in the condition of the water ; and the internal 
crystallization of the attrited felspar reveals its origin 
from the disintegration of granite. 

On the other hand it has been contended that the simi- 
litude of the mineral composition of gneiss or mica schist 
to granitic compounds argues a similitude of origin; and 
by some writen gneiss, mica schist, &c., are regarded even 
as i^eotts rooks ; by others it is thought t^at gneiss and mica 
schist are intermediate products between sandstone and 
granite, retaining the lamination and bedding which indi- 
cate their original aqueous origin, but assuming a new 
mineral composition in consequence of the agency of heat. 
Neither of these views appears satisfiietory; to give a merely 
ii^neouB origin to gneiss is evidently to leave out half the 
phsonomena ; to suppose the mineral composition of gneiss 
the effeet of heat operating on a common sandstone will 
never be allowed bv those who have studied the rock as it 
appears in Zetland, Scotland, or Norway ; fbr in all these 
places it is clear that the granular minerals have not de- 
rived their external figure from concretionary but really 
from mechanical action, while their exterior structure is truly 
crystalline. There is however one mineral frequently found 
crystallized in gneiss and mica schist, viz. garnet ; and the 
history of this mineral leaves no doubt that the rocks in 
which it lies have been pervaded by a general high tem- 
perature, enough to affect such a fusible substance as 
garnet, but not enough to melt any one of the regular con- 
stituents of granite. Here then appears decisive testimony 
ns to the decree of heat which the gneiss and mica schist 
have experienced. By the operation of this pervading heat 
the particles of calcareous rocks associated with gneiss and 
mica schist have undergone a great change: they have 
been converted to crystallized marblli of various colours and 
qualities. 

The arguments above ildvanced, conclusive as we deem 
them on the subject of the origin of gneiss generally, are 
not intended to apply to cases where, by reason of this rock 
being buried at gr^at depths below the surlhce, extraordi- 
nary effects of heat may be experienced. There, no duubt, 
the gneiss such as we see it, clearly revealing the history of 
its formation, may be wholly melted and re-crystallized^ so 
as to lose entirely all traces of its origin. Sotne such eases 
may occur, perhaps even we may admit that evidence Ibr 
them exists in uplifted granitic regions; and thus some of 
the monuments of the earth's early history may have been 
lost : but that this cannot be the general rule almost every 
mcuntain-chain beara testimony. 

In thesa, the most antient rocks which exhibit to us the 
combined effects of aqueous and igneous agency, no traces 
of animal or vegetable life occur, and the conclusion we 
adopt on the subject is, that few or none of the organized 
wonden of nature were then in existence, because the phy- 
sical conditions of the globe within which the existence of 
animals and plants is limited were not then established. 
Only one otlier view of the subject is worthy of notice. Ae- 
eovftng to tba hypatfaetiz of the slow reconvenion of strati* 



fied rocks to jjn^anitic compounds, the want of traces of 
organic forms m the gneiss and mica schist is ascribed to 
the destroying agencv of heat on the calcareous matter of 
shells, corals, &c., and the carbonaceous substance of plants. 
That heat will affect such calcareous and carbonaceous 
compounds in the manner assumed is certain. Perhaps it 
might be difficult entirely to reject the hypothesis in the 
case of the primary Umestones, whose alteration to crystal- 
lized masses may be thought to have wholly destroyed the 
structure of the shells. Yet as in the limestone of Tees- 
dale, similarly altered by contact with trap rocks, crinoidal 
stems retain their forms ; and as near granite, trap, &c., 
vegetable remains are recognised, if not in substance, yet 
at least by their impressions in the shales or grits; and as, 
finally, among some rocks of the same mineral nature as 
gneiss and mica schist shells and plants of many sorts ap- 
pear in the Col du Chardonnet in Dauphin6, the balance of 
evidence is decidedly against this extreme application of the 
theory of metamorphism of rocks.* 

Upon the whole then the evidence afforded by a carefhl 
examination of the oldest strata, in regard to their mineral 
composition, structure, and absence of organic remains, 
supports, we will not say establishes, the opinion that these 
are not onlv the most antient strata which man can trace, 
but the oldest products of watery action on the globe, and 
in a great degree anterior to the origin of organic life. 

The general reaulu to which the study of the earliest sys- 
tems of strata lead are these :— 

1. Thev are the oldest aqueous deposits visible on the 
crust of the globe, and rest on masses which have received 
their present aspect from the action of heat. 

2. They furnish no proof of the contemporaneous or pre- 
vious existence of dry land. 

3. They are equally destitute of evidence of the contem- 
poraneous or previous existence of plants or animals in 
the sea. 

4. The rocks of this antient system are peculiar in their 
aspect, and though doubtless derived from disintegrated 
granite, 8cc., the constituent {articles appear to have under- 
gone much less attrition than those wmch compose rocks 
of later date. 

5. These rocks are of such great extent as to apprbaeh 
nearer to universal formations than any of later date. 

As a general inference, it appeare that the circumstances 
which accompanied the accumulation of these rocks were 
greatly different from what we now behold, since nowhere 
on the sea-shores are any such products found, nor can we 
suppose any thing analogous producible in the bod of the 
sea, unless where some peculiar agitation of water may 
hasten the disintegration of granite. The impression 
was verv strong amouK early writers of th6 entire want 
of accordance between the causes of those early strata and 
those now in action. Do Luc {Lettr^ iii.) more reservedly 
says, ' We have no reason to expect that the operations 
of those times can be explained by specific analogies with 
what we observe in the present state of the earth.* 

And as one general hypothesis, we may say with the fol- 
lowers of Leibnitz and Fouriei; that the proper internal 
heat of the earth was then only just so much reduced as to 
allow of a peculiar watery action upon its cooling crystal- 
lized masses, but not enough diminished to sdlow of the 
conditions within whioh the existence of organic beings is 
restricted on the earth. 

This hypothesis is independent of the consideration al- 
ready presented as to the original condensation of the globe, 
and cannot, we believe, be objected to on the ground of any- 
thing known oonceming the present state of the interior 
of the globe I on the contrary, the temperature of the earth 
augments as we proceed' downwards, and this fact, being 
general, has been shown by Fourier to be inexplicable except 
as a consequence of a general high temperature now exist- 
ing in the earth. The planetary spaces round the earth 



J 



* W« And no Ttsdf e of orimiiiMd bodies in Uiese strmU; sono tiioraib 
iited ia ths iMoid M tfi« Ubm it Uaw oorwod Om globe.— Do Luc. * Uttf Tni 
rirac,' 8«pC. ITM. 

T8 



GEO 



140 



GEO 



are eoldor than any part of its surface (FourierX and con- 
tinually abstract heat from it: the globe is continually 
growing colder though bv an insensime rate, must have 
formerly been hotter, ana then must have lost heat more 
rapidly. The obvious conclusion from the mathematical 
theory of the heat of the globe, coupled with observations of 
the temperature bci|pw the sur&ce, leads to the adoption, as 
an inference from facts, of the view above proposed as an 
hypothesis to explain other facts. 

SkiddaWt Cambrian^ and Silurian Systems* — These 
argillaceous rocks of the primary series of strata bear 
the same relation to the gneiss and mica schist as com- 
mon clays bear to common sands in modem nature. 
Some clays are not really more distinct from particular 
sands in their mineral nature than in the comparative fine- 
ness of their constituent particles. In consequence of dif- 
fcrenoes of magnitude and density, particles of clays and 
sands, which are derived by watery action from the same 
sea clifj^ avalanche, or glacier, are soon separated, earned to 
unequal distances, and deposited in distant masses. Such, 
in many cases, is the true origin of the sandstones and 
shales of the secondary strata, and processes somewhat ana- 
logous may perhaps be supposed to have occasioned the re- 
markable distinctness and even reciprocity of occurrence of 
the gneiss and mica schist on the one hand and the 
slaty rocks on the other. It is seldom that both of these 
types of primary strata abound in the 'same geographical 
region, though there is little doubt that both are derived 
from a granitic basis. In some cases we may best conclude 
that the materials of the slaty rocks were obtained from the 
wasted gneiss and mica schist. 

Enormously thick as these argillaceous masses are, and 
extensive as is their gooeraphical distribution, they offer in 
all countries a general character of aspect which easily ar- 
rests the attention and impresses the memory. The colour 
usually approaches to blue, gray, green, or purple; the 
texture is usually fine grained, but portions are mcluded 
not rery different from sandstone or conglomerate (grau- 
wacke, or clasmoschist of Conybeare) ; the structure is 
laminated and bedded more or less perfectly, and often in 
addition oomplicated with regular symmetrical joints ; there 
is another entirely distinct set of such divisional planes 
called ' cleavage/ traversing the planes of deposition ; all 
these circumstances give to the primary argillaceous rocks 
a determinate aspect. The limited limestones which inter- 
laminate the mass are seldom so crystalline as those in 
gneiss and mica schist, and they, as well as the upper and 
some other parts of the slaty rocks, generallyyield organic 
remains, occasionally in great abundance. These are al- 
most wholly marine (local deposits of land-plants occur), 
and the ammals belong to invertebraltribes—zoophyta,con- 
chifera^ crustacea» and augment in number and variety as 
We pass from the lower to the upper parts of this series of 
rocks. (Organic Rxm ains.) 

From a contemplation of the slaty rocks it results : — 

1. They not unfrei^uently rest on the §^ranitic rocks with 
scarcely any interposition of gneiss or mica schist. (Oorn- 
wall, Cumberland, &c.) 

2. The proo& which they offer of the existence of dry land 
are ohieflv (or wholly) derived from the organic remains of 
plants, which are not certainly known among the lower 
groups, but become tolerably plentiful in the upper parts 
of the systems. 

3. The marine organic remains, shells, corals, Crustacea, 
&C., are very scanty in the older systems, and grow more 
and more numerous and varied towards the upper strata. 

4. The forms and structure of these earliest known fossil 
races of animals have no extraordinary degree of simplicity, 
nor are they confined to the lowest or least complicated 
tribes of invertebrata. 

5. The alterations